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Weekly Newspaper; pill ; exert themselves to give THE'
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goslghbarboods. „ ' . •
• • JOHN tIORNEY, •
of THE. WEEKLY PREBB, No. 417
owtiint•street, pvtaaopo.... - - • -
,00YERINGS YOR THE URA%
Znilantociall She points uecasearylo '
'' ORNTERIo t RYYZOT, • . • '
d &Ma delalla and alegancicia which impart FINISU; 001WOR . AND DURABILITY.
Gentlethen ars invited to call and 'examine.-
tait2¢-ain - • .- , 430 OURSTNUT Skeet,
ORIGINAL. EDIVION OF CHARLES
KNIGHT'S PIOTORIAIJ BHSKSPEARE—IncIud.
lug the Dog _
Pleys and "Kiography, and illustrated
with - very numerous lengrailugs on Wood, In the high
est style of art; forming 8 vols.; 1174011481 m.
• The sulMalbera have been' enabled to secure three
copies of thhentegnigient edition of Oluttwn re, which
hue longboat exceedingly same. Immetto ipplico
tion will be sweetie/my topraent.diesppointmerit in pro.
o wring - PRICE & ,
Importers of,Englich Boats,
Ko: 88 South Stith 81 ., above Chestnut,
VAPVABLS . tais.4*,4 77 - BOQKS
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SOLD B O,Z iLLZ RS.
SEETOHESVP THEIRIPSIMAIL: - By the/light Hon.
, Richard Lator EWAM. P; Edited with a Memoir and
Notes, by R: Shelton Meincenzle, D: 0. L. , Sixth Ea-
Portrait faitebulle letter. In 2 sole
• Price $2. , -
Mt :BOOTIE 'ItaitROSIAN.S. BP' Professor Wilion,
- 0-..Lookluirt, ;ames,Hogg, and Dr. Magian. Edited,
-- Mamas andEotaii by Dr: R. Skelton Mackenzie.
Third Maims -Ds hiteluntotii with Padua' and flw
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MAOINIVE /51INDILLANIPsif: ThilifeeellaneOui Writ.
logs of the late Dr:'lloellid, ,. .-Xtlited, with • Memoir
and Notes, brDs , R. Shelton Yukon:it. 'Comdata
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LIPS 05' TDB RT. HON:-JOHN
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on Steel and fat-simile. Third Edition - 12 mo cloth ,
Price IL 25:
THE O'BRIENS AND THE OILAHERTIES; 'CNA.
tional titer)", being - the first of Lady Elorgaa'a Novels
and &imams. With in Introduction and Notes; by
, Dr. R. Shelton Mackenzie,' 2 vols., l2mci,, cloth.
Price $2. -
BARRINGTON'S SHE TONES. Personal Sketches of his
Own Time. By 81rIonah Barrington, with-Illustra
tions by Dsrloy . Fourth Edition: - With Memoir by
Dr. blackens* 12me., cloth . Price $1,26.
MOOREIPLIPP. Olt SHERIDAN.: Memoirs of the
, Life of the:aight Hon. Riobard Brinsley Sheridan.
By Thomas Moore; with : Portrait and fae-idmile.
las& Edition. 2 vole:, - 12M0., cloth. Price $2. '
BITS , OP BLARNEY. oy. Dr. R. Shelton ;Mackenzie,
-Third "Edition. ,12-ito., cloth; -Price
THE HISTORY OP THE WAR IN THE PENTESIII - 4,
By Major General Sir W. P. P. Napier, from the an.
therbi lest revised edition, with- Maps and
Plane, tire Portraits on Steel,. and-a complete index,
6 vole., 12rao, cloth. ' Price $7 60,
APLERTiPENINSD : LAR WAR. ,Coecgdste in I mu,
aro. pries 22 50. • -
THE FOREST. By J: V:-Huntington anther ef
Alice," tt Alban'".
ALBAN 'con - e toq o^ a Young - Partite. — 137 -- r. -
17,-Huntiegtotr. 2 Vols. - , Price 22.
JOHN . ..OADIPBELL-Br, SON; BIBLIOPO
=TB, in the OUBTOM MOUSE Avenue, hive al
ways for - sale rare and scarce Books. Oeutlemeit book
worms are invited to call and Judge as to prices and vs
slay. Law au& misoolisneous books purchased in small
or large quantitioa. Books continually 'receiving from
auction . -- se24-th to StaW
tOatrhvo, ..114tuelrg, ar. -
BAILEY & 00.,,011.ESTNI;IT STREET.
'Mannfaaturers of •
LBITIBII ITTERLING BLUM WARN, .
Ulster their Inspection, on the premises exclusively
Winne and Strangers are invtted..to visit out menu .
Oeneistatly on hand a splendid stock of Superior
Watchenj of all the celebrated makers.
tieelderes, Bracelets" Brooches; Ear•Ringe, Roger-
Rine, and ell Other utile* in the Diamond line.
Dranlop DEBIGNS will be mete free of
• &age for thou! *Whirl work Mid° to order.
RICH GOLD -JEWELRY.
A bantlfal oisootounit 01%611 the, now tittles of rpm
• isoidrjAmolf so Mossis, Stoisi sad
261*.pyi-43; Oiibaijoll, h,tarquiplie," - _
1101/11LELD (lAMBS, A ABIFEBTS, • WAITERS, As.
Bronse i;l:LOq.B, of newest styles,
ant of superlor-ga►llty. sai•dtwtowly
C& A. PEQUIONV4-
.MANIMIAMMIXII3-Ol WATCH CARIB
Aap , iYroutiai"o, WAT6IIIII, '
LII: SOtint"TilißD STREIT, BELOW pIIZITNIIT
0031471.111 , P5c0u10v. - Augusta PIQUIGNOI
sel4-81noa 4 t „.
IINE :WATCHES., ,
A full ,Sdpaly : of all the. celebrated _London and
Geneva Watches constantly on hand.
We sell the Gihuin&Prodsham Watch at Troentyfire
POliall :CU : than . the agency_priee, as established at
Boston. .. „ . ,
Boston Agency price - is 250, 275, SOO dollars.
Bailey do On is price is 225, 250, 275 dollars,
BAILEY it CO.,
.428. CLIESTIVUT Et,
TAMES E.' OALD WM, • & 00.,
air N 0,432 CHESTNUT, BELOW 'BIETH STREET,
Importers - or ",Watelite and' rine Jewelry; Manetietu.
roes or Sterling and Standard Silver , Ned Seta Forks and
Spoons, Sole agents for the sale of Charles ErodshauVe
Wier-sense -Gold Medal
tfish I,end* SSMlTlinekeepere r -all the
allege* hind, priemi WO, SET d , - -
a and Swiss Watches • e lowest petals.
_ Riede rieldoisble Jewelry' .
. effield arid AmeriOatillti . Sod Wares.. •
J" 8. JARDEN & BRO. ,
• - , 111311t1LOSIMZRII AID SYSDalaat or "
, SILVER-PLATED: WARE, ,
grli Chestnut Street, OM Third, (np atatre,l
• Phlledelpphl -
- COOAtently on hand mot for sale to the Tunic,
TEA -, SkTS, COMMUNION SERMON SETS, URNS
' GOBLETS, OUTS, WAITERS,' CAS
, EATS, CASTORS, RMITES,.SPOONB, ROBES,
*-LADLES, Am, Ste.
Widlng and plating oa all kinds of metal. eeZly
QILVER 'WARE:— • • - - ,
WILLIAM at son.,
- itfAiTPACTURERS OF ,41LY.1521 WARS,
• (ESTABLIBIIED 1812,)
• W. C - 0RN11110 , 17111 dND Casatty 1111113711. •
- r A large assortinent of &WU. WARE,. of every de.
seripton, constantly on hand, or made to order to 'Web
say otters' desired. " -
arr:tars gleddeld and Birmingham Imported
• ' , se3o-dfswly
VOX AMOISTER OF WILLS—
02-312341 - foubßettiiDepocratte unto;
= REBUT—, ,
CALEB S. WRIGHT,
Ofiblect,to,Deiglor:rallo r = 4". '
-ALDERMAN (4ORGE 2400111,
thibklat to'Demoteuele" Ruled, ' no7-Bm*
litts a. OrBsON,
".‘ MINNA to Dotoneratioltuleo.
)!LAW.A RD MOTT,'
- - Ra - spiucn DitlooiAYlq AMTS. 0016-4 Mil
Iroefito,oo, era f,,et?
TuSIBABLE - CFPllakitt, 620 - WALNUT
Jur sti:, eppote the one of the best
businere locations in Phibmbilohia,- 'with heat t - light,
'end, ati teoderd eonvenientieCrbAtiottnithe
EOM NO. 8, to G.V.A4, -881 , 4A8ent - no2B
WOR S;A,LE.-The; fpurIsI6r3v : GRANITE
Iginribilkk, on the north aideeftddEßTNllT
'Street, west of Fourth, intended foulhdßanutylviulla
Bank, and now nearly flnlehed ( ...delaet, sold .. prior to
JADUAY let, nle,Flubing,BP o mi 0 4 4 . 0 11 1 1 t. fOrto of tke
building, null be , rented eeparatelz - or.togather,
41 -7 - .. , )T11011A13 CRAVENi: '
...den-atuthtll , i, 411INORStreet.
::061HOrY,1:,000 - ruidt,liu CIUDONVV.Eltiabore
lentl4 - titnow open for 4be sabrOf "every dorrriptio* of
Ourfrifroev toinbatoir styleidurabillty, and elegance of
fini . the lisooStotory; the oorner'of SIXTH
ood ASTER arias, to Olen tbo attention of eltizeni,
radB6ntbo# and Western gentlemen is :offset:o4
ogled. -; • -
.—.llspecial Attention given to. carriages for vs
- AIM+ rho% aim - noted With the Step:snort. ' En.
, AtcliOngutptirtiO,'- - '' 4427.0% 000
VOL. I-NO. 112.
C4e 3re os
THURSDAY, DECEMBER IQ, 1857
THE POST OFFICE
It ought to- be generally known that all let
ters, to be, mailed out of this city, which are
'dropped into the receiving -boxes of the sub
'or - district post offices, recently established
here, are conveyed to the chief office, without
any charge, Whatever. The only requirement
is that each letter shall have a stamp upon it—
,the rule of pre-payment being imperative, as
regards all mailed letters. Persons who re.
side in distant parts of the city may be spared
a long journey, for the purpose of posting
letter, by thus using' the district offices in their
, respective neighborhooda.
A correspondent draws our attention'to the
fact:that: a great difference exists• between
pbsting letters in the Government boxes, and
,in those of private individuals:
.. "No inan,Whe uses either a private despatch corn
parry, or,the Government sub.offices, knows when
he may not be called upon to prove the receipt of
the letter by the party to whom it is addressed.
Now, when you use the Government mails, if you
prove that you put a letter into the post office, ad.
dressed to A,ll is presnmed by law that A gets it;
bat if -you use a private company's despatch you
Mint proye the sots al of the letter—a thing
'lmpossible to de in ninety-nine cases out of a bun.
dred. In all cases, where notice and proof of
'notice are required i it is absolutely neoessary to
uselhe Government post."
• This is very true, and should be remem
bered. But, as wo have had occasion pre
'viautily to observe,' while a public post office
clmTges two bents for postage and delivery of
a letter,lnd a private office charges only one,
a great number of persons will naturally use
the latter. Lot the Postmaster General be
empowered, to reduce the rate on city or
(t dropped" letters, and then the Government
conveyance will distance all competition.
Philadelphia, Now York, and Boston are the
only eitiesin which, as yet, arrangements have
been made for carrying out the letter-carrier
system to its full extent. In the report of the
Postmaster General, just laid before Congress,
the two-cent point is touched upon, thus :
"With the view to facilitate the receipt and de
-1 livery of letters in Now York, Boston, and
delphia, the postmasters in those cities have been
instructed to make improvements in their letter
carrier system to the full extent authorized by law.
'ln New York I found that nearly everything had
been done that could be accomplished under exist
ing, laws, except the transmission of drop letters
direst to their address without going into the main
aloe, which is now done. On all letters through
the Mail the carriers receive two cents each for de
livery, and on drop letters ono cent. I had hoped
to be able to reduce the delivery foe to the uniform
-pricOof one cent; but this was found impractica
ble In New York and Philadelphia, inasmuch as
the law requires that the entire cost of delivery
shall be defrayed out pf the carriers- receipts.
In Boston, where all the distriets are comparatively
densely populated, one cent a letter is made to
pay. The postage on drop letters, inoluding the car
rier's foe, is now two cents; and upon'the improved
plan now adopted for their delivery direct from
the main office, or the nearest station, as the case
may be, it is fully believed that the pnblie conve
nience will be fully subserved. In each of these
cities there are to be from four to six deliveries a
day, and the letters for mailing, &0., are to be col
looted and disposed of as frequently as the occa
sion may require. ',do not feel at liberty to ad
vise the free delivery, of letters by carriers; but I
would recommend a modification of tho present
law, so as to - give the Postmaster General autho
rity tohavo the delivery made at one cent a letter,
whether the carriers' receipts are sufficient toweet
expenses or not. If the improved system is found
to pork satisfactorily in the throe cities above
Mentioned, it is my purpose to extend it to all the
other principal cities in the United States."
. .. • ..
The Postmaster• General evidently has got
the right idea. The recommendation that the 1
delivery of letters shall be reduced one-half—
from two cents to eneLlt whether the carriers'
receipts are sufficient to meet expenses or
not," admits the whole principle upon which
the penny 'Mange was originally based in Eu
rope. If the Post Office can be made to pay,
n7lll. and: good; -but It is bad policy to gtrwr
the starvation system in 11.48ffilic institution of
so much import Ate
'M.r, - wunsultabrcnistago system- -
willingly adopted, in England, in 1840, an
nouneed that, for a considerable period, the
expenditure of the establishment must greatly
exceed its gross receipts: Much earlier than
-was anticipated, the augmentation of letter
writing cauted the department to be remune
rative, and now the net income of the Post
Office is an important item in the public reve
nue of England. • •
From-various causes, among which may
prominently figure our vast extent of terri
tory, and the expense of having post offices in
A parts of it with the cost of transmitting the
mails, the cheap postage system does not con
tribute anything directly to the national rove
: nue. But we are not without hopes of a dif
ferent result before long. One obstacle,
hitherto, his been the anomaly of convoying a
letter thousands of miles for three cents, and
then levying a tax of two cents additional for
its local delivery by the letter-carrier. As in
England, the postage stamp ought to free it in
tote, putting it into the hands of the person to
.whom it is addressed, without any further
The great extent to which communication
by the Electric Telegraph is carried on, may
be assumed as another reason why the number
of letters sent through our Post Offices is dis
proportionably less than the number sent from
about an equal amount of population in Great
Britain and Ireland. We are a fast people.
We do not like to be -kept in suspense. Wo
desire an immediate response to an inquiry,
and are willing to pay extra for haying It,
through the Telegraph.
Lastly, when penny postage was commenced
in England, the privilege of franking was
wholly abolished. At this moment, even Queen
VICTORIA'S correspondence is carried on en
tirely with postage-stamps. About twelve
hundred persons, constituting the members of
the Government, of the Departments, 'and
of both Houses of Parliament; were deprived
at (cone fell swoop" of their privilege of
•sending and receiving letters free of postage.
In the Government departments there was
no restriction as to the weight or number
of official letters thus sent and received. At
present, each department pays the full charge
of the Post Office, and an important item
in the Post Office revenue this makes. As
for members of the Legislature, about 1,100
of whom bad the right, each of them daily
to receive ten, and to despatch fifteen letters,
each under one ounce in weight, the Penny
Postage system annihilated their exclusive
privilege, at once and for ever, and the Post
Office revenue has very greatly received the
benefit of the change. There aotually is not
any one, public or private person, in England,
from the Queen down, who is exempt from
These are points, to which our own Post
Office authorities may turn their attention.
In the mean time, we cheerfully recognise the
practical good sense of the Report of the
Later from Yucatan—Capture of Sisal by the
From the N. O. Picayune, of Deo. 2.1
The Mexican Schooner Eduardo, Capt. Laferla,
at this port from Tobacco, via Vera Cruz reports
having bean spoken on the 18th ult., latitudo 25
demos North, by the Oampeaohy armed schooner
Corinna, with three works' later intolligenee from
the Yucatan mat, and the progress of the political
war in the Interior.
The news is of great interest and importance.
Sisal has been bombarded and eaptured by the
armed vessel Bout out from OampenehY, and was
now in the hands of the revolutionists. No par
ticulars aro given, nor have we further intelligence
of the distracted condition of things at the capital.
Campeaehy yet held out, but was still, on the
18th, sore beseiged by the government troops, un
der commando! Col, Cepeda. During the whole
of that day until midnight, heavy cannonading
was beard both froin the forts of the town cud the
works of the besiegers. •
Captain Laredo also reports having spoken, on
the lab, Mexican tohooner Arroganle, froth this
port, bound to Campeachy. AU well,
Dr. Stone, the sculptor, has finished the.
nude figure of hie statue of John Hancock, or
dered by Congress, and is now draping it,"
having the actual habiliments of the illustrious
Boston merehant to model from. Tho statue is
about seven foot high, and represents the first Pre
sident of Congress, when, after the Declaration had
boon signed, he urged a udity of action, saying :
"We must all hang together.' It was then that
Franklin• 'added, sotto voce, "or be ~hung to.
- The Legislature of Virginia met on Monday,
whin Govenaor Wise sent in three messages,
Which Mt twenty-three columns of the Richmond
• .c 1 rh.,ol‘ • -
.., \\ ,‘ Nt i in,4:,.. / , • v": 416 -
_ i a r
(7- , i 4 '— ' ' --.---,.,---- '' "* ' , - 16:•all : 1, i !. 7.4 "- ',- ', ~, .t 0 *
p...'' -".. I •
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.., ... zz.rt- ...
SECRETARY OP THE INTERIOR.
DEPARTMENT OP TUE INTERIOR,/
December 3, 1857.
Sin : In presenting an exhibit of the operations
of thin department, attention in first invited to
the important And diversified interests connected
with the administration of the public domain, re
specting which the accompanying report of, the
Commissioner of the General Land Office furnishes
interesting details, with a gratifying view of our
extended land system. American legislation has
shown its superior practical wisdom by its aim
plioity and adaptation to the wants of our people
and its code of land laws, in regard to the Im
provement of which few suggestions can be made.
The loadiug fact attracting our attention is the
vast extent of the operations of the Land Bureau.
The public domain covers a surface, exclusive of
water, of one thousand four hundred and fifty
million of acres. It stretches across the continent,
and embraces every variety of climate and soil,
abounding in 'agricultural, mi' oral, and timber 1
wealth. everywhere inviting to enterprise, and
capable of yielding support to man.
This great inheritance was acquired, first, by the
voluntary cessions of several of the original thir
teen States; then by the Louisiana purchase ob
tained from Napoleon by the treaty of 1803. Thd
next enlargement of our territory was effected by
the treaty of 1819 with Spain, ceding the Florida%
to the United States; then its further extension
was effected by the treaty of 1848, at Guadalupe
Hidalgo, with Mexico, coding Now Mexico and
California. Subsequently, Texas accepted the
proposition .of this Government establishing her
boundaries, for the "relinquishment by the said
State of:* territory claimed, by her exterior to
said botinaries." Tho last accession to the public
domain is that, in 1854, from Mexico, known as
the "Gadsden purchase," covering a surface of
23,161,000 acres south of the Gila river.
The Supreme Court has said, in reference to ac
quired lands, that "the people change their sove
reign, their right to property remains unaffected
by this change." Consequently, when the United
States succeeded to the ownership of that portion
of our territory derived from treaties with foreign
Powers, the first and paramountduty in the dispo
sal of the publio lands was to separate private from
In obedience to this well-settled principle of
public law, and under the special obligations of
treaties, the United States have established boards
of commissioners, conferred powers on registers and
receivers, opened the courts of the United States
for the adjudication of foreign titles, and lu mul
titudes of cases confirmed ouch titles by special acts
Those classes of titles aro known under the ge
neric description of "private land claims." and
are of every species, from minute parcels in the
form of lots in Spanish towns to rural claims,
ranging in size from ono huedred arponts and less
to a million and 4 half of acres.
These titles are of British, French, Spanish, and
Mexican origin, all depending for validity on the
colonial laws of their different sovereignties. And
there Is no branch of jurisprudence where greater
research and extent of legal erudition have been
displayed by our judicial tribunals than in the de
termination of the intrioate gm:Wiens which have
arisen, been discussed, and judicially determined
in connection with this branch of the service.'
These foreign claims are of every diversity of
shape, and everywhere scattered over the public
domain, interrupting the regularity of our surveys,
with which they are necessarily interlocked, and
exhibit in striking contrast the irregularities of the
foreign surveys, when compared with the simpli
city and beauty of our own rectangular system;
showing the difference in the modes of distributing
estates, ono of which concedes to the favorites
of princes immense bodies of the choicest lands,
whilst the other subdivides the public territory so
as to deal with every oitizon in a apirlt of enlarged
liberality. In the growth of our immense terri
tory, in the way and by the means already men
tioned, there remained and still remains llTlOX
tipgulabeti the claims, rights, and possession of the
aborigines. The General Government of the Union,
at the dawn of our political existence, adopted the
Principle asserted by the colonizing Goveinmente
of Europe, As the effect that the absolute title was
in the United Stated, subject only to the Indian
right of occupancy, and with the unconditional
privilege of exrnguishing that right.
Under the operation of these principles, the pur
ohase and extinguishment of. the Indian right has
boon gradually progressing in the ratio in which
lands in Indian occupancy were demanded by our
people for settlement. Pari pasta have the lines
of the public, surveys been carried, in preparing
the way for homesteads, and the means by which
to pass to our people unincumbered and indefeasi.
Tho surveying system is now organized into
twelve different districts, and the lines of the pub
lic surveys have already been extended over more
than one-fourth of the whole surface of the publio
That surface, as heretofore stated,
18 1 450,000,000 acres.
Of this, there have been surveyed
and prepared for market, of net
publm lands, that le, exclusive
0f4411p0l lande 8 .kc...... 401
• • •
have never been onerca, anu
s e ,
t , e tri o ; n ir seg el u o e w n t ei l rn y e ,
-u n sidp o w w dai l tr i id e o b sn l o e tto t . 0.. 80 ,0 00,000 acres
subjeot to entry at private sale on the 80th Sep
Of the publio domain there have been disposed
of by private claims, grants, sales, &0.,
Surveyed and unsurveyed land, 363,802,461 acres,
which, deducted from the whole
surface, as above stated,
leaves undisposed of an area
of 1 088,137,535 acres.
During the fiscal year °Wing June 30, 1857, and
the quarter ending September 30, 1857, public lands
have boon surveyed and reported to the extent
During the same period
have been disposed of as
For cash 5,300,550.81
Located with military warrants 7,381,010 00, "
Returned under swamp land
Estimated quantity of railroad
grants, of March, 1857 5,116,000.00 "
The amount of money received
on cub sales is. $4 225,008.18 .
REPORT OP THE
This shows a falling off in land receipts from
those for the corresponding period of the preceding
year of $5,322,145 99, with a falling off during
the eamo period, in the !oration of lands with
warrants, of more than 20 por cent.
Whatever may have been the cause of this dimi
nution, the fact demonstrates that, long before the
prostration of all credit by the suspension of the
banking institutions, the investment in wild lands
had greatly decreased.
In the taritory of the United States them aro I
eighty-three organized land districts : each having
register and receiver, for the sale and disposal of
the public, lands. Yet wo have no land district fur
either the Territory of New Mexico or Utah. „In
New Mexico the public surveys have been executed
to a very limited extent, owing to Indian hostili
ties. In Utah the surveys had rapidly progressed,
until the surveyor general abandoned his post
owing to reported hostilities of the Mormon nu
thorities at Salt Leko City. The extent of the
surveys, since the beginning of the operations in
Utah, exhibits a sphere of field work embraciitg
A due regard for the public interests, as well as
a proper respect for the prosperity and advance
ment of New Mexico, wouldjustify, if not loudly
call upon Congress to establish a land office and a
board of commissioners for the adjudication of
Spanish and Mexican claims in that Territory. It
is important to its future prosperity promptly to
separate private property from the public lands
before the settlements become dense, and conse
quent conflicts of claim and title arise.
Sly the act of April 21, 1820, the old credit eye
tom of sales of land was abolished, the cash sys
tem instituted, and the minimum price fixed at
$1.25 por acre. This is the great basis of our pro
sent system of sales. The polioy of the lawis to
favor the actual settler. It is a humane, wise,
and just polley. When the hardy pioneer breaks
off from the comforts and security of a long-set
tled community, end encounters the hazatd and
endures the hardships and deprivations of a new
settlement in the forest, ho has rendered a positive
service to the Government; and to deny hint the
right of securing his Ileum and improvements, in
preference to all others who would profit by his
sacrifices, would be nerving injustice.
When an actual settler goes upon lands which
have been offered for sale, and builds himself a
house, tho law allows him twelve months within
which to pay for a pro-omption right of 160 acres.
If he colors upon unoffered land, or lands which
have never been surveyed, he is permitted to filo
his declaration of intention to enter, and is not
required to pay for his pre-emption till the day
appointed by proclamation for public sale of the
lands. Public policy may cause an indefinite post
ponement of the sale of the land, and the cense
guano is, that with this inchoate, imperfect right,
ho continues to occupy without perfecting his title.
This privilege to enter being IL personal right, its
transfer or assignment is prohibited by law.
By thus conceding a privilege, and fixing no
time in which he is required t° perfect his title,
an interest le (treated in opposition to a public sale
by proclamation, when the good of the country
may require it Tho suggestion, therefore, that
settlers upon unoffered lands should bo required
to make their proof and payment within a *ce
lled period, Is approved
Prommptions upon unsurveyed lands are now
limited to particular States and Territories.
A general law authorizing pro-emptions upon
lands of this character, superseding or repealing
special statutes on the subject, would conduce to
the harmony of the system ; and such a law is re
In order to remove all doubt In the construction
of.existlng law, pro•omption privileps should also
be extended to alternate reserved railroad sections,
in cases whore settlements have been made after
the final allotment. The enhanced value of such
lands presents only a stronger reason why prefer
once should be given to settlers over all others.
The mode of disposing of the public lands under
existing legislation is simple,
uniform, and com
plete. Lands aro introduced into market and
opened to free competition at publio solo by the
President's proclamation. which, at the same time,
notifies settlers to come forward and secure their
homes at the minimum price, without risk of com•
petition nt public sale. Then such lands as re,
main thus undisposed of, are open to free purchase
at private male at the ordinary minimum of $1.25
per acre, or awn in market ten years and up
wards, at reduced ',rim; always, however, with
the preference right of purchase awarded to the
The public domain is the property of the United
States, and the individual cidsons thereof have
equal rights of purchase. Actual settlers, as al
ready shown, are amply protected by law from in
terference, and efficient safeguards aro thrown
around their rights. As 'an evidence of this, it is
estimated that in the sales of the last year three
fourths of the sold and located lands were taken
for actual settlement. Large districts of the pub
lic lands are valuable, however, only for the
timber found upon thorn ; they are, unsuitable for
settlement; end to restrict their Orchese to ret-
PHILADELPHIA, THIJA§P.A*, DECEMBER 10, 1857.
tiers alone Would provent their sale • for ag /14-
definite period, and hold out astanding temptatioli
to trespass and plunder.
An amendment of the law fixing the maxittluni
compensation of the registers and receivers, usr,aa
to restriot the payment fur any One quarter-Or.
fraction of a quarter to a pro rota allowance, both
for salary and commissions, is approved and•re•
I Under the bounty-land law of 3d March, 1855;
largo sums have boon received at seine of the leeil
land offices, for the location of warrants ' , Cud -
claims have been presented by several of the ofi4,
cern for the whole amount of fees collected. rTife
General Land Office bas decided, and the deolaioet
has boon sanctioned by the department, that,lis'
view of the limitation as to maximum, In the - sot
of 20th April, 1818, and the, terms of the 24 Oa
ad scollops of the act of 22d March, 1852,
notion with the act of 1555, there Is no withal*,
of law for the allowance of any excess over the'
maximum compensation for commissions, as 1124.
byisaid act of 1818.
'The act of 12th January, 1825, nuthorires mar,
anent of purchase money to bamade from the Troyi
sury In all oases' of sales of lands made by tbe 1
local land officers, where the Government Is uill;;
bin, train want of title in itself, to Issue patehtirte.
My predecessors have construed this sot
tiding for repayments In all oases where from any
cause the sale could not be confirmed; and thl.;
uniform practice has been in Conformity with that
view of the law.
This practice is unquestionably founded stria
justioo, and I have not deemed it best to dist**
it, although inclined to the opinion that a,,etrick
oonstruotion of the law would limits It operation to
the class of cases speoilloally embraced GLOMS':
Should any doubt be entertaindd of tin) propriety,
of my actton hi this particular, such sunendatory,
legislation is respectfully r o oommentled - es mollte
called for in the premises, - -
The interesting communication, which stecoM
panics this roport, of the late secretary of the
Territory of New Mexico respecting the mineral
resources of that distant' Territory, suggests the of providing for a geological, survey
thereof. It is not doubted that vast quantities of
gold and sliver, copper, lead, and loru ores are to
be found embedded In Its soil ; and their discovery
andidovelopment could not fall to condor) to the
The report of the Commissionor of Indian Affairs
furnishes an interesting view of the peculiar pea
ple, with whom this Government holds the most
The members of the Indian tribes within our
limits, while they aro not citizens, cannot, with
strict propriety, be termed foreigners. "Domestic
dependent nations, their relations to the United
States resemble those of a ward to his guardian.
They look to our Government for protection, and
appeal to it for relief to their wants." While we
negotiate treaties with them, which are ratified
with all the solemnity befitting a contract to whieh
nations are parties, wo undertake to construe and
execute their provisions, acknowledging no re.
eponsibility but such as we may owe to truth,
h , nor, and justice.
tended the limi
n ts of our civilization have been ex
, the umber of these children of the formai
with whom our people aro brought Into Immediate
contact, is greatly increased, . treaties multiply ;
rights are umpired ;
mutual obligations are as
sumed ; obedience is promised .on. the one part,
protection is guarantied on tb,q other. The In
dian Bureau Is grown to be w groat foreign office,
conducting the correspondents° and adjusting the
relations of more than sixty interior Governments;
while it Is at the same time charged with the con
trol, regulation, and protection of the rights of the
individual members of those Governments.
In the performance of these duties questions era
lresented of the most difficult character, In the so
ution of which it is almost impossible to arrive at
a conclusion which shall reconcile the necessities
of sound policy with the requirements of the law.
The intercourse act of 1834 was adapted to a con
dition of affairs which no longer exists, and it
might be judiciously modified. The wide dissimi
larity, too, of the provisions of theivarious treaties,
recently negotiated with the several tribes, agree- I
ing, however, in this that legislation by Congress'
is made a pre-reenisi
te to the full enjoyment by"
the Indian of the rights they wore intended to se
cure to him, furnishes a weighty reason for the re
vision and codification of the laws now In force;
and it is to be hoped that Congress will give its
early attention to the subject, and prescribe, In
ono comprehensive enaotmen`, a 'welbeensidered,
compact, and uniform system of laws for the regu
lation of Indian intercourse.
The Indian tribes within our limits, numbering
about three hundred and twonty-five thousand
souls, may be divided into throe classes : The first
roving, fierce, retaining all the tradition
ary characteristics which marked the race before
the advent of the white man—eke out by plunder
the uncertain subsistence derived from too chase.
To!thie elass,oomprising'nearly three-fourths of the
whole number, belong most of the bands whose
hunting grounds lie in the interior of the conti
nent, and in the Territories of Oregon and Wash
ington. Thar tribes are controllable only through
their fears. They aro, ostensibly, our friends, be
cause they dare not openly avow hostility; and
th i s ~,,04,:intiv4u,ast4Iseyi
iiitintiMA AA% %mg • . •
talons, To the accomplishment of this pre in -
nary step the effortit of the indist Bureau are now,
directed ; and it is hoped that, with the aid of the
arm on ,
w o h f ich th h e as Go e v is e e rr he e r n e t b ,
e t e h n o so sy p s pad tem g of .
live of good, may be successfully applied to these
c m o i l l o i n ta iz ry ati
The tribes of California, Utah. Texas, New
Mexico, and a portion of those in Oregon, consti ,
tufo the second class. Some three years mule the
policy was adopted of concentrating these Indians
on small reservations, where they might be prac
tically taught the industrial arts, and labor /or
their support under the immediate supervision of
their agent These establishments are, in fact,
manual labor schools on a large scale ; and I am
gratified to be able to state that the happiest re
sults have followed their introduction. The two
groat difficulties to be encountered in effecting the
civilization of the Indian, are his impatience of
restraint and his aversion to labor, and these are
not to be overcome by abstract teachings.' He
must be taught practically, if at Itll, the immense
superiority of a settled over a roving life, and the
value and dignity of labor. This the colonization
system appears to be accomplishing, and it is cer
tainly the most effectual and economical plan yet
devised for his reclamation.
The Indiana along the west bank of the Mis
souri, those of Kansas, and the four great tribes
occupying the territory west of Arkansas, form a
third class, differing in many particulars from
either of the others. Generally true and reliable,
they constitute a people for whom wo justly feel
the deepest sympathy and the greatest solicitude.
The degree of civilization to which these tribes
have attained varies greatly in different localities.
Some of them, steeped in Ignorance,
degraded, seem, in their contact with our people,
to have loot the rude virtues that characterized
them in a savage state, and acquired from civili
zation only its vices. Others have rapidly ad
vanced, socially, morally, and in the knowledge
of the useful arts, until they have become fit to be
recognised as citizens. Here and there is found
ono whose talents, attainments, and integrity, con
stitute him an ornament to his rime, and, while he
challenges our admiration and respect, furnishes
iractioal evidence of the capacity of the Indian
for high civilization.
When those tribes who once resided east of the
Mississippi river worn induced to leave the graves
of their fathers and emigrate to the West, the
Congress of the United States gave them a solemn
pledge that tho country where they now reside
should be forever "secured and guarantied" to
them. The westward march of emigration, how
ever, has overtaken the Indian, and now begins
to Press upon bite, and it is evident that a critical
period in his history has been reached. To attempt
his removal still further West is impracticable.
The country is unsuited to his wants; it has no
sufficient supply of wood or water, and a removal
there would but bo the means of hastening on his
bitter fate. Whore ho now is, ho must make a
stand and etrugglo for exigence, 2r his doom
is scaled. If ho cannot adopt the habits, and
rise to the level of his white neighbor, he must
pass away ; and the necessity of - devising some
policy which titian meet the emergency presses
itself upon the Government at this time with pm.
liar force. So far as the Indians of the central and
northern superintendencles are concerned, the
question is especially embarrassing. Treaded
have, within the last three years, been negotiated
with most of these tribes, by which their lands,
wills the exception of entail reservations, harm
boon ceded to the United States. Other treatio
have been made, by which individual reserver ,
tines have been secured, in the expectation this
the Indian would Bottle down, each upon his owa
farm, and gradually and Insensibly attain the le
vet of his neighbors. Unhappily for the moots
of this scheme, an unprecedented tido of em•
gration pressed into Kansas and Nebraska. The
fertility of the reservations, greatly enhanced
in value by the rapid settlement of Gm
country, tempted alike the cupidity of tie
land speculator, and of a class of settlers
by no means punctilious in their respect dr
the , right of the Indian. The result has boon
disastrous. Trespassed upon everywhere, lie
timber spoiled, himself threatened with perseral
violence, fooling unable to cope with the euperor
race that surrounded and pressed upon him, the
Indian proprietor has become disheartened.
Many of them have abandoned their reserves,
and still more desire to sell. These Indians now
ask for patents, as 'they have a right to do, ror
their selections. The treaties vest in Congress
the power of providing for their issuance, " with
mach guards and restriotions as may seem advka
ble for their protection therein." 'lliere won bend
doubt that our people will succeed in getting pas
session of these homes of the Indians. It' Con
gress shall fail to act, and thus open no door by
which the Indians can divest themselves of their
titles, it may be apprehended that unscrupulous
men will, without law, obtain possession of their
lands for a trilling consideration, and atandthe
chances of an ultimate title. The interest of the
reserved requires the passage of a law regulating
the alienation of lila right to his land, and moor
ing him the payment of a fair equivalent for the
For their ntrubors, the income of most of these
tribes, in the way of annuity, Is largo ; but expe
rience has shown that the system heretofore pur
sued, of paying them in money at elated periods,
bus been productive of evil rather than good. It
represses industry and self-reliance; it encourages
idleness and extravagance, and draws around
them a swarm of unprincipled traders. In many
of the treaties which have lately boon negotiated
with these tribes, this provision has been inserted:
" Tito objector this hstrumont being to adrenals
the interests of said Indians, it is agreed" that
" Congress may hereafter make such provision by
law Its experience shall prove to be necessary."
If Congress, in the exorcise of this power, ehould
clothe this department with some discretion in the
payment of annuities, so that the same could ho
used as a moans of their moral reform and sieve
lion, Instead of the injurious system now prevail
ing, of distributing money per capita, decided ad
vantages may be reasonably anticipated.
The plan which has suggested itself as the most
to arrest the deeierellsatiou now Midi!
thereasing, and, at tho same time, lay a solid
flitimdation for their ultimate civilisation, may be
.briefly °tanned thus :
, c, l They should be gathered on smaller reservations,
- ns denser settlements. They must be fa
}rued with the idea of separate property, by
• raging' them to erect houses as homes for
, ‘ tbeleaselves and their families. For this purpose the
• thations should be divided into farms of suite.
and distributed among the individuals of
, „I,:tribes, to hold in severalty, as their separate
private estate, but without thepower of sell-
Intirtgaging, leasing, or in any manner aliens
the same, exeopt to membered the same tribe
themselves. Settlements by white men within
'reserves should be prohibited, and the prohi
,f On rigidly enforerd ; and increased efforts
':'; , :•111 be made to suppress the sale of ardent'
Oh to street which the cooperation of the In
lutborities should be secured. Farms should
I ".Y . 4etablishod In central positions, at which
0 Children of the tribe should be collected
trequired to labor, and where they could be
;L .. .4 tbe rudiments of an education. A certain
•s 1 or them should be apprenticed to useful
eat and the surplus of the proceeds of their
, r, whether on the farm or in the workship,
Id be divided among their parents. Hero they
Id be taught the great truths—that labor is
.arable, and that want and suffering Inevitably
w in the train of improvidence end Idleness.
'meats of husbandry, blankets, and clothing,
I articles of furniture, books, and, indeed,
Arythtng which promises to give cam ort to their
should bo purchased and divided per
Ihould tbeir income be more than sufficient to
met the outlay required for those purposes, than
~.kajorenender might be paid in money. Now the
19qaal intifterinitneto distribution of their na
lewd funds among the Indians fsgradually work
•lnVeirrujn ; whereas a wise policy, such as any
i litt tai Government should adopt, would necee
sar • produce the happiest results.
, The details of the system should, of course, be
modified to suit tho varied conditions of the seve
rad Italie* ; but the uniform application of its load
.leglileas to the government of the tribes in the
eenbral and northern zupotintentleneles is, I con
• Tbe condition of affairs in the southern superin
tendency presents a gratifying spectacle. The four
great tribes of Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees
and Creeks, with the kindred band of Seminoles:
oarypying the territory west of Arkansas, have
st tiny improved in morals, in education, in the
oorehension of, and respect for, the rights of
pollens and of property, and in a knowledge of the
theory and principles of government. They have
regrdarly organised governments, constructed upon
Olt:node! of our own, State Constitutions,Govern
am Legislatures, codes of laws,and judicial magis
trilbies to expound them. There the path of duty
la ain. Every encouragement should be hold out
to em to persevere in well doing, until the period
ves when, ripe for citizenship, they shall be
ILA/Witted to the full enjoyment of all its rights and
One grievance, however, to which thoy are sub
jested, and of which they justly complain, deserves
the, consideration of Congress. While the Con
, stitution, laws, and treaties of thu United States
are in force over this territory, there is no local
tribunal empowered to take cognisance of the
(1 . 600,1 which arise under them; which, therefore,
are sent for trial to tho United States district
eourrti in the State of Arkansas. This not only
ceased great expense and inconvenience to the
suitors, but, in criminal oases especially, inter
feres with the impartial administration of justice.
A Choctaw or Chickasaw, accused of an offence
against the laws of the U. States, is hurried away
froM his friends, to bo tried at a remote point, in
a aommunity which has no sympathy with him.
Unable to compel the attendance of his witnesses,
and deprived of the aid and comfort extended to the
white man similarly situated, ho defends himself
under great disadvantages. There is a.manifest
injustice in this,which should be remedied ut once;
anal' would suggest the establishment, by Con
gress, of a district court of the United States for
this territory, to hold at least one term annually
fin *Rah of the four tribes of Cherokees, Creeks,
Choctaws, and Chickasaws. Among these tribes
'bore are educated, wall-read lawyers, and the
bolding of a court in their country would create,
in the minds of the people. respect for the laws,
and give dignity to the administration of justice.
The Indians of the Territories of Washington
and Oregon are still restive and belligerent. This
disposition on their part evidently springs from
disbelief In the strength and ability of this Gov
eroment to punish them for trespasses committed
upon our settlements. It is the duty of the Gov
ernment to disabuse their minds. This can best
be done by peaceful means. Lot an appropriation
be made to defray the expenses of a delegation
from each of the large tribes in those distant Ter
ritories, to Washington and other eastern cities.
Lot them know, by personal observation, our num
bers,- see our improvements, and estimate our
strength. They would readily conclude that fur
ther hostility would be absurd ; and when they
carried the story of our greatness and power to
theleamople, a change would come over their
Mi , ‘ . - tand we might then reasonably hope for the
es • - ...ant by treaties, of good understanding
- ~ - •i• • vpoaee between us. Such an appro
1. ' '.' ' ,'.'.V,..},qth LI! 47_11dgment, an act of
+ ited4lbelonging to certain Indian tribes,
lid Waver treaties under which this mount wile
derived devolved upon the President the duty of
causing it to be invested in some "safe and pro
fitable stooks," to be held by the Secretary of the
Interior in trust for the respective tribes. In
pursuance of your directions, these Indian trust
funds were invested in State stocks which were
doomed safe and profitable. Tho amount of
In $1,411 , 470.03, costing
The investment having boon made at a time of
unusual financial embarrassment, we aro enabled
to make a profit of $190,393 54 for the Indian
tribes, and at the same time afford relief, to some
extent, to the business community.
The report of the Commissioner of Pensions pre
sents a satisfactory view of the operations of that
bateau during the last. year. The business of the
office has been brought up to date, as nearly as it
if practicable; and the large clerical force re
quired to despatch the heavy labors devolved upon
ii by the recent laws granting bounty land, has
been seduced, so na to conform to the present
exigencies of the dice.
For some years past the practice has prevailed
of paying to the children, and sometimes to the
administrators, of deceased revolutionary soldiers
and their deceased widows, the amount of pension
to which such soldiers or widows would have been
entitled, had they succeeded in making good
:heir claims during their lifetime, but never to
grandchildren, as such. At the last term of the
Supreme Court it was decided, in a ease involving
the distribution of certain pension moneys which
bad been paid to au administrator for the exclusive
benefit of the children of a deceased-widow of a
revolutionary' soldier, that grandchildren, per
nirpes, stood in the same relation to such clones
as children ; and it was subsequently contended
that the effect of that decision was not only to
affirm the legal correctness of the practice allude,'
to, but to enlarge it, so as to embrace a class of
claimants not previously recognised by it.
Seeing that a largo amount or money had already
boon drawn from the treasury under tho practice
of tho °Mee, and doubting whether tho court bad
gone beyond the mere question of distribution in
volved in the cause before it, and decided as to
the law on which that practice was founded, I
availed myself of the first ease that arose to elicit
the views of tho Attorney General, both as to the
effect of the decision of the court and the le
gality of the previous ruling of the office. He
thoroughly investigated the whole subject, and
gave a most lucid and convincing opinion on the
illYr of the case; in which he canto to the conclu
sion, that soldiers or widows who might have been
entitled to pensions in their lifetime, but died
without. establishing . their right or receiving the
same, left no ostato to their claims which could
be inherited either bygrandchildren or ehildren ;
that arrears of pension, which alone, by the
statute, were inheritable, only existed in eases
where a pension hail once boon received, and,
at the death of the pensioner, a portion was
lett unpaid; and that the Supreme Court, in
the decision referred to, had not passed upon that
question. In this opinion I concurred; and as
there was no law for the payment of pensions in
such eases, and as no money could be drawn from
the treasury without a previous appropriation, any
payment ordered by me would hove bean against
law, and would have amounted to a naked act
of legislation by an executive officer. I felt no
hesitation, therefore, in ordering a discontinuance
of the practice In question, and all the cases com
ing within it will ho indefinitely suspended, unless
Congress shall pass a law, giving to children and
grandchildren the pensions their deceased ances
tors would have received had the proper proof been
mode out during their lifetime.
A pension is a bounty given by Government for
meritorious personal service, and the first law
granting pensions for revolutionary services con
fined the bounty to the indigent soldiers But
'whether this restriction be correct or not. it is self
evident that the great inducement, in all pension
laws, is to relieve and compensate, in his own
proper person, the self-sacrificing soldier, who
risked his life, wasted his energies, and neglected
his private affiiirs in the service of his country.
The law has extended its beneficence from the
soldier to his widow, and there it has stopped. If
Congress shall take ono stop further, and provide
for children nod grandchildren on account of the
services of their ancestors, the question arises,
why take care of the children and grandchildren
of those whose fortune It was to live till Congress
had passed a pension not, and not of those, equally
meritorious, who died in the service, or who dragged
out a miserable existence uncured for and unrecog
nised by the Government.
The children, and grandchildren, and great
grandchildren should be contented in the rich in
heritance derived from a glorious ancestry, in the
liberties they enjoy, and in the institutions which
giro them protection. Congress hat not boon un
mindful of our revolutionary heroes. It has dealt
out to them with no sparing hand. Up to the
30th Juno, 1857, under the pension laws of 1815,
1828, and 1832, 813,011,060 had been paid to rove ,
and under the acts of 1830,
1838, 1848, and 1853, $18,302.0110 had been paid to
the widows of our revolutionary soldiers—making
an aggregate, in money, of sixty•ono millions theta
hundred and fourteen thousand six hundred and
twenty dollars, besides largo donations of land
and disbursements of money, under other laws, on
account of revolutionary services.
The discriminations pointed out by the Commis
sioner of Pensions, as existing between the invalid
and half-pay pensions for the army and the navy,
would seem to demand revision and correction by
Congress. Some reorganization of the systems
upon which those pensions aro granted is desira
ble, not only because of the inadequacy of the
lower rates to relieve the wants of those intended
to be benefited, but because of the manifest pro
priety of making like provision for those of cor
responding grades In the two arms of the service
who may become disabled while in the faithful
discharge of , duty.
During the past year 41,483 warrants for bounty
land have been issued, requiring, to satisfy them,
five millions nine hundred and fifty-two thousand
one hundred and sixty sores of the publle domain;
and the number issued under all the bounty land
acts of Congress from the revolutionary war to the
present time is 517,250, requiring, to satisfy them,
sixty millions seven hundred and four thousand
nine hundred and forty-two acres of land
The frauds practised upon the Pension 01 toe in
attempts to procure, and in the actual procure
ment of land warrants, are numerous; but owing
to the short statutory limit of two years, the frauds
are not discovered, and ny g u ty persons maps.
I would, thereforo , recommend an extension of the
limit new made by the law for the prosecution of
offences of this kind.
The Commissioner of Pensions has called my at
tention, also, to the fact, that the forging of land
warrants is rendered Venal by no existing law.
The extent to which this evil practice exists Is not
known, but the importance of some legislative ac•
tion upon the subject is obvious, and I would re
spectfully recommend that Congress provide some
law which may serve as a protection to the Govern.
The reporter the Commissioner of Publie Build
ings furnishes a detailed and satisfactory state
ment of the application of the appropriations
placed under his more immediate direction.
The west wing of the Patent Office building is
nearly completed throughout, and presents an ele
gant and tasteful appearance The north front of
the building is In the process of erection Satis
factory contracts have boon entered tote for the
granite and marble work ; the sub-basement has
been finished; and the contractors are pressing
forward their operations with a commendable real.
This portion of the building will be completed by
the appropriations already made, and no estimate
Is now deemed necessary for the improvement and
enclosure of the grounds around it.
An extraordinary flood, during the last winter,
swept away several sultans of the bridge across
the Potomac. The authorities of the city of
Washington repaired the breach, and the bridge
has been otherwise placed in such condition as to
make its passage safe. This, however, is a tempo
rary arrangement, but it is the only ono by which
a convenient connection between the city of Wash
ington and the shore of Virginia can be had at
present. A permanent bridge across the Potomac
is a necessity, and it is for Congress to determine
its location and its (diameter.
The District of Columbia has been set apart for
the capital of the nation, and the relations of its
people to the General Government are altogether
anomalous. Without a representative In Congress,
and with no voice In the election of their chief
magistra to, so far as political rights are concerned,
its inhabitants occupy the attitude of a dependent
people. But they aro nevertheless American citi
zens, and, as such, have rights and interests which
are dear to them, to guard which facilities should
be afforded them, as to every other portion of our
fellow-citizens, of making known their wants,
through their own representative, to the only
body clothed with the authority to supply thous.
There can be no just reason for the distinction
whirls has heretofore prof/ailed—allowing a Terri
tory, with a meagre population, a delegate upon
the floor of Congress, to make known its r!quire
monts and advocate its interests, and denying the
same privilege to this District, with its seventy
five thousand inhabitants. It would be an ant of
justice to provide a seat on the floor of the House
of Representatives fur a delegate to be chosen by
the people of the District of Columbia. Such an
arrangement would remove a just ground of com
plaint, that they have no accredited organ by
which their interests can be fairly and favorably
brought to the consideration of Congress.
In conferring these powersmon the corporation,
Congress must have acted Oh the conviction that
it was the duty of the pity, and not of the General
Government, to open and repair streets and ave
nues, as well as to make the other improvements
It is evident that the city authorities, acting
under the influence of a city constituency familiar
with the localities, and well informed as to the
true interests and requirements of the people, are
less liable to be misled in such matters by the
representations of private interests than those
whose attention is chiefly taken up with subjects
of more general concern, and who are not supposed
to be specially interested in the material advance
ment of the city.
In the act to incorporate the city of Washing
ton, passed May' 15, 1820, Congress invested the
corporation with full power and authority to
"lay and collect taxes;"" to erect and repair
bridges ;" "to open and keep in repair streets,
avenues, lanes, alleys, drains, and sewers, agree
ably to the plan of the city ;" "to erect lamps,
and to occupy and improve for Rublio purposes, by
and with the consent or the President of the United
States, any part of the public and open spaces
and squares in said city, not interfering with pri
It seems to be eminently proper, therefore, that
these improvements should be made, in pursuance
of the - provisions of the charter, under the direc
tion of the city authorities; and hence no estimates
have been submitted therefor by this department.
Beyond the appropriations made by Congress for
these objects, neither the Commissioner of Public
Buildings nor the Secretary of the Interior has
been entrusted with this duty. The law relieves
this department from the obligation, not unfre
quently urged, of initiating plans and suggesting
appropriations for the openin revenant, and
lighting of 'streets - mr mailarytiverra,_
sion ls 'made in the charter of incorporati ne on, by
which the Commissioner of Pablie Buildin,ra
directed to reimburse the corporation a jun - pot
Portion of the expense incurred in opening and
improving streets passing through and along. pub
belonging to the Government; but this resource bas
s r a e l t e ofo o r f e lots .iocwi de
frayed. i out l squares. ed o u f:m a h E o is
e e d
a y x n pe e n s arising t s i e m h : s t
from o b h m:
for an appropriation out of the National Treasury
n b thh e e e e n submitted
on that account.
The reservations owned by the United States
within the city of Washington require to bo im
proved by the General Government. Much atten
tion has bean bestowed upon these during the last
few years, and several of them have been substan
tially enclosed and tastefully embellished. But
while much has been accomplished, more remains
to bo done; and liberal appropriations might, with
propriety, be made for the continuation of these
improvements whenever the condition of the trea
sury will admit it.
The grounds around the Capitol are particularly
commended to the favorable consideration of Con
gross, in the hope that early measures may be
taken to relieve them of their present nucomely
appearance. The time has come when some plan
should be agreed upon for their extension; but
bow far they should be extended is a question to be
determined by congressional action.
The auxiliary guard is a police force provided by
the Government for the protection of property and
the preservation of the peace within the city of
Washington. Its members are paid from the publie
treasury, through the Commissioner of Public
Buildings, but derive their appointments from the
Mayor of the city, to whom alone they are respon
sible for the faithful discharge of their duties. It
is respectfully recommended that the law on this
subject he so far amended as to require these ap
pointments, before they can take effect, to be re
ported to and approves! by some officer of the Gov
ernment, either the Commissioner of Public Build
ings or the Marshal of the District of Columbia,
and to give such officer the power of removal from
office whenever, in his opinion, the public good may
render it necessary.
Tho reports of the superintendent and the board
of visitors of the tiovernmont hospital fur the Ori
son° accompany this report. The number of pa
tients in the hospital, July 1, '.71, was ninety-three
During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1837,
fifty-two were admitted, and thirty-five discharged,
leaving in the institution, at the last-mentioned
date, one hundred and ton, four of whom are in
dependent or payy patients. This number exceeds
the rated capacity of that part of the building now
completed ; but an appropriation has been made
fur the construction of the centre building and
three sections of the wings, according to the origi
nal plan adopted, which aro in process of erection,
and which will be pressed to completion with all
proper despatch and economy. When those per
tions of the building aro finished, it is believed its
capacity will be sufficient to meet all present de
mands for the accommodation of this unfortunate
class of our people.
Tho institution is conducted with skill and fideli-
ty, and reflects credit upon all who are concerned
in its management.
At the lust session of Congress, an not was sassed
incorporating the Columbia, Institution for the In
struction of the Denf,,Dumh, and Blind. In the
charter of incorporation it is made the duty of the
Secretary of the Interior, whenever he is satisfied
that " any deaf anti dumb or blind person of
teachable age, properly belonging to this District,
is in indigent circumstances, and cannot command
tho means to secure nn (Attention," to authorize
the said person to enter the said institution for in
struction, and to pay for his or her maintenance
and tuition therein, at the rate of $l5O per annum.
In pursuance of this provision of law, fourteen
pupils have boon placed in the institution.
The report of the president of the institution,
which ho is required to make annually, is here
with communicated. It exhibits the institution in
rather a crippled condition. It is in debt, and it
needs more laud, Letter buildings, and a larger in
come, to pay the teachers. It has fifteen pupils,
fourteen of which are maintained by the Govern
ment. The charity is a noble one; but as it in not
a tlovernment institution, it is (or Congress to de
termine whether further assistance shall be ex-
tended to it.
The report of the inspeetors of the penitentiary,
with the accompanying reports of the warden,elork
physician, matron, and chaplain, are herewith sub
mitted. hey furnish a detailed account of the ad
ministration of the affairs of the penitentiary for
the past year. The views expressed by the in.
speotore of the present working of the penitentia
ry, and their recommendations for Its future im
provement, aro approved and commended to your
The report of the engineer in charge of the con-
struotion of the bridge across the Potomac at Little
Falls exhibits the progress of that work, and the
probability of its early completion. There have
been unavoidable delays, which aro explained, but
the work, when finished, will be creditable alike
to the engineer and the Government.
By a joint resolution of the last Congress the
duty was devolved upon this department of distil.
bating a portion of the journals and congressional
documents to public libraries, Ac , previously dis
tributed by the Department of State. As the rem-
Innen prescribed no rule by which the distribution
should ho made, it is proposed to send to each
State copies in proportion to its federal representa•
tion, and the distribution will be reads on that
basis, unless Congress shall otherwise direct. It
is respectfully suggested that a law be passed fur
the future government of the department in refer
ence to this subject.
To this department belongs the supervision of
the Recounts of marshals, district attorneys, and
clerks of the circuit and district courts of the
United States, and no other branch of the public
service Is encompassed with greater difficulties in
its administration. In some respects advantageous
changes might be made, and additional legislation
By the ant of February 28,1799, fees for services
rendered by district attorneys in the performance
of their duties were specifically prescribed, and in
certain diatrlots named an annual celery lras pra•
'sided, "as a full compensation. for all extra ser
f ices." All district attorneys, except the one In
Southern New York, now draw a salary, thehrrester
part of them at the rate of, and none lose thin, two
hundred dollars per annum. nut the repeated ap
plications for compensation for extra services by
theta officers is becoming a serious evil.
Some of the district attorneys assume that they are
under no official obligation to render any service for the
Goveniment for which ho fee is preeeribed under exiat
tug line, Inch as preparing a use for trial, procu clog
and examining witneesee examintog title to property
purchased for the use of the te! States; and they In
shit, ea 3 matter of equity, If nut of strict legal right,
I that they are entitled to compensation for all prate'.
eland services other than those specifically enumerated
in the fee act, notnithetaading they receives fixed com
pensation for all extra services, and the act Itself de.
dares, "no other compensation shall be taxed or allow
ed', than the fees thereiu prescribed.
I recommend an Increase of the salaries of the rupee
tire district attorneys, graduated by some equitable
rule, coupled/. Ith a provision devolving upon thou
officers the duty of faithfully performing all such see
vices, in the line of their profeation, as should be re
quired of them in every cue iu which the interests of
the Government are in any way Involved, and declaring
that the receipt of such salary shall operate WI a full
diecharge of all claim on the part of the recipient for
compensation for all services not enumerated in such
fee bill as may at the true be in force.
Experience has demonstrated that a change may be
made with propriety in the law providing for the ap
pointment of clerks of the several United Statee courts.
These officers are now appointed by the judges, to whom
'lone they are responsible foe their official conduct.
The law requires them, semi-annually, to snake returns
of their lees end emoluments. But in cue of failure
or refusal, this department is powerless to enforce obe
dience, or to remove the delinquents, It can, however,
withhold any money that may he due them by the United
Stites, until they shall render their accounts This
is the whole extent of its power.
I made the duty of this department to restrict the
expenditures of these officera within proper limit., al -
though defrayed out of the proceeds of their offices ; to
allow no one clerk to retain of his fees and emolument*
a siun exceeding three thousand are hundred dollars per
annum, for his personal compensation; and to require
him to pay into the Treasury of the United States, semi.
&tumidly, any surplus of the Caine. A duty Is thus im
posed upon the head of the department, while he is
clothed with no adequate authority to enforces compli
ance with his orders and requlremeine. Amu evidence of
this, it le proper to state, that In order to p amour a re
solution adopted by-the last Nouse of Reresentatives,
circulars, calling for the requisite information, were ad
dressed to all these *Steers on the Lt of September last,
and althoughpropeicerumudati on is due to those who
replied promptly, yet Morisco in the States, and nine
teen in the Territories, have wholly failed to respond
nurser., Some remedy for this state of things should
he provided, and it is respectfully suggested, as the
most effectual, to change the tenure of the office, so u
to require ell the clerks of all the courts to be ap
pointed in the ensue manner as marshals and district at
Clerks of courts, in many eases, are appointed and
act ae United Statee come:S*llolmm. This practice, it is
believed, adds largely to the expenses of that branch of
the public service, especially in the large (item, where
it becomes necessary, to the absence of the clerk, to
employ an additional number of deputize In his office.
This evil requires correction at the hands of Congress.
The clerk of the Supreme Court cannot, by the re
ceived construction of the law, be required to make a
return of the fees and emoluments of his office, nor Is
hie compensation limited; yet the policy and spirit of
the law Includes thin officer, as well as the clerks of the
circuit and district courts. If the existing law be wise
and ought to Do maintained, then no valid reasons ex
ists why this officer should bo made an exception.
The late Attorney General gave an opinion that a
clerk was a ~ collectiog agent of the Goeenament, and
should be held to account for all the fees of his office,
received or receivable, deducting therefrom the maxi
mum allowed by law." Now, although the clerk or
other officer may earn a large surplus, still one-half of
the maximum may not have been actually received.
And, notwithstanding the fact that they are legally
powerless in come eases to collect their earldom they
are poeitively required to pay Into the treesury, with
each semi-annual return, any surplus which tke um*
exhibits. The officers claim, generally, that they have
a sight to retain the compensation to which they are
entitled, and that they are not In a position to rebus
it until it Is actually collected, which leads to much
To remedy this, it Is eroggestel that all clerks and
marshals in the respective States and Territories, and
In the ',District ,of Columbia, be explicitly authorised
to demand the payment of their foes, or take security
therefor, when they are not properly chargeable to the
United States, In advance of the rendition of all offi
Duriog the lut session of Congreu an appropriation
of one hundred thousand dollars eras made for the erec
tion of a court-house in the city of Boston. This was
construed not to authorise this department to purchase
a building, however suitable for the purpose. The
masonic temple, conveniently situated is the business
part of that etty, vas offered to the department for one
hundred and tee thousand dollars. The proposition
nu accepted, subject to the approval of Congress ; and
an estimate has been submitted covering the expendi
The fourth section of the act of 28th February last,
authorizing the people of Minnesota to form a Con
stitution and State Government," made It the duty of
the United States marshal for said Territory " to take a
census, or enumeration, of the inhebltante within the
limits of the proposed State, under such rules and regu
latiorui as should be prescribed therefor by the Secretary
of the Interior, with the view of ucertamlng the num
ber of rspresentatires to which said State may be en
titled in the Congress of the United States."
The necessary instructions hare been lamed to enable
the marshal to perform that duty, and an appropria
tion will be asked, as soon as full returns of his opera
tions have been received, to defray the expenses he has
than been directed to Incur—no provision therefor hay
ing yet been made.
wiel7 - t
n ahuditic rif f - WaY of — i.
Paso, on i r.,..J i tanoggi s .„ u - pass, to
of the G Ile v. - I.r i= jw9tsh Olt '-
Provision hod been previously made for opening a
road from fort Ridgely, Minnesota, to the South Pus,
and operations had been commenced thereon, under
Instructions from my predecessor.
Work has been commenced on all these roads, and
measures have been taken for its • igoroue prosecution.
The obvious design of Congress in these appropriations,
Weil to locate and open roads which should meet preeent
emergencies and the demands of emigration, and not to
introduce a system of improvements which would r•
quire other and larger appropriations to be made, from
year to year, for their completion. With this view,
and to secure the speedy and ecouomiest construction of
these great and extended thoroughfares, it was deemed
f~` Coagreea , t6it dapsrt
expedient to appoint a superintendent. and organise a
suitable corps of operatives on each road. Each super
intendeut was instructed to pas+ over the entire length
of the section of the route assigned him, locating it on
the moat direct and advantageous ground, and opening
and improving it in such a manner as to admit of the
easy passage of a loaded wagon
The Immediate direction of the movements of these
several parties was placed by me in charge of a gentle
man of experience; and so soon as inibrmation of
the operations of the past season is received, I will canoe
him to make a detailed report of their progress, for the
purpose of laying it before Congress.
The Fort Rldgely and South Pass road has already
been opened as far west as the Missouri river, a distance
of about two hundred and fifty miles, and the country
through which it rune is reported to bee ncb and de
sirable one for settlement. The appropriation for this
work hag, however, been exhausted, although some four
hundred and fifty miles remain to be templets'!. To
finish this portion of the read, should it be the pleasure
of Congress to carry out Its original design, an addi
tional appropriation of thirty thousand dollars will be
required and It should be made at an early day.
The joint commission for running and marking the
boundary between the United States and Mexico, under
the treaty of December 30, 1853, concluded its labors
and adjourned on Ottobor 1 ; and the comuthaluner on
our part has turned over to this d•partment the mom
Smith one or too exceptions, which are in the hands of
the engraver,) journale, astronomical determination',
and other public property In his poaeession.
Of the report heretofore ordered by Congress to be
printed, the first volume In completed, and sill be ready
for distribution early in January. The second volume,
or appendix, which contains the reports upon the
zoology and botany of the region surveyed, is still in
complete. The engraved plates to illustrate thin part
of the cork are in the custody of this department, so
far as they are completed.
During the lest Congress, the Senate, by resolution,
ordered the printing of five thousand extra copies of the
report proper and accompanying maps, and two thou
sand extra copies of the , seend volesne, or appendix, to
be paid for um! of the fund appropriated for rounieg the
boundary. The execution of this order will cost from
thirty-the to forty thousand dollars. The resolution
of the Senate, without the concurrence of the House of
Itepreemitatives and the President, will not furnish to
thin department a sufficient warrant to justify the pay
ment of these expenses out of the fund designated.
By the 14th section of the act approved March 3.1837,
the Commissioner of Patents Is required annually, in
the month of January, to mike a report to Congress,
detailing the operations of his bureau. This law was
enacted while the office was under the supervision of
the Secretary of State ; and as it was not required of
film to make an annual report, it was deemed more
convenient, without doubt, for the Commissioner
to report directly to Congress. The act approv
ed Starch 3, 1849, transferred the supervisory and
appellate Bp. yrs, in relation to the acts of the
Commissimiet of Patents. previously exercised by
the Secretary of State, to the Secretary of the Inter
ior. All the other bureaus of the department wake
annual reports to the Secretary, to be laid before the
President, and by biro communicated to Cotegrees. But,
in the case of the Commissioner of Patents, while the
rules and egulations for the management of his office,
his acts, and the conduct of all those tinder his imme
diate eiipervisiou, are subject to the control of the Secre
tary, and, through him, of the President, yet the an
anal report required of him Is not, in any way, under
existing law, open to the revision of either. There Is
nothing in the peculiar nature of the subjects or
duties pertaining to that bureau which makes this
exception necessary; and as the reason for the law
hae ceased to ex let, It might be changed o ith proptiety.
From the Ist of Jannsry to the 30th of September,
1857, 4,095 applieationx for patents have been received,
and 820 caveats tiled; 2,006 patents have been issued,
and 2.2b7 application+ rejected.
The receipts for the three quarters ending 30th Sep
tember, 1057, were $101,415 97. _The expenditures acre
$103,942,04 Excess of expenditures over receipte,
The policy indicated in the law establishing the Pa
tent Office Is, that It should be a selfssustaining bureau.
This policy is a sound one, and should be *Warred.
The law now authorizes a return. upon the rejection
of an application, of hie-thirds of the fee required to be
deposited by the applicant on presenting his claim. Of
the 1103,942.04 expended during the last three quarters,
$27,919 94 was mode up of lees restored to applicants,
after the labor of examining their tacos had been per
formed. There seems to be neither justice nor expedi
ency in thin requirement Its consequence has been to
bring into the office 'large amount of business, frivolous
In its character, and which seems, in fact, obtruded but
es au experiment upon its credulity. If it i3ilesired that
thin bureau should be, as heretofore, supported by its
own carol ne,a, this feature of the financial adrulnietratlon
of the office should be revised and reformed.
By tho ninth section of the act approved July 4,1826,
the applicant for a patent, If a subject of the King of
(treat Britzio, was required to pay a fee of live hundred
dollars At that time an American citizen applying for
a patent in that kingdom wan required to pays fee of one
hundred pounds. But recently the English Government
has reduced the fee required of an American citizen from
one hundred to twenty pounds. An the tee originally
required Perna to have bee❑ determined on a principle
of retaliation, it is proper end becoming in our Govern
ment to respond to the liberal policy shown by Great
Britain toward our citizen., by reducing the fee in such
cases to one hundred dollars.
The evicting law authorizes an appeal from the de
cision of the Commissioner to oitker of the judges of the
&cult court for the District of Columbia This law is
an anomaly in our legislation. It confounds the execu
tive and judicial departments, which the genie. of our
institutions requlres should be kept separate and disc
tiricit from each Apr. Its violation of principle is not
mute serions di lty than its practical operation.
The appellant not only selects the judge who shall try
the case, but also pays the fee of twenty-fire dollars al
lea ed him. The amount of compensation thus received
a ill depend upon the number of eves brought before
him; that number will inevitably be Influenced by his
course of decision. Thejudge Is thus placed in a posi
tion of embarrassment, If not of huunliation, alike to
be deplored by himself and the country.
This law should be repealed, and some other system
aubstAuted which will put this office in a position of
independence in Its executive action, and at the came
time secure all the rights of inventors The most
feasible plan pt suggested to effect this it, in my judg
. Inept ; to authorise the creation of a permanent Board
NOVLC TO CON/LICOPOMPTIM6
Oarreeposesete Ito ( I Tie Pima , ' lan Sere kw is
Wed tee banatriag rates :
Ivory eaeoneelastlee met be eeselypea k eell by the
mums of the mites. Is Mar to than arreithwit at
the tYPeenoby, bat one Me at a sheet ,e suit be
We WWI beg ly obliged to heathens, to Posaayl
ula end othor &alma tae toottitottliotte glebes Ulf Na
tant MITI of the day to their portleelor losoittlea, the
freeertmo et tau attreoesolin ecrootty, the toreseo• et
population, sod soy totormatkis that vat le latarsitin
to the pural reader
of /levies, to consist of them members, selected
Ins upon all appeals from the lodgment of the
stmcilners, except In ewers et appeal where any of
these may have presume!) hunted and expeemeut an
opinion; in which ease another examiner may he salt
'tautest to art in his stead ; and rhea their Jody:met
and action will be subject to the supervialow mid mi...
of the Comadmioner. This alteratton GI existieg law
must noise:eerily befease the efficiency of the office,
and at the same tints secure uniformity had eartelety be Its rules of action. And while the inventor will be
eared ham rexactows delays, sad henry costs tiliffdreo
end counsel, he meet feel satieffed that, hi the provi
sion made for the thorough cumin' alias of his applica
tion by the examiner In the Ant instance, then Ivy the
board of examiner, In chief, and, lastly. by the Com.
mistioner, be has secured to him the amplest opportu
nity for the establishment of his rights.
The =Cray and suttees of the inventire genine of th•
country, the limited circumstances of this worthy
rhea of our fellow-cibiena, who are badly prepared to
brook daisy or expense In the prosecution of their
claims, the rapid enlargement and glowing Importance
of this branch of business, and the fact that this office
asks nothing from the initiate] treasury, tut only seeks
each an organisation of its intents] machinery as will
place Ohs, branch of the public service upon tke most
efficient footing, justify an earnest invoctiben of the at
tention of Congresa to the wants of this offiee.
The agricultural dinsion of this office is growing in
popularity with the country and increasing in useful
nee. It maybe well ;motioned whether any other
expenditure of,the public mosey has ever proved so
largely remunerative and so beneficent in its toff onsets.
The crop of Chine= and Mclean sugar-cane alone, far
the pewee: year, will more than compensate for the
money heromfbre expended is this behelf.
lieseurc o bare been taken for the establishment of a
more satisfactory eystem for the distribution of [rids;
the iutroduction of the tea plant; the collection of the
aced and cutting of the native grape sines with the
view of testing their value for the manufaeltue of
wine; the investigation of the nature and habits of the
insects that Infect the cotton plant, with the view of
ascertaining obether some idea can be devised for the
protection of the cotton planter; and let the chewiest
'wkly.= of =trim. plan ta and solle.
The eases required by the act of Ilarch J, 1537, to be
constructed in the hall of the Smithsonian Institution
for the reception of the eollectioes of the exploring ex
peditiene Mt ether objects of enrimity and interest, now
in the main hall of the Patent Ofil. building, have beta
contracted for, and millicient progress has been touts to
warrant the belief that the removal tan be made before
the explratioo of the current fiscal year. The object of
the transfer of these collections to the Smithson/Jut In
stitution evidently was to relieve the Patent Office from
the respousibility and trouble of their custody; the
force, therefore, heretofore employed to take Imre of
them. will then be no longer needed by this =gee, and
no estimate has been entinitted for that purpose.
lun, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
2. TIIOIIPSON, ffecretary of the Interior.
To the PLISIDIENT OP Tut ITSITID SINUS.
REPORT OF .THE
SECRETARY OF TEE NAVY.
The annual report of the Secretary of the Navy
gives a full detail of the condition of that depart
ment. The destination of the naval foree during
the year is described, aim the operations of the
vessels charged with assisting in laying the sub
Congress, at its last session, authorised the en
listment of eight thousand Are hundred men for
the navy, instead of seven thousand ire hundred.
the former limit. This inerease enabled the de
partment to employ more weasels at sea; but the
number of marines has not been inereaasd au that
guards can be provided for them.
The marine barracks at Barton, Philadelphia.
and Norfolk are represented to be contracted and
entirely unit for use ; and the commandant of the
corps recommends that provision be made to pur
chase ground and erect imitable buildings at theca
The Secretory says : "When I entered upon my
dirties in this Department, I found alisval Court
of Inquiry already organised under thei act of
January 16, 1817. Deeming It important that the
investigation directed by that act should b.
brought to an early conclusion, I immediately
organised tiro additional courts. These three
worts have prosecuted their labors with great
assiduity. The mutt in many eases has been pre
sented toyou. As to all those eases in which the
oeurts have recommended restoration to the active
list, or to the service, or a transfer from furlough
to leave pay, you have approved the action of the
courts ; and when you shall have presented corres
ponding nominations to the Senate, you will have
done as to them all which this act has Committed
to your discretion.
As to those cares in which the Courts have re
commended no change, the action of the President,
whether it be that of approval or disapproval, will
not wary the result, but leave the parties its stain
quo, as if there had been no inquiry. The Presi
dent, having no power to Change the state of
any person already in the navy, except by dismis
sal, or by promotion, with the advice and consent
of the Senate, or to restore anj person to it ex
cept by a new appointment, with the advice and
consent of the same body, it is obi - ions that tit
tle could be done to remove or palliate the pre
sumed evil which it was the object of that act to
remedy, except by the prompt execution of the act
Unwilling to be drawn into any allegation
against those officers who bad been affected by the
actiorof the Retiring Board, I examined The act
vongrek , ,lo see if any with defy tad been
ad u .n me. I found that it admitted no lati-
ed the physleal, waisted. • • emu, •, an • •••
fitness of the officer for the naval revoke to bo to
veatigated by scout of inquiry.
Accordingly, the precept to the court in every
ease directed that preeise Inquiry. Inetruetione
were given to the judge advocates In every Instance
whore theparty desired to take the initiative, and
to present all the evidence which they intended to
introduce before the party should be called upon to
respond, and then to give him ample opportunity.
They were directed to consent to depo_vitione when
necessary or convenient. They were instracted,
when reasonable objection skrastd be made to any
court, to give way to it, and to interpose no obstacle
to the transfer of the case to another court to which
there should be no objection. These instructions
were given to insure a fair, impartial, and faithful
execution of the intentions of Congress.
The estimates for the support of the navy and
marine corps, and for all other objects under the
control of the Navy Department for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1359, are—
For the support of the navy and
Wmarine corps F 9,949,515 01
For special objects 4,865,733 22
Making $14,610,293 23
The aggregate estimates for the fiscal year end
ing June, 15S, were $13,503,212 27, being $Bl3-,
085 lass than the present estimates. This differ
ence is principally caused by estimating $250,000
for the armament for the fire new sloops, $350,000
more than last year for building the sloops, and by
estimating for provi , lons and pay for one thousand
additional men, authorized by the act of March 3,
The expenditures for the year ending June 30,
1867, for all purposes under the control of the de
partment, were $12,632,696.81. Of which,sl,3l3,-
698.14 being for special objects, the legitimate ex
penses of the navy and marine corps for that period
A review of the present eondilion of the navy,
and of the establishments connected with it, bas
afforded me great gratification. I see in them,
taken in connection with our commercial marine
and our immense resources, the means of promptly
putting afloat a naval force equal to any exigency
likely to arise in the history of the country.
It is not the penny of our Government to main
tain a great navy in time of peace. It is against
its retued policy to burden the resources of the
people by an orerpown naval establishment. It
is universally adinitted to be inexpedient to endea
vor to compete with other great commercial powers
in the magnitude of their naval preparations.
But it is the true policy of our Government to take
care that its navy,within its limited extent,ebould
be unsurpassed In its efficiency and its complete
ness, and that our preparatory arrangements
should be such that no event shall take us alto
gether by surprise.
The bears having monopolized much atten
tion lately, sayi a Bangor (Mo.) paper of the sth,
the wolves claim notice. On Wednesday night
last, as Mr. Mitchell was driving a mail mud
wagon on the back Calais route from Beddington
to the next slopping place, twenty miles from this
city, being without passengers, his team was beset
by a pack of wolves. They were about a dozen in
number and came en fierce and noisy. Mitchell,
however, drove up smart, which be had no difficul
ty in doing, as the horses were quite as much
frightened as himself. As they pressed hard upon
him and glared their eyeballs and gnashed their
teeth about him, he let go the contents of a rifle
which laid out one of the hungry crew and for the
time checked their pursuit. This was providen
tially near the stopping place, upon arriving at
which, the driver is said to have been petty well
overcome with excitement and fright. Wolvea and
bears are very plenty on the back route and very
An express passed through St. Louis en
Tuesday for Washington, with despatches from
Col. Johnston. The ReptgUiran received letters
from the army to November 3d. The Mormons
had run off six hundred head of cattle in sight of
Colonel Alexander's camp. n e 341 ana's Fork, Green
River. At the date of the letter it was =pawed
that Colonel Johnston had concentrated hie forces
with Alexander, and that in a fornight from that
time Colonel Cook's command would be with them.
They expeoted to winter on Henry's Fork. Green
River. '1 Jere was agood deal of suffering from
want of provisions and clothing, and the horses
were giving out from want of forage.
At Brodford,`3fass., a whole family were re
cently committed to jail for being addicted to the
gro..sest habits of intemperance. It consisted of
mother, three eons, and s sister of the mother.
The eldest eon died on Sunday in prison of delirium
tremens, and the youngest, but sixteen years of
age, is in a critical state from the same cause
The father died a few months ago in the same man
ner. The youngest son is charged with setting fire
to the barn of a neighbor, who had been in the
habit of contributing to the wants of this wretched
The New Haven Palladium says it is well
that Tunkerman is to be tried in Connecticut, and
not in New York, otherwise he would unquestion
ably be found "morally insane" and cleared.
Within the last three years, five mail and post
office robbers have been convicted in Connecticut.
Ono of them recently died at Weatherdeld, and
the other four are still serving out terms of from
two to twenty-,even years.
A large bed of coal has lately been disco
vered in Ridge Prairie, St. Clair eounty, near the
line of the Ohio and AlizAssippi Railroad. The Yell
averages about seven and a half feet in thickness.
The Charleston papers announce that the
steamer Walaka, of Savannah, was totally wreck
ed on St. Nicholas Bar, TM inst. The crew, pas.
Merl ; and a part of der OrgOi were taped.