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rniLllllD ! WBDHIIDir, AT
tfTAHLlWHUD IN 1 9 T .
Ttt larirt Circulation f any Newapapei
In North Central Peuuiylraalt.
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if iiiJ in advanea, or within I moDthi....99 Oil
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rj,uti..nand Kitray 1 60
fimfotution noticei 1 00
lr(faHinl Card, 6 llnel or lesi.l year... I 00
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I l Ur M 0 I 1 tJolntna 160 00
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0. D. GOODLANOKR,
TT w. SMITU,
T J. LINGLE,
A l'TORNEY-AT - LAW,
l is 1'hillp.burt;, Centr Co., Pa. jrrpd
JOLAND D. SWOOl'K,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Curarneville, Clearlield oountr, Pa.
ot. , '78-tf.
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
"VT-nfTiee in llie Opera lli.ua. oot, '78-tf,
-t It. A W. BAKKETT,
Attorney and Counselors at Law,
January 30. I87S.
ATTOKNKY AT LAW,
av-Offire one dour eatt of 6hw Bona.
m. M. McCULLOUliH,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
('ffi.r- ir. Ma.onle building, Second elrert, op
m,itp the Court Iluu.a. J2(l,'TH-tf.
LAW A COLLECTION OFFICE,
lrfild Counw. Pona'a. lbj
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Illl.ce iu uprra Houm. ap Ja.TT-ly
M1TU V. WILSON,
(UAHFIKMr. - I'ENN
?-0r OiHto in tba Mntonlo Building, orer the
t-unt NlioliBI nana. iu.er ou.
yu.i.iAM a. iiAGEirry,
rfl-W'lll atteld lu all legal bu.ineM llb
.r.m In,., and SJelilT febl 1,'alUI.
i liLUM A. WAM.ArB. DAVID L. RBBSB.
ir r. WALLAra. nil w. wbiblbi
T ALLACE & KREUH,
V 7 tuieemori to Wallace A Fielding,)
ATT O UN E YS-AT-LAW,
',i .177 CltiKi utjld, l'.
I F. SXYDEIt,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
u;Ve nrrr ibe Cuntr Natiooal Benh.
Juno 36, 'TStf.
l TTOHJTK I'-.l II',
DuBois, Clearfield County, Penn'a.
f arHiil atleud prompllj to all legal buloeai
fclru'lrd lo hil ere.
tMOI. . BUBBAr.
l'rhay & gordon,
'attorneys at law,
,OuVe in Pia'l Opera llotua, laeond door.
lUHBrfl I. B BNALIiT.
DAB1BL W. COBDT.
cENALLY & McCUKDY
r Legal boilneai attended to promptl witbj
rlrlitT. Offlr oa tieoond itraet, aboT tbe Firtt
National Rank. Jn:l:70
Y o. k;umer,
Real Eiute and Colleetloa Ageot,
Will promptly attend to all legal buiinale aa.
tra.ted tn hil eare.
A-Office ia Fie'e Opera Hour. Janl'76.
1" P. McKENRICR,
All legal huiiaeM entraeted to hie aara all) ra
riv prumpt attealioa.
fUrOBae In tba Coail Uobii.
OUN L. CUTTLE,
ATTORNEY AT LAW.
'Mi Heal Batata Afrcnt, ClearHeld, Ha.
hp on Third itraet, bet. tnerrj A Walnut.
x4r-ReepeotfallT offori bti aerrioei la lelling
id buying lande In Clearfield and adjoining
"nntioa and alta aa ezpartaBeaol over twenty
; an aa a aarveyor, Battera binaelf that h eaB
t r.d.r aatlataetloa. I Feb J:f3:lf.
R E. M. SCUEURER,
Offloe Id reeidenoa on Firat at.
April 34, Clearaeld, Pa.
jyt W. A. MEANS,
PHYSICIAN & SURGEON,
Di'nois CITY, FA.
)l ill attend profeailnnal oalla promptly. au(10'70
)R. T. J. 1SOTER,
I, II Y8ICIAN AND SUROtON,
Olloe on Market Street, Clearllold, Pa.
f u"oa boura : I to II a. ai , and 1 10 I p. at.
II J. KAY WRIGLEY,
I uoMtKPATiiio rnriiciAX,
' .re-OIBr adjolalag tba roaldeaoe of Jarnee
F nl'J, K.,,, ua rWeoad St., Claarleld, Fa.
) U. B. VAN VALZAn,
fUCE IN ItminHNoa!, roRMKll of finsT
AND PINK STHKb'Td.
t OSro bi era-From II la I P. M.
May II, Utl.
lt J. P. 11URC1IF1ELD,
?)! LBIaaaiaa L . 1 . . a . a. . A
M C J . r . w , i.J k.
I' FklNTINO or KYERY DISCRIP
GEO. B. G00DLANDEE, Editor
VOL. 51-WII0LE NO.
P.H' A t 0&S.TAI1I I:) KEfc
ve prinud a larae Bomber of the new
FKH 11 ll,L, and will on tbe reoeipt of twenty.
til pv in any adore... !.
WILLIAM M HKKHY, Justice
1 ! or TI Vtxc lauHcairaaaa, LUM1IEK
CITY. CollMtionB aiad and bioobv promuilT
paid ovar. ArlifllaB of BKtaeniBBt and deedi ot
ouaranp nsatlv aitouied and warranted eor
ract or Bo ehartfa. My'll
JOHN D. THOMPSON,
Jaatlet of the Poaoo and Sir.Tener,
t8&.CoIlMttoDi uado and monT promptly
(drtkri) r. o.)
JUSTICE OF THE PEACE
to bill Towmntr.
My B, ISTMy
AMES MITCH EI J,,
Stjunrf Timber & Timber LitndH,
Jeir7S fiLKARFIKI.D. PA.
House and Sign Painter and Paper
axjuWill aieoute joba ia bit lino promptly and
tn a workmanlike manner. apr4,fi7
JOUN A. STADLEU,
IIAKKR, Market 81., Clearfield, Pa.
Kre.b Bread, Ruik, llilla, I'lei and Caker.
oo band or made to order. A general aaiortmeot
of Contectiooariel, Fruit, and ota in atncB.
loa Cream and Ov.tera in eea.on. Baloi.D oearly
ipoaite ibe I'liatntTioe. Prii.ee nindrral.
inrh tea -7A
WEAVER, h BETTS,
Real Estale, Square Timber, Saw Legs,
AND Lt'MHKK OF ALL KI.SDH.
O-Cfflu od Spo. nd Mreot, in rear of itoro
ri no of Ueorjffj Weaver A Cm, f janf , '78-tf.
JVHTICB OP TUB PEACK
Oiccolk Mill. P. O.
otTiL'ikl iiunlnem ntmited to bltn will be
promptly mondnil tw. mchlitf, '70
BABDHK AND HAIHDKKSSER.
Shop on M.rket St.. opposite Court Hae.
A olckD towel for e.ery curtomcr.
Alio dealer In
I.r-t Hratirta uf Toburro and ( "para.
JAMES H. TURNER,
JI'STICB OP THK PEACE,
baa preparod bimaelf with all the
necei.ary blauk foitni ander the Fen l ion and
Uouotjr lam, aa well aa blank Uae-ll, ete. Ail
legal mat tan entruited to bn care wtil rrceiro
prompt attention. Ma Tib, 187V-tf.
Markal Mtrect, ClcarUeld, l"a.,
HANV FACTO RBB AND DBALBB IB
niimm', Hritlles. Saddles, Collars, and
Horse- Furnishing Uooas.
jaaT'AII kioda or repairing promptly attended
to. Haddlera' Hardware, liorae Uruabea, Currj
Cotuba, do., alwaya on hand and for Bala at the
loweal oaab prioe. March IV, ISIS.
G. H. HALL,
PRACTICAL TUMP MAKER,
NEAR CLEARFIELD, PENN'A.
aay-Pampa alwaya on band and made to order
en abort notion. Fipea bored oo reaeonabla terma.
All work warranted to render eatUfaction, and
delivered If deaired. mjISiljpd
ry E andersigned bega leava to inform the pub
X Ita that be ia now fully preparW to aceotnmo
data all in the way or furnlihing Hv.aei, lluggita,
ctaddlea and Harnaaa, oa the aborteet not toe and
aa raaionable Urtne. Hatldeaoaon LoeoatetrMt,
ketwean Third and Fourth.
GKO. W. QEAHHAHT.
lUarfiftld, Fab. 4, 1874.
OLEN HOPE, PENN'A.
flUIB aadertlgned, bating leaead tbla em
X ntodiooa llutel. la tko tillage of Ulen Hope,
ia now prepared to aeeoiniDodata all wbi nay
oall. My table and bar ahall ba npplied with
tba beat the market afloraY
(.KOKUB W. POTT8, Jr.
Oleo Hop, Pa.. Uareh 2A, 11.79-tf.
THOMAS H. FORCE E,
GENKHAL MKKCII AND1HK.
Alio.eitenalra aianufacturar and dealer ia Square
Timber and Sawed Lumber of all kiada.
jMTOrdere lolleited and all billa promptly
fllled. Ijyl6 72
E. A. BIGLER & CO.,
and manuraoturera of
A 1.1. KIND OF HAWED LUMIIIiH,
f7J CLEARFIELD, PENN'A.
8. I. SNYDER,
tn iPTini. iTiTrnuivrn
AMD DBALIR IM
L Watchc, Clocks and Jowolry,
Qrahum't Rom, Hmrhtt Sirmt,
All klndi of repairing la my liat promptly at
nded to. Jan. lit, 1B7V.
Clearfield Nursery. -
KIN COURAGE ROM K INDUSTRY.
rrlIK anderrigned, having aitabllihad a Nor
X. rj the 'Pike, atout ball way betwea
ClrarBeld and CnrweniviMe, Ii prepared to for
aiib all klndi of FKUIT THKKS. ( tan Hard and
dwarf,) Kvergrarna, Shrubbery, Grape Vinti,
Unofelaerry, Lawtoa blarkberry, Btra wherry,
and Raipbarry Vinee. Alio, Htberian Crab Traea,
Qaitioo, and early acarlat Rhubarb, Ao. Order
promptly attended to, Addreia.
J. D. WRIOHT,
ep20 -y CarwaaaTllla, Pa.
F. M. CAED0N & BR0.,
Oa Market fit., ana door went ot Maaafoa Hoaea,
Oar arraagemanta are rf tba moat .oosplete
rharaotar lo, furaiebifig tbo pablia with rreeb
Meataof all klad, and of tba very beet quality.
We aleo deal ia all kiBde f Agrionltaral lonplo.
neata, wbiek we keep oa aablbitiaa tor tbo b"B
alt ot lb. DMblia. Cell aroaad wbea la Iowa,
aad lake a wok at Ulng., or addrvea aa
F. H. CAKDON A BRO.
Clearleld, Pa., Jaly Id, IS7Mf.
iltnrdrld Initiranr ,4gmty.
CABBOLL L. DIDDtB.
KERR tt UIOOLK, ffnlt,
Repraeeat tba folio Ib aad ether Irat-tlaaa Co'a
Llvrrpool Loedoa A 8 lobe-rt. I. nr..l.(il.l
LveomiBg ea mataal Aaaab alaaa.... A.aflfl.ooa
PhmalB, of llerif.rJ, Cone t,.Da
taeoreaao Oa. af Nerlk America M.1M74
Korib Brill.b A Mereaatlle-U.S. Br. I,I"I."J
rteatllak Coaamoroial-V. I. Braaeb.... (7t,Ut
Trat.l.rl (Lib A Aaoideetl) 4,eJ,4M
OBeo oa klalkol It., app. Heart Hoata, Claar
lold, Pa. Jaao 1, rt-tr.
A DREAM OF AUTUMN.
Mfillow bkiri towly (railing
O'er lbs wood ftrid mctdiiw, re i ling
Stitnbrc kiei, with twllnt Milinjj,
8ilor-lik, lo rorrifro lD(l ;
And tbo north wind nvrl.iiDg
Suoiner't biirk, ond flood-likt iMin
Wrffki of rop hro itio weupitiK
Willowi iwiof iboir btlplon btadi.
Pliuotei) hitch, like tot-chef Singing
FUkoi of flutue ind cinbiri. iprinjiiiig
Froii tbo Tle tho Iree Hand iwinging
In tba moan it: g atmoaphere j
Whila in deid'moir land tha lowing
Of ibe sadle. laiidt-r grualiig,
Filla the fnie to overOuwinjt
, With the aorioat of the year. '
(if Mi of ragged Hubble, tangled
U'itb rank wril, ana ahooki of jtnklcd
Corn , with cicata Itka wet plumea dangled.
O'er the barveit'e battle plain;
OT the quail that. Ilk miuile.
U'histes orer thorn and tbttlit.
And, a tniiiile drpa again.
hicb aa wine the tuned flaihei
Kwuad tba tilted world, ud dhat tt,
L'p tba eloping writ aod plan be.
Ill red fuain aainit the iky,
Till in j dream of Aututno, paliog
In the rplrnditr all prerailioi
Likeaaallow leal goea lailmg
Down tbeaiteaee aulemnly.
OUlt COMMOy SCHOOLS.
t UABLEr) HIANCIB ADAMrl, J 11, ON THE
HETIIANIHM OF OUR Elit'CATIONAL
Fiom Harper'a Magatlne for Noroiober.
IIiilto mechanical oilucutionul ma-
cbiiicrt, they arc pcculinr to our own
time ami country, and itro organized,
as nearly as ponaiblu, as a combination
nl'tlio cotton mill and the railroad with
tho model Sluto triton. Tho School
Comniittcu is tho board of direction,
while tho .Superintendent tho chiel
executive) ( nicer sits in Inn central
ollire with the time table, which h
calls u iroruiiimo, belciio him, by
which one hour twico a week in allot
ted to thin atudv, mid hull' an hour
three times a week to that, and twenty
houm a term to tt third ; and at nuch
a lime one cIhhh will ho at this point
mill tho oilier cIum at that, tho whole
moving wiih military precinion to a
iriven di minulion tit a fpeciliod duto.
Meidianicul melhodrt could net he car
ried further. The organization in per
fect. The machine worka iilnumt with
the precinion of clockwork. It is, how
ever, company Irnnt all tho time.
From one point of view children arc
rcjrurded at aulomutotia, from another
un India ruhlier bujia, from a third an
no much raw n ateriul. They inunt
move in rilep, and exactly alike. They
niUKt receive tho nimo minttil milri
ment in equal qiifliilities and at fixed
timcrt ltri aKHitnilation ia wholly im
material, hut tho motion" mum bo
gono throuti with. Finally, ad raw
material, they are emptied in at the
priinaricA and marched out at the
grammar gradca and it is well!
This was the very general and in
fact, the inevitable result on the
laro Btalo ol tho system of Superin
tendency in voj;ue durinir tho last
twenty-tivo yuars. It was aleo, per
haps, a natural and necessary phase of
development, something which had to
bo passed through, though it immedi
ately resulted in several things. In
tho first place, so far as tho child was
concerned, tho imitative or memorm
in" ft'.(Miltia onlv were cultivated, and
littlo or no attention was paid to the
thiiiKing or retleelivo powers. In
deed, it may almost oo said that a
child of any originality, or with indi
vidual characteristics, was looked upon
as wholly out of place in a public
school, Iheiilea, under tho system,
was masses ot children, designated
from usage by names, instead of more
conveniently by number, who learned
certain rules by heart, and applied
them with mechanical prompliiudo
and correctness. Any deviation Irnm
this semi-military method was sternly
repressed as a breach ol cornet disci
pline. Starting from this point, the
course of so culled educational devel
opment up to recent period ban been
natural, logicul and commonplace.
There have been just throo steps to it
it memorizing, examinations, pro
grammes; tho lust two tho latest cdu
cational bobbica built upon tho tradi
tional foundation of tho first. Tho
way in which tlieso led from ono on
to tho next is obvious enough' In
the first place, timu out of mind, all
knowlengo was, cduculioually speak
ing, looked upon as a vast accumula
tion ot facts, rules and definitions and
tho grand aim und object ol teaching
was to impart us many as possiblo of
theso to the youthlul mind. 1 bo way
to impart was to cause them to bo la-
boriously committed to memory. Thos
tho teacher sat in his chair, a sort of
lono bshcrmun on tho shore of the
great ocean of things known, and ho
hooked up out of it now a rule, and
now a fact, and then again dcfiin
lion, and ho gavo them to the children
and saw that they swallowed them,
whether they liked them or not, and
whether they were nourished by them
or not. Del, in process ol time, it
becamo apparent to tho mora observ
ing that the knowledge thus imparted
was not to be retained, und tho examina
tion was then devised as a means of
assuring tho purveyor of knowledge
that the facts, rules and definitions
imparled wero held, so lo speak, on
the Intellectual stomach for at least a
reasonable poriod, Tho examination,
however, at it was organized and
gradually ramified into a lully-dovel-oped
whole almost necessarily culled
the programme into existence. Tho
world of knowledge was too largo;
there wore too many tacts and julis
and definitions for the teacher, as well
as lor the taught; and so, lor tho pro
tection ol tho former, it became neces
sary to Btuko uut from tko wide do
main, by certain metes and bounds,
Iho districts within which ho was to
search lor tho hidden treasures. Any
thing obtained or to be obtained out
bIcIo was not to count. The programme
was thus a relict to the teacher,
clearly marking as ho did tho limits
within which the cramming process
was to bo tarried on. It mado his
work possible. Tho dovclopomont of
the system was thon complete
Undor theso circumstances, educa
tion being roducod to little mora than
a mechanical process of cramming,
with periodical nervo trials to ascer
tain the degreo of retention, tbo aver
ago child not unnaturally felt toward
his school and what was there requir
ed ot him Tory much as a learned dog
or monkey may be supposed to feel
toward nts task master. Accordingly
the sickening dislike of school and of
things taught at school ia with the
majority ol tboso emancipated from it
almost the strongest association con
netted with early life.
Tho work ol organization being
completed and the mechanical having
oecn overdone a new course or thought
was inevitable A reaction was cer- J
tain to come. It began soveral years
ago. Ul lato ft has assumed a more
definite shape and is finding clearer
expression. This reaction is founded
on very deep principle. Its direction
it away irom mechanism and toward
science. Indeed, the cardinal princi
ple ol this -new uopanare, ir It may
CLEARFIELD, PA., - WEDNESDAY, "NOVEMBER 17. 1880.
bo so designated, ii that there ia just
us much a science in developing the
more ordinary luoulttos ol the human
mind us theru is in ruising crops or ex
trading minerals from the earth
There is an easy, natural and attrac
tive way of training the intellect as
there is of training the body, if your
philosophy could but find it out. It is
oot tho way to find it out, however, to
analyze the thing to be tauirht. divid
ing and defining, and taking to pieces
anu putting together, un tho con
Irary, the work must begin at tho
other end. Tbooporalion of tho child's
mind, tho naturul processes of growth
and assimilation which go on iu it, its
inherent methods of development and
acquisition must bo long and patiently
studied. The Superintendent of the
lulure is thuBa llaeomun it, his philoso
phy. Jlo rejects at once all mechan
ism, ull tradition, all a priori theories,
all military methods, lie has recourse
to a slow, patient process ot induction.
Relieving that the human mind is
something more than a cabbage, he
urguoa that if their ia a science
in manuring and growing cabbages,
there is probably a science ol mental
development. Accordingly, ho watches
tho child in its mother's arms and at
play. 11 u sees it learn to sneak and
to wulk, and analyzes tho processes
through which it does tit. Then ho
follows tho schoolboy out to the bull
ground and the skating pond.
herovcr bo goes, ho notices ono thing
that every ago, from infancy toman
hood, tho child is continually learning
to do with infinite ease and skill things
most difficult to do things which he
himself would in vain attempt. If ho
questions that fuel, ho has but caro
lully to study the principles ol equili
brium and momentum ; and then, hav
ing thoroughly mastered thorn, and
got them at bis tongue's cud, let him
go upon tho ice and try to follow somo
boy through a little fancy skating
Ho has tuught tho boy thoiulesof
grammar, and then called upon him
lo write tho English languago; why
is it that ho having taught himself
each principle of speed and balance
involved, cannot now slide off on tho
outer edge? To skulo is as difiicult
as to write; it is probably moro diltlcult.
Vet in Biuto of hard teaching in the
one case, and no teaching in the other,
tho boy can skuto beautifully, and he
cannot write his nativo tonguo at all.
So tho .Superintendent of the future
leurnB a lesson on the skating pond,
und goes homo from it with a new con.
ceplion of tbo littlo worth ot formulas,
and moro f'uitb in practice. Thus it in
in everything. J. ho processes bo ap
plies to tho child ho finds that he can
not get any results from when he ap
plies them to himself. Take base ball,
for instance, lie teaches tho child to
writo by putting it in a certain posi
tion with a pen iu its band and caus
ing it to imitate with up-and-down
strokes a printed legend at the head
of a pago of a copy book. This is done
three hours a week. Ihcn he hltnsell
studies the rulesof base bull, and takes
a bat in his hand, aud imitates blows,
and runs imaginary bounds, and keeps
it up pamlully and conscientiously as
a good boy writes three hull' hours a
w e;,Iorthccr.tirc term heesn no more
play base ball than the boy can write.
Then ho turns to tho examination of
papursoftho Norfolk ehools in Walton's
report, and no longer asks himself :
Why is this sof It is all clear to him
now. lie has been expecting of littlo
children what ha could not do himself.
So bo goes back to the beginning, and,
beloro ho undertakes to teach, sita
humbly down, a grown mun at Na
turu's knee, and patiently cons tho al
phabet of her methods. The scientific
Biiperintcntlency is, howover, as yet in
its first infancy, it is wholly unor
ganized, flow completely it is in its
infancy, how wholly it lacks organiza
tion, becomes very apparent when tho
ainglo indisputable fact is staled that
in this country tho development of the
average human mind is not recognized
by our highest institutions ol learning
as a scientific study at all. Thoy pay
no attention to it make no provision
for it. They huve medical schools de
voted to the study ol man's body;
they have il on lu 1 schools devoted to
Ibe study ol bis teeth; but any one
who is not a fool, the learned doctors
tell us, can train the child' mind I All
there is lo know on that subject can
bo told in half an hour, and learned by
practice at an older teacher's sitlo in a
lew weeks. Is not this cuiiousV That
it is a lact is indisputable. There is a
science of law, and schools and profes
sors to leach it. There is a science of
agriculture, and colleges devoted toils
study, itioro is a scionco ol mining,
and institutes ot technology in which
it is taught. It is even claimed thut
there is a science of divinity. Jiut
when it comes to tbo educational de
velopment of those who aro to consti
tute tho future state, though we spend
millions on millions upon it, tho uni
versities turn their heads away, and
class them as something less than the
grass of tho field. They grade tho
child's mind as lower than its teeth.
They assumo thut any callow youth,
fresh from his graduating course, and
with tho ink hardly dry on his degree,
is quite competent to train tho first,
though not to luko care of the lust.
We thus turn over our children to
those whom wo would nevor dream ol
intrusting with our potato patch. (
DoTlleT Mihs Mb f Does tho world
miss any ono? Not long. Tho best
and most undid ol us will soon be for
gotten. Thoso who to day aro filling
a largo place in tho world's regard
will pass away from tho remembrance
of men in a month ; or at tho tart host
in a few years after tho gravo has
covered their tomains. We aro shed
ding tears abovo a new mado grave
and wildly crying out in grief that our
loss is irreparable. Yet in a short
timo the tendrils of lovo havo entwin
ed around othor supports, and we no
longer miss tho one who is gono. Bo
passes tho world. Hut thero aro thoso
tn whom a loss is beyond repair.
There aro men Irom whoso momoncs
no woman' smile can chase rocolloo
tion of the sweot face that has given
up all its beauty at Death' icy touch.
There aro women whose plighted faith
oxtend beyond the gravo, and drives
away as prolano, thoso who would en
tiro them Irom a worship ol their
buried loves. Such loyalty however,
is hidden away from tho public gaze.1
The world sweep on beside and
around them, and care not to look
upon this nnoblruding grief. It carves
a line and rem a ilono nvor tho dead
and hasten away to offer homago to
A backwoods proachor once eluci
dated as follows in connection with
the parablo ol tbo virgins : "In ancient
times, my beloved bearer, it was the
custom, after a couplo has bcon mar
ried, for ten virgin to go out with
lighted lamp and moot cm on the
way home, five of these virgin being
male and fiv femaloa."
PRINCIPLES, NOT MEN.
it LESSON IN GEOGHAPJ1 Y.
VAST DOMAINS SECURED DY Till DEMO
From tba New llavea Rrglater.
In 1783 tho thirteen original States
with their "reserves," or territorial
possessions, extended westward to tho
Mississippi river, and southward to the
lino of tho Spanish possessions of
Florida. Massachusetts comprised the
State of Maine, a goodly sharo of tho
Stuteol Wisconsin and Michigan ; the
Connecticut reservation took in tho
southern coast lino ot Lake Krie, now
tho thrifty "Cleveland district" of
Ohio, slices of the northern portion ol
Indiana aud Illinois, including the site
ol Chicago and tho southern portion
of Michigan und Wisco,"-in ; Virginia
owned the largest pari of the three!
great midJIe western niatcs, Ohio, In
diana and Illinois, a well as the entire
Stato of Kentucky ; North Carolina
owned Tenncsseo, and South Carolina
bad a narrow strip running along the
northern lineol Oeorgta, Alabama and
Mississippi. 'Iho coast lino ol the
country was confined to tho Atlantic
seaboard, extending only to tho north
ern lino of Florida and tho great lakes,
which at that time had not achieved
commercial importance The cossion
ot theso territories to the General
Government occurred between tho
years 1781 and 1802, Virginia being
the first Mate to cede its lauds and
Georgia the last. Wo hovo thus stated
aa briefly as possible tho geographical
outlino of tho whole country ut tho
time to givo a general idea ol the con
formation ol tho several Slates, or ul
least, thoso States which possessed
territmy outside of which is now in
their boundaries. It is our purpose in
this article to note tho subsequent ter
ritorial growth of the country, how
tho lands havo been acquired, and to
suggest the importancoof accession in
completing a country that now reaches
Irom ocean to ocean, und is unparal
leled by any in tho world for the groat
variety of its products, both agricul
tural and mineral.
The first and most important ac
quisition wus tho "rrovinco of Louis
iana, which wus purchased Irom
France, that country having only
throo years previous taken possession
of il by treaty with Spain, in 1803,
for f 23 500,000. This tract comprised
1, 171 ,13 1 square miles of land, and is
now covered by tho cnliro Stales of
Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa,
Nebraska, Oregon, a small portion of
the Stales of Alabama and Mississippi,
thut part of tho Stato of Minnesota
lying west of tho Mississippi river, and
tho purl of the Stato of Kansas on the
north of Arkansas, east of the twenty
third meridian ; by the entire territo
ries of llakota, Washington, Idaho and
Montana, the part ol tho Stato of
Colorado east of the Rocky Jlouiiluins
and north of the Arkansas river, the
largest part of tho territory ol Wyom
ing and the Indian territory. This
purchase, it will bo seen, gave us first
control of the mouth of the Mississippi
river, and across the liulf of Mexico
lor tho then just beginning commerce
of tho Ohio river ; guve us undisputed
CuiitrJ o! the great Vi's'-ippl bnain,
ibe most fertile tract in the world ;
opened up tho Missouri and Arkansas
rivers, and gave us our first short coust
line on the Pacific. When it is con
sidered that the great sugar and cotton
interests of Arkansas, and tho great
whoat producing Slates west ot tho
Mississippi, tho vast mineral resources
ot the mining region, aud the lumber
regions on l'ugut Sound, which is now
shipping lurgeiy to Asia from its pro
duels, wore included in this purchase,
the wise and lurseoing policy that sug
gested and consummated il appears to
be one of tho most brilliant strokes ol
statesmanship in the career of the
country. Tho "Louisiana l'rovincuA
is tho wealth ol the country, yot
To completo tho Atlantic seaboard
and givo us slill futincr tousilino on
tho Cull', in 1810 the "Treaty of Wash
ington" resulted in the cession of west
and east Florida, a district comprising
du,zus pquaro milts, and costing the
United States nearly (0,500,000.
The boundary line ol Iho country re
mained from 1819 lo 1815 as it was
left by the Florida ccBsion, tho slrugglo
over ihu 4 'Jib parallel being ended in
I85C, and tho Sau Juan difficulty with
Ureal liriluin being settled in our favor
by the Gorman hmperorin 1872.
The liepublio ot Texas having
achieved independence in 183G, it was
recognized by our Government aa an
independent Jtopublic, and in 181!) il
wus admitted as a Male, this was an
annotation of 370,10 square miles of
territory, and was accomplished with
out the direct expenditure of a dollar.
Tho Gull line wasthen completed, and
a great cotton producing State, and
the wundorlully rich grating land of
the pampas ol tho northern and west
urn portion were added to our terri
tory. Tbo recent census shows that
ibis Slalo bus grown in population and
material wealth in Iho past decade in
a greater portion than any other, with
the possible exception of Kansas.
In the annexation of Texas, Mexico
insisted that tho boundary line should
bo the river Nueces. Tho Texas He
public, howover, maintained that in its
annexation to tho United Slates tho
western boundary should bo tho Jiio
Grande, and the United Slate main
tained that boundary. The Mexican
war resulted Irom this claim, and at
it close, by tho treaty ol 1848, Mexico
not only ceded tho territory in diaputo,
but all thut tract ot land west of tho
Hio Grunde, and ol a meridian from
it source to tho 421 parallel ol north
latitude, south ot that parallel, cast to
tho l'ucifio ocean and north ol tho
present boundary of tho United States,
excepting tho Mesilla Valley south of
the rivor Gila. This torritory is now
oovored by the States of California
and Nevada, tho territory of Utah,
and a portion of the territories ol
Arizona, Now Mexico, Colorado and
Wyoming, the richest gold and silver
boaring region in tho world.
The Mesilla Valley was in 1853
added to the country by what is known
as the Gadsden purchase. It looked
insignificant on tho map when com
pared with other and larger acquisi
tions, but as a mining region, it is
rapidly boing developed. Tombstone,
the nowest of the great mining towns,
is in this purchase. Ibo money con
sideration passing from the United
ntales lo Mexico lor tuoso cessions
The final acquisition to our territory
was Alaska, which was purchased
Irom lluaaia In I8C7 for 17,200,000. Il
contains 577,390 square miles, and is
ol the least valuoot all our accessions,
not having reached the importance of
a territorial government.
V) have irivon tins running skelcD
of the territorial growth ol tho conn
try, because il is in Itself an interest,
ing study, especially to the young, and
for tho further purpose of calling at
tention to the fact that every foot of
theso lands was acceded under Demo
cratic administrations, the Louisiana
Province, the greatest and most im
portant, being acquired under the ad
ministration of Jefferson, the Spanish
cession ol the Floridus whilo Monroe
w as President, tho Texas and Mexican
cessions under the administration ol
Polk, and the important Gadsden pur
chase in the timo of Pierce. Tho ain
glo exception, if it may bo called an
exception, is in tho case of tho Alaska
purchnse, which was consummated
whilo Andrew Johnson wa President,
although it wus tho pet scheme of
William II. Soward, then Secretary of
tho htalo. it will bo seen that to tho
Democratio party tho country is in
debted for its entire Pacilio coast and
Gulf line, for tho great agricultural and
mining regions west of tho Mississippi
river and north of the itlo Grande,
and more than all for tho grand Union
which makes it possihlofor us to serve
the world with our products by tho
way of two occuns and that great out
let, the Mississippi river.
THOUGHTS FOR THE
Header, do you ever puuso to think?
If not, you aro at luult, when there is
so much to think about. There aro
millions of ideas yet to bo born, mill
ions of years yot to live It may not
bo on this earih, but wo shall livo in
some sphere. Tho grave is tho lock
which must bo opened before wo touch
or enjoy tho treasures beyond its dark
keeping, before wo go lo the punish
ments or rewurds wo plan in this
world, and thero is much to think of
which concerns this life. The golden
crop cannot bo gurnered till after the
giain has been sown. The impression
cannot bo read till after tho typo is set
in order. And the errors show in the
proof. You cannot bo a man unless
you dceido to bo ono. People seldom
blunder on success as a blind pig lulls
into a well. Luck is nothing moro
than effort well directed. Stones do
not of themselves turn un as you pass
by to reveal tho weulth hidden under
them. Men do not often succeed h
eliunce. l his world was not made by
chance. It was mado. Meu aro made.
It takes yours to make them. In all
sorts of trials, all kinds of troubles
under many trying circumstances tho
lessons of lite aro learned. Think that
a poor man is a slave. Think what
oilier huve done, and that il is in your
power to do still belter it you will.
Think that you will somo day be culled
on to take an active pari in life's
battles. You will either lead or he led.
Il lies in you to decide which. Wrink
Iob crocp over the tuco and nevor go off.
Habits silently but surely creep into
your spirit, and you cannot get rid of
them. Think whether you will please
thoso who bid, or bid thoso you please
Think whether you will bo a fretful,
disagreeable, old man whom every ono
will wish dead, or a respected old
gonltoman whose grave will be watorod
with tears whoso kind words and
smile will bo missed whoso precepts
or example will bo loved and copied.
Il is easy to bo a poor man. All
you have to do is to work hard and
sever think. Work Lutd ui.J spend
foolishly at the card table and in non
sense. Marry in haste and repent at
Slido down bill, and walk back
drawing your sled after you. It you
aro poor, run in debt. Keep poor
a bIuvo to ovcry man. If you havo a
wife and aro in debt, keep a hired girl.
II in debt with nothing to do, keep
two servant-girl. If very poor and
in debt, keep two servant girls and a
dog. Keep up stylo. Fish torfools
halo tho hook with tho biggest ono and
you will catch them Buro. If you owe
a mun, chent him out of the debt. If
you ran borrow instead of earning, do
so. Keep borrowing. Pry into all
that concerns you not. Tell all you
know. Teach ovcry ono to dislike
you. Act out nature and bo a hog, or
think a littlo and bo a man. Life is a
show. You can havo a hard seut or a
cushioned ono. Tho first investment
for a ticket decides tho mutter.
Ho who does not think is a fool.
His lifo is hko midnight dreams
morn comos and thoy are gone Death
comes and I lie gamo i over. For
tuno does not louse men lo shako hor
hand. A good opportunity never
waits. If you aro not ready, somo
ono clso will bo. Tho wheel goes
round tho car moves on if you do
not occupy tho seat, some one clso will.
Thon, what will you do? Whose
brains will you use? Do you intend
lo woik all day lor juBt what will lust
you all night, or huvo you an idea for
tho future? Are you doing your host 1
It not, why not? Think of these
things. Look out lor bad examples.
Shun them. When you boo a man
fail, be assured thero was a reason,
Think and search it out. If ha sue.
ceods, learn his secret and follow it.
Friends are mado. isolations grow.
Friends wo moke lor ourselves. Kne
mies aro as necessary to aticeosi as
vinegar to pieklos. They aro tho
long oars, which in sturdy hands ehuol
tho boat, deep though it be laden, fur
out and clear over the foaming break
ers into a smooth sea beyond.
Do not be a hypocrite. Hotter be a
thief a robber. Play your hand
open. Never wear epeclacles to do
ceivo lofka. Never profess to do what
you do not. Do not bo afrnid ol what
others may say people will talk.
Fools will turn grindstones lor others
to sharpen scythes upon, and "fools
will talk of thut which doos not con
cern them, of what they cannot effect
ol that which is none of their busi
ness. Think for yourself. Advise
wilh your own heart. Do as best
pleases you. Sutisty ono man first.
Do not promiso over a thousand pups
out of ono litter. Ho may bo a mean
man who would not promiso a pup to
a friond, but be is a meanor man who
fromisos moro than ho can perform.
)o not take lour passengers In a wag.
on intonded for but two. Do not try
to please everybody and please none.
Few people care lor you. Fear is
stronger than lovo. But lew peoplo
will lovo you. Society think you
are an orango to bo squeezed for its
benefit. Think bow lew peoplo care
for you. Men seldom work except
lor pay. People aro generally friends
only whilo they can lap from your
saucer. They oat tho corn and throw
tho cob away.
"I would rather voto for a long-eared
donkey than lor you," said an inde
pendent voter to a Galveston candi
date. "O, como now I you ought not
to allow yourself to be so influenced
by family ties," responded tho candi
date Tho voter has been puzzling
bis head ever sinco to find out why
the crowd laughed.
King Alfonso has introduced Ameri
can custom into hi palace, lie now
frighten hi baby to sleep by showing
it Chester A. Arthur' picture.
A IJOX AND LIONESS ESCAPE
AND CAUSE THE WILDEST
From tba Little Hook (Ark.) Uatetie.
Last night Argcnta witnessed by
the flaring torches of tho ennvassmen,
tho most thrilling scene known to tho
history of the State. Y'eslorday Coop
er & Jackson' circu.t and menagerie
exhibited in Argenta, and last night
just after tho opening of tho perlorm
ance, tbo violent wind and ruin storm
catno up. In a moment the canvas
was blown down. A cago containing
a largo African lion and lionoss was
overturned by tho force ol tho wind
A torch, ttlanted near tho cago was
thrust botweu tho bars into tho cage.
This frightonod tho animals, and with
terrible roar thoy shattered the cage.
Throwing have liure and there, they
bounded over tbo heads of tho excited
peoplo and ran away among tho sand
gulches and tall weeds. An indescrib
able confusion followed. Children
galhorcd around their parents and
shrieked, women flow hither and thith
er, and Blrong men, in a wilderness of
night rarely witnessed, yelled and all
scattered. Fora moment no one know
whoro to turn, but quivering and Iright
oncd beyond tho exercise of tho pros
enco of mind, all whirled in an entan
glement of human chaos. Tho lions
did not turn upon tho crowd, but, in
astonishment ut such freedom, sprang
away and disappeared, Tho excited
peoplo Bought their homes und the
circus men, hall in fear and half in
anxiety, bearing torches went around
peeping here and there, seurching for
tho king and queen of beasts. Shortly
after tho canvas had been taken down,
Mr Goorgo llodli-li, clerk of tho Adams
House, and Mr. Hilly Winn, contor
lionist of the circus, left tho grounds,
en routo for Judge llama's hotel.
Groping thoir way through the tall,
wet weeds, slopping and shuddering
at every thought ol meeting tho lions,
thoy proceeded. Passing a saloon
dark object on tho sidewalk attracted
the attention ol Mr. llodfish. "Hilly,"
ho exclaimed, "hero aro tho lions.
"Aro you ttiro J" "Yes, horo they are,"
ho continued, littlo knowing that ho
spoke with such terrible truth. Anoth
er step and ho would have been upon
the lion, iiul thut step was not luken.
With a roar thut jarred tho drops of
water trom tho tall weeds, Iho lion
sprung up, and, followed by Iho lioness,
turned upon the two men. llodfish
sprung back. Tho lions stood, wilh
glaring eyes, watching them, lushing
tho ground with their tails. Tho cir
cusman seized a chair and held it in
front of him. Hodlish stepped buck,
remarking with coolness that ho would
open tho door of tho saloon. This ho
tailed. Tho place was crowded with
revelers, who upon the appearance ot
the lions had closed tho doors, and in
breathless fright, awaited a seemingly
"Open tho door," cried Hodfish, as
ho beat against tbo building.
"Let us in." No answer Bavo ibo
loud breathing and uneasy movements
of the inmates.
"Hilly," suid Hodfish, turning to his
companion, "como oo."
"Go on awav," said 'Hilly', who all
this time stooil holding out tho chair
and looking tho lions steadfastly in
the eyes. "It won't do to leave If
I make a movo thoy will jump on mo
Tho lions crouched ready lor a 'firing
and lashed tho ground with their tails.
Hilly, said Hodhsb, "I II go around
and open the side door, then we ran
both muko a dash, lie wont to tho
back door and implored entrance.
"Tho lions aro nut hero," he said,
"open the door, we want to come in."
homo one unbarred tho door. Just
thon tho lions made a spring at 'Hilly'.
tlo throw lip tho chair, wheeled, and,
in a manner he cannot describe, reach
ed tho side doorjust as Hodfish onlurod.
Uomuimng in the saloon for a tew mo
ments, they came out and joined in tho
attempt to capluro tho beasts. The
cago bad bcon patched up, and a sight
of it and tho torches had caused the
lions to soring. The animals were
finally found crouched neur a fence
Tho cage door was opened und tho moo
stationed around with torches. Tho
lion walked peacefully into tho rage,
but tho lioness becamo excited and run
awuy. Sho went around and entered
u lot surrounded by a picket fence
f ho cugo was backed up against the
pickets, near where tho animal was
crouched. Winn and Hodfish went up
and began tearing away tho pickets,
when, w ith a roar und a spring, the lion
ess, whoso injuries sualuincd in leap
ing around seemed to have partially
disabled her, ran toward the men with
torches. The torch men threw down
their lights and fled. About half un-
bour afterwards the lionoss was cap-
lured. The excitement will never bo
lorgotlon in Argenta.
Wheu pooplo read about or ride
upon extraordinary fast trains, says
Iho Hallway Ajf, they seldom think ot
tho severe slruin and excitement to
which tbo brave men who run tho en
gine are ubcclcd. To sit in a passen
ger coach and glide over a smooth
truck ia a vory different thing trom
standing on the shaking footboard wilh
hand on the lover, straining eyes and
ears to detect a possible danger, every
nerve sense ana every thought center
ed on tho safe accomplishment of the
journey upon which so many live do-
pond. W hat such a labor means is
shown, to some degroc,.ina recont dis
poteh.announcing thcdeath.at tho early
ago of thirty, of Wm. Philips, the on
gincor who run tht celebrated Jarretl
& Palmer train Irom Jersey City to
Pittsburgh, a distanco of 4.13 miles,
without a slop. Tbo dispatches says :
Mr. Philips bus boon sick lor nearly
a year past, bis Illness dating really
from the time he undertook the task
of running theJarrettoV Palmor train.
llo accomplished the leat in less than
schedulo timo, but the atrain on bis
system was so torero that ho never
recovered from it. llo continued on
duty, and waa called upon invariably
when trusty man waa required, but bis
health became more precarious, and ho
was finally compelled to relinquish his
"Mamma," said Henry Thomas, a
bright little fellow ovor in Algiers;
'Mamma, havo my toe got eye 7'
'No, my darling: why do you ask
a foolish question ""llocause my fool'
"Pad, if II is so Injurious to smoke,
hy don't chimney gctsiek and die?"
The old gentleman morely replied that
ho wished he,had a trunk-strap handy.
Grade's first experienco in eating a
peach: "Pro eaten it, cloth and all,
mamma; now, what shall I do with
th bone ?"
TERMS-S2 per annum to Advance,
SERIES - VOL. 21, NO. 45.
Probably beo culture ha mutlo us
rapid march of improvement during
Ihu past five year as any branch ol
agricultural pursuits. During tho pros
eiit season the sumo cure and expense
lias been employed In selecting anil
importing bees from llo ly, the Island
of Cyprus ami the Holy Land, us has
been employed in the perfection ol our
various breed ol hoi sea und entile.
Although we tlo not have tho beo pus
turugu iu New Knglitiid that Is liiund
in the basswnod and wild flowers of
tho West, still many hoc are kept
boro with profit, even In tbo old box
hive How much more, then, might
bo expected wilh the new appliances
of frame hives, comb foundation, tho
prizo section box, tho extractor and
smoker. Wilh the aid of a littlo smoko
an expert will opon tho hive and ro
movo the brood, hoe or honey, show
you his choice queens, and discourse
on their hue point with a much am
racy as tho best borso trainors or herd
men. On holding up a framo of brood
ho may say: "iou sco this queen is
laying, for hero aro egg less than
iwonty-tour hours old. hco what a
prolific queen sho Is; how she packs
in tho eggs ; docs not miss a coll," or,
"I do not liko this quoen ; eho lay too
many drono eggs ; I will kill her and
iiut in another." Yon ask, "how can
you prove that workors only livo
thirty or lorly duy ol labor, but live
all winter without Iubor?" He will
say, "II I romovo tho qncon from tho
black colony and replace her with an
Italian queen, who begin lo lay im
mediately, in twenty-one days her eggs
will butch, Iho black bee will con
tinue to dio till they are replaced wilh
the Italians, and we nolo the duy when
tho last fly dieB." "Do all bees sting?"
"No, tho drones aro ns harmless as
flies. Queens will not sting you, hut
will bitu and will sting a rival to death
in livo minutes after being hatched.
Tho workers, which aro tho only ones
to bo feared at all, can usually be sub
dued by blowing smoke mado from
punk among them." Worcester Spy.
ACCOUNT KEPT SOME
WHERE. It is tainted ol tho clehroted Dr.
Jowett that in tho course of his travels
he onco entered a country tavern and
snt down in the bar room to warm
his fingers. His keenly. roving eve
booh discovered prominent, over rows
ol bottles with highly colored contents,
in largo letters, tho inscription, "No
credit given hero." Turning to the
landlord (to whom ho was personally
unknown) ho said :
'Ah, I see you bring people souaro
up to tho mailt I"
l os. Bald tho landlord, "it s no use
to trust rum customers now a-doys.
) e must get it as wo go along, or
never got it."
Jowett warmed bis fingers awhilo
and turning to the Irndlord, suid :
'1 think I could add a line or two
to your inscription that would make it
"What would you add?" inquired
"Givo mo a pen and a pioce of paper
and I will show yon."
'Walk into tho bar: Ibouri a pen
and ink help yourself."
1 ho doctor walked into the bar, and
taking up the pen, wroto os follows :
"No eredlt given bore,
And yet I've eanaa to Tear
That there'e a day-book kept (ft beaveo,
Where .barge ia Bade and eredit given."
Laying down tho pen and leaving
tho linos, he walked to the lire, and
again snt down, expecting an explo
sion. Tho landlord went behind the
bar and read what ho had written. A
pauso of somo moment ensued, when
tho doctor glancing around, wus, to
his great pleasure, and somewhat to
bis surprise from the intirantion of
lumpness about tho eye ol the land
lordconvinced that ho had driven a
nail in a sure place. "A word fitly
spoken, how good it is."
Saving His Mastku's Money. Tho
greater part ot tho stories which re
iato to tiie gain and losses ol game
ster are tragio rather than comic
Ono which belongs to tho latter rnto
gory is reported Irom Monaco. A
certuin German baron belonging to
ono of tho best families of Mecklen
burg, win ono day so lucky ns to gain
300,000f. Ho ielt tho tables, hastened
to his hotel, and at onco locked up the
enormous sum in a cash box. Oo his
awakening tho next morning, what
was his dismuy to lintl that it had all
disappeared as well. at hi old valel
Jean, who on hundred occasions had
given proof of his fidelity and affection
lor his master. As it was, iho baron
found himself short of money, and
telegraphed to hie father for assistance,
acquainting him at tho sumo timo of
his adventure. Ibis was tho answer
ho received : "Don't disturb yourself.
Joan is hero with all tho money
wbich you think you havo lost. He
feared your louis would go tho way
they had come, and, littlo liking the
anticipation, he has come hero to keep
the treasure safe You como loo."
Formation or Snow. Snow is
formed from vapor, and vapor is form
cd by heat; and it has boon calculated
that tho heat expended in forming a
singlo pound of vapor would melt no
less than nroponnds ot cast iron. jNor
is ibis all. Equally great if not
greater is tho force necessary to trans
form tho vapor In snow, rrolessor
Tyndall remarks that :
'1 have seen the wild siono ava
lanchet of the Alps, which smoke and
thunder down the declivities with a
vohemonco almost suflloicnt to stun the
observer. I httro also seen snow flakes
descending so softly as not to hurl tho
Iragile spangle of which they are
composed ; yot lo produce, Irom aque
ous vapor, a quantity which a child
could curry of that tender material,
demands an exertion ol energy compo-
lent to calhcr un the shattered block
of tho largest atono avalanche I bavo
over scon, and pitch them to twico
the height from which they loll."
Littlo Paul, clambering on hisfathor'a
knee "Pa, whall humbug?" Fatbor
"Why, what on earth do you want
lo know that lor?" Paul "I hoard
you say ii to ma a minute ago."
Fathor "Yes, my son. Humbug Is
when your m protends h loves me,
and thoro aro no button on the nock
A lady say that a woman in choos
ing a lover, consitlcr a good deal moro
bow the man will be rcgardotl by
other women, than whether sho loves
him herself, Home women may ; but
the men they smilo upon will be re
garded by othor women aa jolly green
lo be taken in by them.
When a Cincinnati man speaks ol
tho productions of his pon, you never
know whotbor ha U a literary fuller or
a bog raiser. .
BY U. h, MoQUOWN.
Rholvid, That wt oonalder It tba duty of lb
parent! to tbi ablldrea to viait Ibe patlie Mbooli,
aud tbui eaoourag Uaobar led buptl is their
arduoua dulieei and that wt ball etwildar It a
groa neglcot of duly oo Ibe put of Ibe parent
who fell to viilt their lobool at Uat oooa during
the tebool torn.
Th tiboro reiolutioa wat adopted at awly
Tory Kdittatlonal meet ing bold In tit eonatf
during tb tour of public itaintttoni.
SPECIAL DIRECTIONS AND
In this column, four weeks no. waa
inserted a "Course of' Study," which
wo hoiio has found a pluco in tho
report book of every teacher, and is bo
ing generally introduced We are
now giving " Special Direction and
Suggestions,'' to uecompuuv iho out
lino of study, which wo hope will bo
preserved hy teachers. For want of
space, wo can only givo suggestions
lor one grade each wvuk. This weok
wo givo you diroolions for
rot UTll READER GRADE.
SprWngin every reading exer
cise seek to develop thought and uu
intelligent comprehension ol the selec
tion. Learn something of the promi
nent authors. Givo vocal exercises at
least once u week, lo tlevelop compitss
of voice, pitch, otc. Teach Iho system
of voice training found in the first part
ot tho reatleis.
Reading Drill in spelling. He
quiro written exercises every day.
Givo review exercises onco a week on
word previously studied, spelling or
ally ; combine wilh other grade In
in this exercise. Study the derivation
and construction of words, giving the
root, prefixes and suffixes, the mean
ing of each part, and of the whole
word. Teach a low prominent rule
of spelling. Assign a part of each spell
ing lesson for definitions. Kach pupil
should bavo a small dictionary.
Arithmetic Anange o that each
subject in mental arithmetic shall pre
cede tho same in written arithmetic.
In taking up any subject dovelop prin.
ciplcH first, teach pupils to construct
their own rules, and give tho reasons
for each step in an operation. Have pu
pils furnish original examples foer ouch
rulo a principle, liequire system and
neatness in the arrangement of all the
work put upon tho blackboaid or sluto,
ho that each Btep of the process will
bo iudicaled. Orderly .methodical habit
are valuable in any business. Give
miscellaneous examples covering prin
ciplcs learned, to bo performed rapidly
on blackboard or slate In rapid work,
pupil should learn to perform mentally
as much ot tho example a possible.
Gainmar Written statements of
arithmetical operations, descriptions
of events in history or of the geogra
phy of a country will furnish many
written exercises, which should be
carefully exumined and criticised us to
construction of sentences, use of copi
tuls and punctuation marks. Lot some
of tho written exercises bo exorcised in
the class by pupils, lieqtiiro letter
writing and easy composition. Dia
grams present lo Iho eye the essential
parts of a sentence and tbo relation of
words lo oach other.
GengraihyX'so maps when learn
ing tho locution ot cities, river, coun
tries, etc. If there are no mops in the
s' hool, draw them on the blackboard
or wall, or let tho teacher purcbaso a
set for her own use Let much of the
doscriplivo part of geography bo read
and dniussed. Teach pupils how to
muko mountains, coast lines, rivers, eto.,
and then require them to draw maps
on paper and blackboards.
The following circular has boon
mailed to teachers in company with
tho program mo of exercises for the ap
proaching InBtituto :
ARE YOU COUINO ?
Teachers, Directors and Friends of Edu
cation in Clearfield county :
Arcyou coming to enjoy tho benefits
and plensuresof the Annual Session of
tbo Teachers' Institute, which con
venoB in Clearfield, Doc 20, 1880 ?
Tho programme, which this circular
accompanies, is intended to bear evi
dence of tbo complete arrangements
wo have made for the instruction and
entertainment of thoso who may at
tend. Wo are happy to Btate that, in
our opinion, tho talent employed, the
questions submitted for consideration,
and the general arrangements for the
coming session are vastly superior to
those of any preceding year. To do
fray the heavy expense of this moot
ing it will rcquiro more than four hun
dred dollars. Tbi sum is expended
tor the Binglo purposo of improving
our tcacbor in tho scionco and art of
teaching. Do you wonder iben that
wo feel solicitous in regard to it suc
cess. The At t ot Assembly providing for
Teachers' Institutes, makes it obliga
tory upon Superintendent to hold
them annually. It is not, thorefore, a
voluntary measure, but is as perma
nent as the annual school term itself,
Theso annual meetings have gradually
grown in public favor and gained a
plucein tho confidence of teachers and
peoplo, until now they aro recognized
us the most potent educational agencies.
Nevor in tho history of tho County
has there boon more need of a full at
tendance at the County lnstituto than
this yoar. A majority of tho teacher
in charge of tho school aro youngaud
inoxperenccd ; they need all the in
struction and help which tbi meeting
promises to givo.in order that they may
bo strengthened in the duties they
havo undertaken to perlorm. Others
who possess bighor attainments, and
havo had moro experience, aro alway
present from force of professional
More elaborate arrangement have
been mado for the approaching session
than wero ever mado lor a County In
stitute hi lore; many now and valuable
features will bo introduced to make it
practical and efficient., and wo hope
there i not ono teacher in tbo County
who will not attend from first to the last
session. Fidelity to the cauao in which
we labor, demand that we be not
sluggish, but active and earnest,
M. L. McQtiowN,
Clearfield, Pa. Nov. 18, 1880.
The teachers of Brady township
mot in tho school bouio at Luther,
burg, on Saturday afternoon, Nov. (ith,
and organized their District lnstituto,
tho first meeting of which will be held
at Coal Hill school houBO, on Saturday,
Nov. 27th. A full programmo ha
been arranged, and addressos will be
delivered In tho evening by Ilov. J.
Iteams, J. W. Corp, and other Inter
ested in education. The following
porson were elected officer : K. K.
Jimeson, President; J, I. Hrockbank,
Vice President, and Miss Suo llishel,
Thanksgiving i tho first holiday
We are mailing tho programme lor
tho next County Institute to teacher
and Directors tbi week.
JcfTernon county ha furnished
Franklin school, in Hell township, with
An educational meeting will ba held
In Osceola borough in a couplo of
Piko township school teacher will
be grantedtime to attend tho County
lnstituto hy tho School Hoard,
W. K. Kratser ha uocoeded J. W.
Kldred as teacher of Central Point
school, iu Covington township.
A Hor groat efforts, we believe all
the schools have been suppliod with
compelont teachers and are now in