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GOVJARNOWS DIESSAGI3. 1 032 00, as the enema of the revenues accruing our public works, and the consequent increase of I This policy, so just towards the pub.
the y int eres t
i , , j
cities bu si ness
c,, d iii
manufacturing uula,4, I
Ti the Senate and House if Represealalive,,,f , : . ,, it Ili,: th u e bllc "r debt, , oa
he expenses payine onl!tloref o lie while it may, to a moderate extent,
the Commonwealth o Pennsylvania : diminish the present amount of bank
and t h e r other ordinary demands upon j and taxable property, within our limi p te, p canno n t j
GILSTLIMRS :—No ordinary mesons for thank- try,
. fall, under a proper enforcement of the revenue ' ing clpital, will strengthen public con
fatness to the Great Urril, crawl themselves upon 'This presents a very encouraging view o f t h e !awe, to add to the means of the 'ne s e. ) , e v e ry fidence in the other banks, and add to
the Representatives of the people, at this annual I improving condition of the financea of the State, year. If, however, 111ia great object is to be effec- the stability and soundness of the cur
meeting. Abundance during the paid y ea r, h as . ss l t i s t h e first t i me , e i nre t h e commencement of I ted, the public revenues mud not be diverted to J rency. And ns it may, also, increase
been the re card of honeet industry, in every pur- the internal improvement gym.), that the perms- other purposes, and the moat rigid economy, and . banksb I
the profits of existing eyonr a
suit of the citizens. Animated with health and nest reknit. accruing within the year, unaided the strictest accountability, of the public a g ent s , • . •
e ncour a ged by miecese, they him steadily pro• from any other source, knee exceeded or been e- west he required fuel enitoreed. It is am o ng the .lust compensation to the shareholders
greased to the actomplisimient of their destiny, . goal to the detnanda upon the Treasury. II is first, and highest duties, of those entrusted with j for their investments, and as this excess
an d w hil e en t erp riz e has been highly favored in j true, that the intermit upon the funded debt, and the adminietratiun of the govern m en t , to e d a m of gain is derived from the special priv
the Jeeelopment of our great resources , the el e v.. j et h er c l a i m . upon t h e tp teaanry , d ur i ng the two I the moot efficient nicer's, under existing cireurn- j ileges conferred upon them by the Le
tins purposes end life of social organization• reli• preceding years, including the payment of a poi- static., to increase public confidence and guard j gislat tire, I recommend, that the tax int
glom morality, eduestien, refinement and civilize- tintn of the public debt, try the eaneelletion of re. against the good faith of the State being ever'
j ' posedby the act of Ist April, 1835,
tion have been cheliseed and advanced, ' net's, were puntuely paid; but, in doing 'hie, ' again called in question—to reduce the public '
Although peace and tranquility hove reigned ' the blame which had accummulated in the Tree- ' th lit, and relieve the people from perpetual taxa • j upon dividends exceeding six per cent.
within the borders of this State, we are identified miry, on the Ist Dec , 1844, by the previous sus- tion to pay interest, I, thereliire, feel impelled by ! per annum, be increased. While the in
with, and deeply intereeted in the war with Alexi- pension of the payment of the intermit on the pub- j a sense of duty, to renew the recommendation ducement to excessive banking will be
eo, in which the nation is engage—a war which ' lie debt, far two and one-half years, as well as the ! contained in the last amitial message, which is in ' reasonably checked by the increase of
the prudence, forbearance, and desire of the per)• amount of tithes then outstanding, were diminish- . these words: "In connection with this subject, I j this tax, the finances of the State may
pie to retain friendly relations, cou ld no t avert ; e'l each year, until the last, as i s particularly ex- ' respectfully recommend to the General Assembly,' be, to some extent, improved, and the
and which MIS eventually th rc ed upo n s, by tbe plained in my entwe i meeeatteat i n me an d 1846, ' th e propriety und p-slicy of proposin g to the peo-i
duty that rests upon every wen regu l ate d Govern- to which you are respectfully referred 1 plc, an amendment to the Constitution of the *public welfare promoted.
meet, to protect the rights of its elfin., and An estimate of its receipts and expenditures, of Slate, under the form of the I.oth article of that I The policy indicated, will lead to the
maintain the honor of the nation. the current y ear , ma d e w i th much care, so upon instrument, by which the income from the public ' rigid execution of the law prohibiting
Our re li g i on , our interests, and our institutions, consultedue with the tither ;Ilieere of the govern- improvem e nts, alte r deductin g the necessary ex• , the circulation of foreign airs, under
are essentially peaceful. The people hold in their maul, . hitherto appended, l.y.- h
ich it eaPeorei ' poise. for repairs anti suPerintendence—the teem •
, the denomination of five dollars, as
howl. the eovvreignty of the nation, and exact that the estimated amount of teeripts into the sues arising from the state tax on real and pt r. '
from their rulers obedience to their will. By their , Treasury, from all sources, for the financial t ear, sons l property, fur a certain period, and such albs ! soon ns the balance of the relief issues
contra ling influence, t hey sanction en d preserve ending on the 30111 Nov., 1848, is $3.921,900 00 • • • .is cancelled. This will be a positive
, er items of income as it may be deemed expedient '
the cardinal policy of maintaining amicable re.a• And that the estimated amount of I advance in the improvetnent of the cur
. to include, shall be see apart and sacredly pledged, i
none, with all other nations. By them the rights ex pendituree, for the same p.a. for the payment of the interest upon the public I rency, which should be then followed by
of American citizens, in ell parts of the world, arid, od, including the mince lation of debt, and the gradual liquidation of the principal. ! a law prohibiting the circulation of all
the honor of the nation are held sacred. Vtola• 1 $200,000 relief notee, is 3,576 360 0 0 , Such an amendm arr ange d ,no
ent, juuiciously would, I no t es below the denomination of ten
fiats of these national rights and national honor, ;
-- I apprehend, meet with the decided approbation ! dollars. The channels of circulation will
appeal to the jumice, and invoke the whole pea- '
I W Melt exhibits en intimated mum of the peimte of the Curnmonweelth. It would
plc for their vindication. The war of 1812, with , of receipts, over expenditures. of 345,510 00 1. • . , •
concentrate pub lc eentiment upon a fi xe d object ,
; then be filled with.an abundance of gold
England, and the existing won with Mexico, are J
j To which edd the e.t.a. e fur the —remove all doubt of the fullness of the public I
and silver, the public secured against
illustrations of this distinguished feature in the ' cancellation of relief noterawhich credit, and buy the foundation of the final emit'. the chances of loss by broken banks,
character of the American people. Patient of in- are a part of the public debt, 200.000 00 guiohnient of the public debt. It would giye an and depreciated currency ;an d the way
jury while wrongs are sufferable, and reasunable
additional security and assurance to the people, will be opened to such further improve
hopes of a return to amicable relation., upon Nutt. Anil we have the sum o f 545,510 00 and to the public creditors, that, in no event,
able principles, can 1m entertained, yet no
-- -alto- J as the estimated exc.; of recoi l ). of the current meats , as the real interests and conve
could the public revenue be diverted from it. le
may, vita impunition, violate the obligations of , financial ) (tar, ending on the 30th November
;gitimate object, and would furnish conclusive yea- nience of the people may demand.
treaties, or brook faith with the United States, 1 next, over the payment of the interest on the pub- eons, for the prompt and cheerful payment of the 'rite cautionary enactments I have.
In defence of these just rights, the power of lie debt, and the current demands upon the Treas. ' e • •
taus. suggested, cannot fail to increase, rather
this people is resistless. Every citizen hells him- ' nr ,
responsible, and the army sprnigs
' into exis• ' •' • . the The inequality of taxation arising from large ' than diminish
Phase est imates, when taken in aggregate,the amount of sound cir
selfquantities of property subject to tax umler exist- , culating medium, fully entitled to the
ince not by conscriptions, or contr. , . for on. I consider entire safe add tellable. During the
listments, but by the voluntary impu'ee if sale.' lee, few yea., the acme!. results have been more .Mg 'ewe, escaping assessment, and the equal val., public confidence. The effect will be to
',enteric freemen, animated by patriotism and I f aeor a N t , I . the rreeanty s ,
than were anticipated , uation o f that w hich is assessed . =te ll s
, bring die specieof
the country into tw
inged onward to deeds of heroic value, by the by the estimates. NMwtthetantling the ex treordi. a subje ct . j ust
d eop c p u u , I , .
five circulation, to furnish the people
approbation of the whole nation. This Wein.- , nary bode, which occurred during the past year, there are inherent i 1
; ties connecteri'vrith the
ble spirit, guided by the science and chill of the I the consequent damage to the pub.. works, and subject, but mill Me exper ience of the operation of
; with a substantial C u rren cy , that
officers, has led our armies in Mexico, from one the interruption of the trade upon them, for about the sy stern, and the defects which have become I i not be impaired by bank failures, and
victory to another, and from one great triumph J two months, the tut e taken by the cohemors, with- apparent, will point out some remedies for the i to restrain the tendency of the banks to
to a greater, and will lead them still onward, until in the year, according to the report of the Canal grievances which exist, and which should be foster extravagance, in time of prosper
s permsment and honorable peace it enured.— ' Commiesionere, amounted to the sum of $1,581,• : adopted. I, therefore, niost respectfully invite the ity, and check the means of oppression
While the honest pride of every American is 57a 87, being $286,081 11 more than was taken attention of the General Akenthly, to a thorough in time of adversity.
gratified, by the great achievements of our sal in the precedin g year, and exceeded the estimate . examination of the subject. Whatever just ti•
diets, his confidence in our free institutions, and made for the last yeer. near one hundred thousand ' MOOD! of taxation one man escapes by an evasion, A theory has been advocated and put
in rho means to defend and preservel: -h
el". lii i dollar.. lied . unusual biterruptiou of business ;or imperfect execution, of the law, is an imposi.l into practice, in some of the states,
streng , hed. ' o 'culled, the amitunt taken would certainly have ' lion and fraud upon his neighbor, who makes a called free banking. It is based, in part,
In the support and prosecution of the war in reached eighteen hundred thousand dolling. ! full return of his properly, and pays a tax upon a 1 upon specie, and in part upon state
which we are engaged, Pennsylvania has given ' •
The estimate of canal and railroad tolls, for the • fair valuation. stocks, hypothecated with the govern
token of her ancient and uniform fidelity to Ito r- current year, is seventeen hundred thousand dol. There are no eubjecte more intimately con '
iie. ' mint. In other words banks become
ty and the honor of the nation . Her volunteers tars, which, there is good reaeon to believe, is ra• tel with, or which have a more direct influence I
were among the first to tender their 'emcee, atxd ' !the creditors of the Commonwealth, by
they below th an above the an.ount which will be . upon the interests of the country, than the eurren
in every encounter with the enemy, have magni- received. The expenses of repairing the damage. 'cy and the banking eyetem. I purchasing her bonds; these are depo
lied the military fame of the Commonwealth, by to the public vorks, by the floods of the past year, ' • I sited with the government, and the gov
t 's good reason t '
o believe, that the pros- 1
deeds of romantic chivalry and nettle daring. f
-. will principally fall urinti the current year. 'T hey J • f :1-1 I . of the United Stet •• • ernment endorses, and returns to the
these great achievements. many of our heroes have ; are. however, included in the estimate of the ez• per b uy
h o e peop e . is, pante.
connected with the agricultural inter- . bankers , notes prepared for circulation
fallen in a foreign land. The moans of the winds , f urnace of the year, and wi I not affect the results ' let Y 1 oe e .
of Heaven, in passing through the long grass on presented in the preceding calculaiions. . ems, has ikon promoted , by the remove! on the . ter an equal amount. I can perceive no
• part of the Bthish Government, of the high duties j
their g r , art te•echoed by the sighs of their j grounds for con fi dence in this system.
The amount of relief imues in circulation, on upon our exports of grain, and other agricultural '
friends in the fatherland, and the and requiem . '• 1 It must explode, in a country where it is
i the first of December last, wee nine hundred end prod u ctions, and the modification of our own te
a just tribute to their suffering and their valor. j .. , . ! adopted to any considerable extent,
. .. ~ a sta . ha a , thirty one thousand six hundred mai sixty four riff, by which the commercial exchanges of the
The finermes end credit of ti te—t . ,
... . dollars, of which fifty thousand were cancelled at two countries have been greatly augmented, with- j whenever a revulsion occurs to test its
mount and condition of the public eerie 800 the
• whic h j the Tresses y. on the 31st o f D ec ., l eav i ng eight out affecting, injuriously, solar as 1 am informed, I stability, for it is a deviation from true
means of reducing it, are among the objects
s hundred and eighty-one thousand six hundred any of the g reat manufacturing intermits or other • •
claim the Mot attention of the Representatives or . , ' j principles. Sound and safe banking can
and sixty-four dollars, mill outstanding. T he ' industriet pursuits of our people.
the people. I only be based and conducted on money
means or the Treasury, it ir believed, will he ale- I
The amount of the public debt, on the Ii of m Other cause., in combination w i t h those all. ' —gold arid silver. Neither individuals
Decembe r , 1846, was $40,789,577 00 h If ' f the whole amount t I
create . to M e mince anon . o un
. Jed to, have produced a lame influx of *peel° into
I now in. circulation, within the prevent and suc• • I or banks can lend that which they have
On the let December. 1837, it was, the United States, during the poet year, which
I seeding year,—Many of them are no defaced as to I not ; and if they lend credit in the shape
according to the Report of the • hissg one into active circulation among the
.be almost illegible, and are unfit for circulation ;j. g people,
Auditor Oeneral.as rollover', viz: or found its ay
w two the vaults of the re-
Debt. besides they vitiate the currency, and furnish nis
This increase of the precious mends, while it deem them in gold and silver, they corn
excuse Mr the use of .111.11 !late bOll. O th er State,,
6 per cent. stocks, $1.752.335 06 • • • • • should dispense, in u great degree, with the use mit a fraud upon the comtnunity, as ;
5 " " 37,267,990 37 in violation of law, and lessen the circulation o f ~,
1 gold and silver anion the people. Justice to the ' (,),,I Me' currency, has a nenticncy fn incr.. , it , they lend and put in circulation, that
4j 19 11 200,090 00 enlaming the mean, of the banks to extend
pubfic creditore, who me compelkd to receive I `'Y which is not money, nor the representa-
Relief issues in cur- their issuee. 'l' he effect of which, if encouraged,
ciliation, 931,664 00 j them in pay moot of their intercom, when they are live of money.
. will be to promote speculation, and over action in
below psi, ae well as to the people at large, imrer- ,
Interest certificateslf this system of converting state
ounthnding, 353,956 43 1 atively demand.; that they vhould be 'liken out of ' every department of businees, and thus make the
stocks into banking capital, and hypoth-
J circulation as soon as practicable. I, therefore, present substantial proepmity of the people, the
unclaimed, 4,448 38 recommend the passage cif a law, allowing such ' means of producing adversity and depression.— ecating it as a security for the payment '
I of the Bank. es have issues these notee, to fund IThe operations of the Constitutional Treasury of bank issues, were not a delusion, '
Interest on mutton&
them s i a rate uf interest not exceeding six per , have had, end no doubt wilt continue to have, a mortgages upon real estate, might be
nil and unclaim.
cent. per annum mettle send annually, and that I most salutary influence, in restraining the tendon
el certificates, a tused for the same purpose, which would
all the surplus means in the Treasury, beyond the •, cy to excessive banking, by keeping the public . i
ila per cent.. to afford an equal if not a better security, .
payment of the interest on the public debt, and ! revenues out of the vaulte of the betake, and com•
lot August, 1845,
the current expenses 01 the government, be Op- peeing them to be prepared w redeem their notes, ;for the paytnent of notes, and by this
time of funding, 22,459 80
. I plied, first, to the redemption or cancellation of ' and furnish specie, to meet the wants of those process, the whole value of the real es-
Dumemic creditors, 96.095 47 1
40,128,949 51 ; those that may remain in circulation, as they come who have customs, and other dues, to pay to the ' tate of the country, might be converted
into the Treasury, and then to the payment of the ; Government. : into banking capital, and the people into
Being $160,627 491 amount funded try the banks. i Although the restraining influence of this great a nation of bankers. This proposition
less t h an it was on the let December, 1846. The reeourcee of the Treasury will be sufficient ; measure, upon the banking system, is mest , bens- I
1 shows that the whole scheme is illusory
This payment, or reduction of the debt, within ' to cancel all that may lie received in payment of ' ficial, still it does not dispense with the necessity
and unsound .
lees to the Commonwealth and to pay the banks of caution and prudence, on the part of the States,
the lam financial year, was effected by the cancel- , r _ ; j ; .
• h T easury, of one hundred and fifty 1 the amount funded within two years. y this ;
Bin ever Ili pertainingbankingand Free
ing w paper banking, in its legitimate sense,
ration, at t e r circulation.
pokes, should the banks agree to fund any eon- • ' is the right which every man enjoys, to'
thoueand dollars tit the relief mules and by the
receipt of State stocks in payment of old de bte
eiderable portion of them, they may all ho taken , Igniters u discriminating donee , with a sound lend his own money to whom he pleases.
which is showed in certain cases by law. i out of circulation within the preemie year. Ii may currency, limited to the specie standa r d, may be It is the exchange of money for securi-
Tere would have been two hundred thousand ' be oiled, that es thee. notes do mot nave beer ill- j regarded as the natural and healthy condition of
~ 'ties, to repay with interest—it involves
dollar. of the relief ie.. immeshed, within the j tercet, they ought not i to be c onerte T il h i i n s to h : debt l a country, and all the great interests of the people : no fictit increase of the circulation,
year, in accordance with the raeloiremeole of the , on wll l ieh interes t w il he paya ble. ,
i vev. I advanced, while high duties and e redundant pa- ,
law, but for the payment of the Wicket which I view of the subject . here per currency operate as unnatural stimulants and
er, is but a superficial v.t
fell duo on the first of Fetirutiry, lam, left th e is no longer any excuse for o continuer violation creole apparent but delusive prosperity. extent, without effecting the currency.
Treasury 80 much exhausted, that the amount ! alike Public filith, by the payment of the public j Nothing can contribute so much to the mint. This is the tree banking, which has at
which should have cancelled on the Milst alareh, I creditors, in a depreciate:l currency, mid the email I fleece
present prosperity, as a sound cur- all times supplied, and does now supply,
wee not then on hand. It will be remillecfiel that . amount of interest which will have to be paid, if ', Bey.
Pennsylvania is rich . in productions of the wants of a large proportion of bor.
it became necessary to anticipate a portion of the j the banks agree to fund a portien of these no s,
almost every description required by the wants of !
i rowers, and commends itself to general
marine of the year, by a loan of $200,000 00, to , will be more than c o mp ensated by
thes matikind; and nothing fie itecessery to make her , .
meet the were., which fell d ue in , th e first F e b. character of the SHOO (TOM the continuation or
people the most independent in the world, but a . continence and approval, by its simplt
- i this act of injustice, end the people from the Wes- ; r e - d , ' city and adaptation to the circumstances
mir J d f h '
proper regar or er true interest.. o a vant e .
• ' ••1
, es ineh.ent to u depreciated circulation. 'tibia ,
The balance in the Treasury, onthese, she must one be seduced horn her devotion 1 of the people.
t h e l et December. 1840, w. $384,678 70 t cur"""Y h" its mjigi" i" a" "I'M" a the (;°". to sound principles, by the artificial contrivances The policy of incorporating mining, '
blibitioll, and ought to be blotted out of reniem.
The receipts into the Treasury, du. I °l..° economist" , wheseselfiali theories are '
.. manufacturing, transporting and other
ring the Anemia' ending the 311thI beano. 'delusive, as they are destructive of the public companies, for purposes appropriately
Nov. 1847, from all souk,. iii• It may now be safely assumed, that we have vot e
eluding the loan tit $2011,000 00 I It
a periiid, in our fi nancial history, when 'thin individual competency , has been
The present is a moat p ropitious when ‘" 111 1
discussed; and, guided by the un
;base referred to, were 3,977,025 89 the pernmnent revenues of the Commonwealth ex
there is . abundance of mild end silver in the
ceed, annually , the interest on th e puidie debt. erring demonstrations that these enter
country, to mike a determined of to increase
and the ordinary demands upon the Treasury, by
he eirculstion, end secure to the people the cur• prizes are most successfully and benefi
at least half a million of dollars. And thia excess,
rency which the wisdom .I• the freniera of the cially conducted, under the control of
it is confidently believed, may, by a judicious re- Constitution of the United State. provided. In• individual responsibility , thepublic
vision end amendment of the tevenue laws—a
stead of mead, new banks, or increasin g th '
prudent and economical course on the pun of the -' '
capitol of old ones .r farm. should be directed
legislative and Executive departments of the C. ' of the age in which we live, against the
to secure the solve ncy of those which already ex
eunt-nem, and the faithful management of th e
i St, and thereby ren d er their circulation sound and ' PelleY•
public works, be angmented in it few years to one reliable. j While all the great departments of
minion of dollars, we a sinking fund, without in•
Impressed with the force of these coneideratione, , business in the Commonwealth are pros
'NZ-ne, the burdens of then, who now pay their
on a run return and fair valuation of their .I am convinced that the increase of the banktng . perously conducted, under free and
taxable property. T implied nn
his sum plied semi•au- enpitel of the State , would be unwise and inn I. l i - equal competition, there are yet some
ally, with its accruing haerest to the redeinption tici e e o il f il lh l e r r eep.'stfully recommend, that before any men, who seem to stand still, while the
sienna blinks is rechartered, a search
of the fi ve per cent. Slate stocks, at par, would '.'n
~ :_i „, .. ' world is going onward around thetn, and
i in sulated into its affair', its man.
dieebarge upward of sixteen millions, four hen- nig scrutin y . '
• • whocherishantiquated l
and no means,: and if it be
dad thousand dollar., of the debt in twelve years, agerrictili lie cre dit,
found that the notes have been suffered to dep.- the timid, contracted and selfish aggre
and reduce it at the end of that time, to twent-
three millions. It i s believed that all the relief date, Mal the accommtalations have been bestow-
gation of wealth, under the protection '
issues . io I.
an, cancelled, by the year ed upon favorites, and lerge speculators Berl deal. '
i of corporate privileges, is preferable for
one thousand eight hundred and fifty, and if the ' era in money, Wowed of being di ff used among the transaction of business, to the frecP,
operations of the einking fund are then commen• moderate and rage customers; that the issues have
cad, on the funded debt, the result thus anticipa• at ono !writ ardent and bounding capabilities of in
e! encouraged speculations by their ~ .
ted, will be real i zed in the year one thousand eight • excek, and at another oppremeil honest industry, aro/ulna!enterprizet—a power which,
hundred and sixty•two, at which t ime, there is by their contrection; in whorl, that the legitimate since \Valiant Penn arrived on these
good reason to believe, the eel income from the object. tot which the privileges were granted, have I shores, in 1682, has changed an immense
public works, will be more than sufficient to pay not been by fair, faithful and judicious manage- wilderness into fruitful fields, and has,
the interest on the balance of the public debt, and '',lent accomplished, then the charter should be in this march of civilization and irn
thereloe relieve the people from all further - direct suffered to expire by its own limitation. The dis•
tax.. Mr this purpose. continuance of such institutions wi I promote the Provement, provided for the wants, the
Some may view tide proposition as visionary, public good,
• • and will be hailed with approbation comfort, the education and refinement,
and delusive, but I reasnl it . entirely practice- by all but those who have, for Ovate gain, wrest• lof two. millions of free people. What
ble, under • wise and prudent administration of the; ed them hem the purpose for which they were i have corporations done in this great
affairs of the State. The segmenting wade upon ', established, I achievement"! Where are the trophies
Making an aggregate of
The payntente made out of the
Treasury, (luting the sew verb
od, including the rviinVlbritt of
the loan of 200,000, weir,
Leaving the balance in the Twaeu•
ry, on the lot Dec. 1846, 080,890 fiEr
being $295,212 15, mote tlimi it was on the Ist
The estimated timownt of availttle
outstanding taxes, on the Ist
Dec. 1847, was
and the estimated antnntit of the
name, on Ist Dec , 1046. was
whieh exhibits an increase, in this
To which add the inereitse oi the
balance in the Treasury, of
and we have the corn of
a. the aggregate increase of the balance in the
Treasury, and of outstanding taxes on the Ist
Dec, 1817, over the same items on the Ist Dec.,
This calculation shows that the revenues asses.
eed and ac:ruino, within the financial year, end
ing on the :inth Nov. lam, were not only adequate
to meet the demands 'item the Treasury, within
the year, but exceeded them by the awn of $302,-
404 bl. as above stated, and if to this aunt be ad
ded Oe amount of the debt paid within the year,
to wit, $160,627 49, we have the sum of $483,
of their generous spirit, their value or'
their utility? They are behind the
times—they belong to an age that is pest.
The time was, in other countries, where
all the rights of the people were usurped
by despotic governments, when a grant
by the king to a portion of his subjects,
of corporate privileges, to carry on trade,
or for municipal purposes, was a partial
enfranchisement, and made the means
of resuming some of their civil rights.
Then and there, corporations had merits.
and were cherished by the friends of
liberty. But in this age and country,
under our free system, where the people
are sovereign, to grant special privileges,
it is an inversion of the order of things.
It is not to restore, but to take away
from the people, their common rights,
and give them to a few. It is to go
back to the dark ages for instruction in
the science of government, and having
found an example, to wrest it from its
original purpose, and to make it the in
strument of restoring the inequality and
despotism, which its introduction tended
to cm rect.
The fallacy that, where large invest.
meets are required to carry on a profita
ble business,(and corporatera do not as
sociate for that which is unprofitable,)
individual means are inadequate, is eve
rywhere refuted in this happy country.
Further, by cherishing any particular
business, and surrounding it with spe
cial privileges, the natural law, which
secures to every branch of business its
appropiate encouragement and reward,
is violated. Under this law, so kindly
provided by Him who rules all things,
every individual man, untrammeled by
the curses of bad government, guided by
his moral and intellectual powers and
his religious principles, advances his
own happiness and improves his own
condition ; and, thus, the happiness and
prosperity of all are promoted. Every
effort to modify or subvert this sover
eign law, by placing classes, professions
or callings beyond its control, has hith
erto, and ever will, like every other
transgression, be destructive of good. If
our free institutions are right—it it is
right that all men should be held equal
—if this is the law of our nature, en
stamped by Him who made us, then ev
ery human law which impairs this equal
ity, is radically and intrinsically wrong.
The Report of the Canal Commission
ers will furnish information, in detail, in
regard to the public works. Notwith- I
standing the interruptions of business
experienced during the year, the grati
fying result is presented, of a !liege in
crease of tolls over any preceding year.
The increased and increasing value of
these great works, render them an object
worthy of peculiar care and protection ;
and must forever negative the idea of
the State surrendering the control over
them, to a corporation.
The Pennsylvania railroad company,
have commenced the construction of
their road, betwen this place and the
city of Pittsburg, under very favorable
auspices. The Eastern division is now I ,
under contract as far as Lewistown, and
it is expected the remaining portion of
it as far as Hollidaysburg will be put un
der contract during the ensuing Spring.
The completion of this great public
work, even to Hollidaysburg, will aug
ment the trade and travel upon the Phil
adelphia and Columbia road. This pros
increase of business, urges the
necessity of considering the best means
of avoiding the inclined plane, at the
As the Philadelphia and Columbia rail
road, is the important link which con
nects the main line of our public improve
ments, as well as the North and West
branch canals, with the commercial me
tropolis of the State, and upon the con
trol and management of which the value
of our canals mainly depend, every thing
which relates to it, is of the highest con
cern to the interest of the commonwealth.
In adopting measures to change its route,
so as to reach the city without passing
the inclined plane, the greatest circum
spection and care should he observed, to
secure the best location practicable, and
to protect the State against exorbitant
claims for damages. No change of
cation should be sanctioned, until the
whole question is carefully examined
by one or more of the most compe
tent engineers, who are entirely free
from all interest in the decision. Un
der no cicumstances, should any plan or
arrangement be entertained, by which
the State would, for a single moment, be
deprived of the ownership and the entire
control of the road.
The reports of the Auditor General,
and State Treasurer, present, in detail,
the financial operations of the year ; and
1 take pleasure in saying, that the in•
dustry, ability, and fidelity, with which
these departinents have been adminis
tered, are deserving of the highest com
The Commonwealth has heretofore
sustained many losses, by the delay of
the settlement of accounts, and the
omission to enforce the payment of the
balances found due, when settled. With
in the last few years, many old accounts
have been finally settled, and suits
brought and prosecuted to judgment
and execution, for balances of long stand
ing, embracing the terms of several ad
ministrations. This has, in ninny in
stances, produced cases of extreme hard
ship upon bail, some of whom have been
compelled to pay the balances found dee,
with the accumulated interest, after the
insolvency of their principals and co
I am gratified in being able to say,
that the business imposed upon the ac
counting officers, by a special act of as
sembly, in collecting these old debts,
has snot only been faithfully performed,
but that the current business has been
promptly attended to, and kept up. To
enable the Auditor General, however, to
continue to do full justice to the inter;
eats of the State, and all concerned, in'
the prompt settlement of accounts, lib
eral provision should be made to pay
additional clerk hire.
While on this subject, 1 would res
pectfully invite attention to the organi
zation of the offices of the Auditor Gen•
eral and state Treasurer, to ascertain
whether the regulations and checks ex
isting, are sufficient, in all respects, to
secure a proper accountability, and pro
test the interests of the Commonwealth.
It is true, that the public has for many
years sustained no losses by the Trea
sury, but, I apprehend that the faithful
ness of the agents having charge of these
1 1 departments, and not the eheeks.provi
! ded by the law, has produced this re
stilt. This is a propitious period for in.'
stituting an examination of the subject,
particularly as the present worthy offi
cers hold so large a share of the public
confidence. Since the establishment of
the present system, the finances of the
state have increased from a few hundre*
thousands, to nearly four millions of
dollars, annually. The regulations and
checks which were then considered suffi
cient, may now be inadequate to protect
the interests of the Commonwealth, in
its enlarged and increasing financial op
The Auditor General's office, to be. an
efficient check upon the Treasury, should
be so organized, that the Auditor Gen
eral might know, at all times the condi
tion of the Treasury, from the books of
his own office, without being dependent
on those of the Treasury. If errors or
omissions exist in the Treasury, the
Auditor General's books should detect
and correct them. This is not the case
under the present organization and mode
of doing business, in the two offices.
It also occurs to me that greater secu-•
rity against the misapplication of the
moneys in the Treasury, and on depos
lie in the banks, to the credit of the
Treasurer, should be provided, by the in-.
stitution of some checks upon his drafts
and payments. The moneys of the coin. ,
monwealth, on deposite to the credit of
the Treasurer, varying in amount, for
some months in the year, from four
hundred thousand, to near a million of
dollars, are subject to his draft, alone,
while he is only required to give securi
ty in the sum of eighty thousand dol
lars. Thus a very great and dangerous
power is confided to one man.
I, therefore, suggest the propriety of
requiring the Auditor General to coun
tersign all drafts for the payment of
money drawn by the Treasurer, on the
depositories, or for transferring moneys
from one depository to another.
The report of the Adjutant General,
exhibits the number of the militia of the
Commonwealth, as well as the arms and
. . . .
This - detail shows the elements of the
military power of the Commonwealth--
the strength of a Republican GoVern
ment. The experience of the last few
years, has added proofs to the value of
this institution, and presents the sub
ject, as one of great importance, to the
care and supervision of the Legislature.
The Report of the Superintendent of
Common Schools, exhibits a full view of
the progress and steady advancement,
of onr admirable system of Common
School instruction, which is diffusing
its blessings to the rising generation, and
strengthens all our free institutions.—
The man who loves his race, cannot find
a more delightful subject of contempla
tion, than this universal provision for
the education of all the children of the
Commonwealth ; and thus arming them,
with knowledge and power, and fitting
them for maintaining the rank and dig
nity of freemen. The perfection of the
system, is one of the noblest objects of
legislation, and will secure the early and
continued attention of the General As
You are respectfully referred to the
report of the Surveyor General, for in-.
formation in relation to the operations
of the Land Office, during the post year,
by which it will be seen, the receipts in- •
to the Treasury, from that source, have
been increased. The final Geological
report. now finished and ready for the
press, has been deposited by Henry D.
Rogers, Esq. the'State Geologist, with
the Secretary of the Commonwealth.—
This report is represented to contain a
general and scientific view of all the•
Rocky strata, and their contents--their
order of arrangement, and the region of
country they occupy, and representing,
in detail, the situation of every layer of
• Coal, every important vein arid bed of
• iron ore, and every other mineral depo
site, of utility, within the state. The
state has expended a large sure, in col
lecting the materials, and information,
contained in this elaborate and extol-
sive report, which will be in a great (140
gree, lost, unless it is published. I there.
fore recommend the subject of publica
tion to the early attention of the Legis
The rights of property of married wo-•
men, present, in my opinion, a proper
subject of legislative consideration. By .
our laws, the husband upon marriage,
possesses the power of becoming the
absolute owner of the personal estate of
his wife, by reducing it into possession,
and when he thus acquires this owner
ship, he may dispose of it by will, at his
death, to whom he pleases. She has the
privilege, by law, of renouncing the as
tate or property devised or bequeathed