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[T LOST TO SPAIN. 3
RICH COLONIES WHICH SHE HAS
DRIVEN TO FREEDOM.
One by One the Arrogant Dons Have Been
Stripped of Valuable Possessions Which
, a Little Tact and <>ood Government
Would Have Retained. •
The general rebellion of Spain's
American colonies occurred in the ear
ly years of the present century. Not
only were Spain's affairs in a desperate
condition abroad, but also at home dire
dissension prevailed. In the autumn
of 1819 a considerable army had been
brought together at Cadiz for the sub
jugation of their revolted possessions
In America. But the officers and troops
refused to embark, and a series of
internal disruptions followed.
The revolt in Spain's Argentine colo
! nies in South America broke out in
1810. In that year Chile and Para
guay successfully rebelled. The war
for Chile's independence lasted eight
years. The Argentine Republic estab
lished its independence in 1816. Ven
ezuela, Ecuador and New Granada, or
Colombia, were lost by revolt in 1819.
The revolt in these States was led by
Simon Bolivar, named El Libertador
for having rescued South America from
the Spanish yoke. Bolivar also led the
Insurgents in Bolivia and Peru, the lat
ter State being the last of Spain's pos
sessions on the American continent to
establish its independence. This was
The Spanish conquered Peru early in
the sixteenth century. Peruvian silver
was freely poured into Spanish coffers,
and was drained out again to meet the
expenses of the wars which the Spanish
home government maintained. At the
outbreak of the war of independence in
South America, the Spanish Govern
ment had already declined greatly in
internal strength. Spain was distract
ed with the dissensions of a regency,
and was racked by civil war. HoVev
er, in 1820 the Spanish Viceroy had an
army of 23,000 men in Peru, and all
the large towns were completely in the
hands of the Spanish officials.
Brazil belonged to Spain ih 1573. In
that year it was wrested from the Por
tugese, who had discovered it at an
earlier'date. During Spain's troubles
with the-Netherlands, the Dutch cap
tured Brazil, and from the Dutch the
State gained its independence.
As to the States of Guiana, their ti«
ties were much in dispute for many
years. Spain owned what is now Brit
ish Guiana in 1580, and lost the prov
ince in 1602 to the Dutch, from whom
it went to the English.
Mexico was the richest and most pop
ulous of all the Spanish-American col
onies. Frequent insurrections occurr
ed here during the Napoleonic wars in
Europe. Pending the war for Mexican
independence the most revolting atroc
ities were perpetrated on both sides.
The Spaniards conducted hostilities
with the most wanton cruelty. The
war was one of extermination, the in
surgents being slaughtered like brutes.
In 1824 the independence of Mexico
was recognized by every country ex
Spain relinquished Florida to the
United States by treaty and purchase in
The Bahamas, which were Colum
bus's earliest discovery, were depopu
lated by the Spanish and were never
again settled by them. The English
occupied them in 1629. After the wa ta
with Spain and France the British se
cured the Bahamas by the treaty of
Jamaica, which was discovered by
Columbus on his second voyage, in
1494, was taken possession of by the
Spaniards in 1509. The inhumanity of
the conquerors was so great that fifty
years after the Spauish invasion the
native population is said to have en
tirely disappeared. Oliver Cromwell
sent out a British expedition in 1655
which captured the Island, and in 1670
it was formally ceded to England by
the treaty of Madrid.
Haiti's early history corresponds
with that of Jamaica. Within little
more than an age after 1492 the abo
rigines had been swept away by the re
morseless cruelties of the Spaniards.
The eastern part of the island finally
wrested itself from the Spanish in 1865
and established Santo Domingo.
When Magellan, in 1519, circumnavi
gated the world for the first time, he
claimed all the islands of the East In
dies for Spain. The Philippines alone
to-day remain under Spanish domina
tion. The other islands of this group
fell to the French, English and Dutch
during the wars waged by Spain with
these countries from the time of Phil
ip 11, to the close of the Napoleonic
wars in 1815.
Loaded Down With \nniei,
Rutherford County, North Carolina,
is a place of queer names. The chil
dren in one family are going through
this vale of tears as follows: Zeno,
Zula, Zezulon, Zinnle, Zolen, Zaco, Za
luski, Zenix, Zalf, Zeolly. Still another
family boasts these names: Kansas
Love, Qullina Quiltina Quinn, Eulalia
Valtsia, Flabanico, Anifesto. Another
thus disfigured their children: Linsco,
Language Before Knowledge.
Berlin University, owing to the large
number of foreign students frequent
ing It, has established an instructor
ship in elementary German to enable
them to learn k he language in which
the lectures are delivered.
Germany Hu No Servant Problem.
Empress Augusta Victoria of Ger
many found 144 German servant girls
to whom phe could give the golden
servants' cross for having lived forty
years with one family. Only one was
found in Berlin.
CIVIL WAB EXTBAS.
THERE WERE FEW FAKE BULLETINS
IN THE DAVS OF '6l.
How the Nem of the Firing on Fort. Sum
ter Waa Spread iu a I.ivoly Western Town
—The Mysterious Horseman Who Carried
"I remember the news of the begin
ning of the civil war as it came to our
town," said a man who is not yet a vet
eran. "I was about 16 years old. I
was returning home in the afternoon.
I saw coming toward me a horse rid
den, as I recall it, madly by a man.
As they came nearer I heard the man
shouting. The horse was blowing like
a locomotive. I noticed that the man
rode bareback. Every time he yelled
he plunged his heels into the sides of
the horse. I do not remembor tbe ex
act words of the rider, but they were'
about 'war beginning.' As he rode
people in the street who saw him stop
ped, listened, and asked one another
about it, many windows along the way
were hoisted, and as I proceeded home
ward the women who knew me called
from the lookouts and asked me what
'that man' said about the war.
"When I reached home I found my
mother's parlor a scene of confusion.
The neighbors had called into tell her
what they knew and to ask what she
knew about the war. The negroes
about our house were frightened. One
of them tool; refuge in the cellar and
came out only after she had been
threatened. Her fear was the 'abo
llshiners.' The word 'Yankee* aa an
approbious epithet had not at that time
come into use.
"There were two newspapers in the
town and each one got out what was
called an 'extra.' It was not much like
the extra of this generation. The news
of the firing on Sumter consisted of
less than 200 words, was printed on a
small slip of white newspaper and was
set in the same width as the columns
of the papers which issued them. There
was no advertisement or other news on
the slips. These extras sold for 25
cents a piece. From that time until
the close of the war that was the sort
of 'extra' that was issued by the papers
in the town where I lived.
"A long time afterward 1 heard talk
about the man who rode the horse and
who spread the news. Me was tbe son
of the town miller. I never heard
where he got his information, but as
soon as he heard it he mounted the
horse that had been hitched to the rack
in front of the mill and carried the
news of his own accord. There were
four boys in that miller's family. They
enlisted early for the Confederate
cause. Not one of them returned. The
one who spread the news was killed
somewhere in the 'Wilderness;' at
least, he was known togo into one of
the engagements of that series of stub
born fights and never came out. Ilia
body was never identified.
"I recall that at the time of the fire
on Sumter, many of our people were
still 'on the fence,' as we said. The
Lincoln electors had received few votes
in the town. It was a Breckinridge
section. I remember that the tendency
was in favor of the preservation of the
Union, but the people were afraid of
Lincoln. At that time they believed
he had been elected for no other pur
pose than that of 'freeing the niggers
and stealing the horses.' And so it
happened that negroes and horses were
locked up often at night, together, not
in the same room, of course, but often
iu adjoining rooms in the outhouses. I
have often thought that, if the people
had understood Lincoln in the begin
ning of the war as they came to know
him later, many a man who went South
would have fought for the Union. And
if I am correct in that, would the war
have lasted as long as it did?
"I remember a gathering at the
house of my father one evening in
which the military genius of Gen.
Scott was discussed. Some present had
been with Scott in Mexico. It was the
consensus of that gathering, and this
was before the Bull Run light, that
Napoleon came first and Winfleld Scott
second. What an impression that
made on my mind. 1 remember hear
ing one of the Scott enthusiasts say
that Scott would end the war in one
"I shall never forget the news of the
first Bull Hun fight. My people had
arranged to leave the town on a short
vacation, but this news kept them at
home. The second day's news gave
more particulars. It told of the rout
ing of the Union Army. And then I
saw something in human nature which
I had never seen before, of which I
knew nothing. I saw the fence cleared,
to take up the old metaphor. And ev
ery man and family came off to join
the Southern cause. I recall that Scolt
was called a granny, and very soon af
ter his name was forgotten. The first
Bull Run made recruits for the South.
Several regiments enlisted in my town
and county. Success of the South in
the first engagement of any conse
quence carried with it the doubters.
And in nearly every instance of this
life which I have observed, I have
found that, as soon as success is estab
lished, those who shook their heads be
came followers, and yet you and I have
known some successes to turn out fail
ures, paradoxical as that may sound."
Now For Aluminum Type.
Aluminum type for printing purposes
is one of the latest novelties patented.
Type manufactured of the new metal
is said to have many advantages over
the old style of lead type. Sanitary
reasons are advanced for its use, as the
lead dust, which has often been found
to endanger the health of compositors,
la done away with. A company has
been formed at Frankfort-on-the-Main
to further the invention.
jWHAT ARMY OFFICERS DO.
They Are Kept an Busy an Any Man
in Private l.lfe.
Officers of the United States army do
not And their time hanging heavily on
their hands even In the piping times of
peace. Some are assigned to the big
Government arsenals, where their life
is as busy as that of any man connect
ed with a private factory. The officers
who have charge of the maintenance of
the great and expensive post fortifica
tions have responsibilities which do
not give them much leisure. Guns,
carriages, emplacements, powder mag
azines, electric and steam plants and
scores of lesser carc-3 demand a daily
routine of duty which must bo follow
The officers in charge of ordnance
find enough work in the line of testing,
proving and recording to keep them at
it day after day as steadily as If they
were working for a private business
The Engineer Corps is in demand al
ways. There are dozens of dredging
operations to be carried on along the
shores of the country from Maine to
Oregon, which must be clone under the
supervision of an engineer officer. All
the planning and building of fortifica
tions, the mounting of guns, the de
signing of gun carriages, the mainte
nance of channels in all the harbors of
the United States; supervision and ex
amination of bridges over all navigable
waterways; care, maintenance and
erection of lighthouses, come into their
Here are some things that an officer
of the United States Army has to know
if he expects to be ready for any call:
Algebra, geometry, trigonometry, as
tronomy, metallurgy, mechanics, pho
tography, electricity, optics, ballistics,
civil and military engineering, c hemis
try, submarine engineering, and, of
course, he must be well up in the ge
ography of his own country as well as
in that of all other places where it is
at all possible that he will be sent. If
he is detailed to lay or command sub
marine mines he must know enough
about the action of tides and waves to
understand just how the mines must be
laid and to guard'against any accident
to them. If lie is to take the Held
where the country Is difficult, and
large bodies of troops have to be moved
quickly, he must be able to build bridg
es and' perhaps to make roads. A
knowledge of surveying is almost in
He may be assigned to report on the
best powder to use. In that case a
knowledge of chemistry and an inti
mate acquaintance with explosives will
be demanded of him. Hardly any offi
cer who expects to be detailed for any
service except the dullest routine duty
can afford to be without a knowledge
of photography. It is used in almost
all departments of the army now. So
a man who wishes to excel in the ar
my can find plenty of work for him
Don't Tobai.T . I ifr Away.
To quit tobai co enMly rind forever. t>e nine
iietic. full of iife, nerve Hint vigor, tulte No-To
Hac. the wonder-worker, that makes weak met
•trong. All druggists, 50c or sl. Cureguarun
leed Hoolilet and sample free. AiUlrc*:
Sterling lietnedy Co . f'liieapo or New York
Are Yoo &>'S
• E 1"' * i?
Just remember that all your *
• strength must como from your*J
' food. Did you over think of ♦
! that ? 1
! Perhaps your muscles need *
' mora strength, or your nerves; ♦
or perhaps your stomach is ♦
■ I weak and cannot digest what |
' you eat. ♦
'■ If you need mora strength ♦
I thon take j
i EMULSION ]
| of Cod-Liver Oil with Hypo- t
! I phosphites. The oil is the most ♦
; easily changed of all foods into ♦
; | strength ; and the hypophos- t
f> phites are the best t
tonics for the nerves. ;
SCOTT'S EMUL- i
BION is the easiest J
and quiokest euro for •
weak throats, foj: |
coughs of every kind, *
and for all cases of do- *
bilitv, weak nervoa, ♦
and loss of fle3h, ♦
;; 50c. «nd Ji.oo; a'.t druggists. J
; SCOTT & BOWNH. Chemists, New York. }
25c 50c DRUGGISTS m
..r Stirrer n.rnrdn. Prtoe. tn.oo. Send for fr« K„. «« Surr-r. Prk,-. wlib curt»ln«. 1«M, nn.
An flood a# sells Ux 3-o. Cataloguo if all our styles, shade, aprou and fender*, SCO. As goedasacilt forfrjo.
ELKHART <'AEBL*GE AN:» lIABNESS UFO. CO. W. B. PUATT, Bc»>. KLKHXBT, Dm.
What does A stand for ? WTien
soma friend suggests that your
blood heeds A sarsaparilla treat
ment, remember that A stands for
AVER'S. The first letter in the
alphabet stands for tho first of
sarsaparillas ; first in origin, first
in record, first in the favor of tho
family. For nearly half a century
has been curing all forms of blood
diseases —scrofula, eczema, tetter,
rheumatism, erysipelas, blood poi
soning, etc. There's a book about
theso cures —" Ayer's Curebook, a
story of euros told by the cured,"
which ia sent free on request, by
Dr. J. C. Aver, Lowell, Mass. The
book will interest you if you are
sick or weak, because it tells not
what it is claimed the remedy will
do, but what your neighbors and
fellows testify that it has done.
Will it cure you ? It has cured
thousands like you. Why not you ?
Mount Vernon's Onard.
Edward Parker, the little old color
ed man who occupies the sentry-box at
the tomb of Washington at Mount Ver
non, lives in Washington. That is. his
family live here, and he comes over by
special permit of the organization
which has control of the old home of
the first President of the United States.
For years the tomb of Washington
has been constantly before this old
colored man's vision. He has never
missed a day from that dingy sentry
box since Mount Vernon passed into
the charge of the ladies, and before
that, dating from 1841, he had lived
on the place. He was a slave of John
Washington, and 1s the last of the
old servants now living.
Every other Saturday Parker comes
over to Washington, always carrying
with him an old-fashioned carpet-bag,
so common in the days of reconstruc
tion. The following Monday morning
he may always be seen a half-hour at
least before the first train starts for
Mount Vernon, waiting around the cor
ner of Pennsyl vania-ave. and Thir
teenth-.«t. Ho hits never missed the
first train since the electric cars began
running to Mount Vernon. Before
that the first boat to Mount Vernon,
on alternating Monday mornings, al
ways found him a passenger.
Parker is, indeed, a character. He
assisted in burying the last person
consigned to the vault in Washington's
tomb. After that the key to the vault
was thrown into the Potomac. This
was in the early fifties.
Something Like a Search.
A Welshman who was In London
when extensive sewering operations
were in progress lost his watch. He
reported the matter to Scotland Yard,
and the officials said they would leave
no stone unturned to find the missing
timekeeper. Shortly afterward Taffy
again visited the metropolis and saw
street after street turned up. He was
told that in all thirty-six miles of road
were in the same condition. He rushed
down to Scotland Yard and exclaimed
to the wondering inspector:
"I didn't think I was giving you all
that trouble. If you don't find the
watch by Sunday, I wouldn't break up
any more streets."
Stone Boot Soles.
An inventor bas hit upon a method
of putting stone soles on boots and
shoes. He mixes a waterproof glue
with a suitable quantity of clean
quartz sand and spreads It over the
leather sole used as a foundation.
These quartz soles are said to be very
flexible and practically indestructible.
Better Than Cats.
A savant has discovered how to slay
mice and rat 3 by means of a bacillus,
which he has named after himself, and
which is supposed in Le far more fatal
than the cat..
Something to know!
Our very large line of Latest patterns of Wall Paper
vv ith ceilings arid border to match. All full measure
ments and all whife'tpcks. designs as low
as $c per roll.
with roiler fixtures, fringed and plainV. Some as low
as ioc; better, 2fc, 50c, \
Elegant Carpets \
rainging in prices 20c., 25c., j;c„4sc., and 68c. \
| Antique Bedroom Suits \
Full suits SIB.OO. Woven wire springs, $1.75.
Soft top mattresses, good ticks, $2.50.
Feather pillows, sl.7s per pair.
j GOOD CANE SEAT CHAIRS for parlor use 3.75 set. Eockers to
match, 1.25. Large size No. 8 cook stove, $20.00; red cross
ranges s2l. Tin wash boilers with covers, 49c. Tin pails
14qt, 14c; 10qt, 10c; Bqt, 8c; 2qt covered, sc.
Onr Declaration of War
Has been in effect for a number of
years and our
Bombardment of H gh Prices
Has created havoc of late in the sale of
MOWING MACHINES, DRILLS, HARROWS,
PLOWS, LUMBER WAGONS, BUGGIES,
and ROAD WAGONS
all at the lowest cash price.
PHOSPHATE, ThiJty tons of different grades will be
sold at a low figure.
W. E. MILLER, Sullivan County, Pa.
y [ Comprising Correct, Stylish, Comfortable Shoes for every mem
§. ber of the family.
We are now ready to show you as fine a line of footwear as was
ever shown in town before.
We are constantly adding to our stock a higher and better grade
of shoes and at prices decidedly less than others.
That the public appreciates our efforts in this direction is attest
ed by our daily increasing sales of high-class footwear.
You are cordially invited to call and examine our stock and we
are positive that the styles and quality, combined with our usual
low prices, will please you.
Shoes for Ladies
Our showing of Ladies' Shoes for spring wear will be more fully
appreciated by those who desire Stylish, Comfortable Shoes, with
out paying extravagant prices for them, and we trust to increase
business to make up for reducedjprofits,
A stylish, up to date, tan, cloth ttop, lace shoe, sold eveiywhere
for $1.75, our price $1.25. The %tme redaced prices prevail on
our $1.75, 2.00, 2.50 and 3.00 linfs. We guarantee a saving of
from 25 to 75 cents on each pair of shoes.
Our line of Clothing, Gents' FdKiehing Goods, Ladies' Capes,
Skirts, Corsets and Shirtwaists flcomplete. Come and «ee for
I -_.L The Reftble Dealer in Clothing
JaCOP P6r Boots aft Shoes. _