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Addrese BCTI<BR CITIZEN,
BCTLBK, KABXS CITT AXD PARKBK »AILI»OAD
Trains leave Butler for SL Joe, Milleratown,
Karns CUv, Pctrolia, Parker, etc., at 7.25 a. in ,
and 2.05 a*ud 7.20 p. m. IBtse below lor con
nc<tlou* with A. V K R.J
Trains arrive at Bailer from the *)>ove named
point* at 7.15 a. ia.. ana 1.55, and C.55 p m.
The 1.55 train connects with iraiu cm the West
Peun roid '.hroturti to Mtt»bai*h.
SHKNAJIOO AND ALI.BGHENT RAII.KOAD.
Train*" leave Bill lord's Milt, Botler county,
for Hirritville, GruenvUie, etc., at 7.40 a. m.
and 12.20 and 2.20 p. m.
Stage* lea' e Petrolia at 5.50 a. m. lor 7.40
train, and at 10.00 a. ra. tor 12 20 traiu.
Return leave Uilliard on "rrlval of
trains at 10.27 a. m. and 1.50 p. m.
Btaj>e leaves Martlasburg at 9.30 for 12.30
p. * vr. a. R. (Narow Gauge.)
The morning train leaven Zeiienople at 6 11
Harmony 6.16 and Evanabarg at #.3 i. arriving
at Etna Station at 8.20. and Allegheny at V 01.
The afternoon train leaves Zelienop'e at 1.26.
Harmony 1.31, Evirebarg 1.53. arriving at
Etna fetation at 411 and Allegheny at 4.46.
Ky pttinif oil at Slurps bur* nation snd
croswii.jf the bridge to the A. V. R. R., passen
gers on the rooming train c.xn reach the Union
depot at 9 o'clock.
Train* connecting at Etna Station with this
road leave Allegheny at 7.11 and 9.31 a. m. aid
3.41 p. id.
Train* leave Butler (Batler or Pittsburgh Time.)
Market at 5.11 a. m , goes through to Alle
gheny, arriving at 9.01 a. m. Thi* train con-
Lects at Fret-port with Free port Accommoda
tion, wb'ch arrives at Allegheny at 8.20 a. in.,
Express at 7.21 a. m , connecting at Butler
Junction, without change of cars, at 8.28 with
Exp.efs wctl, arriving In Allegbens at 9.51
a. m., and Express ca*t arriving at Blairsville
at 1100 a. m. railroad lime.
Mail at 2 36 p. m., councctine at Butler Junc
tion without change ol can, with Express wesl,
arriving in Allegheny at 528 p. m., and Ex
press c&bi arriving at Blairsville Intcrseciion
at 8.10 p. m. railroad time, which connects w'th
Philadelphia Kxpn->3 east, when on time.
Sunday Express at ZX> p. ro , goes through
to Allegheny, arriving at 8.08 p. m.
The 7.21 a. in. train connects at Blairsville
at 11.05 a. m. with the Mail east, and the 2.38
p. m. train at C.59 With the Philadelphia Ex
Trains arrive at Bntler on Weat Penn R. R. at
9.51 a. m., 5 Of, and 7.20 p. ra., Butler time. The
9,51 and 5.08 trains connect with trains on
the Butler & Parker R. R. Sun 'ay train arrives
at Butler at ll.lt a. in., connecting with train
Through trains leare Pittsburgh for the E.i»'
at 2.58 and 8.26 a. ni. and 12 51, 4.21 ar.d 8.08 p.
m arriving at Philadelphia at 8.40 and 7.20
p. m. and 3.00, 7.00 and 7.40 a. m.; at Baltimore
about the same t me, at New York three hours
later, and at Washington about one and a half
LAND FOR" SALE. ~
Valuable Farm for Sale.
The undersigned offers at private sale tho
farm lately owned by Robert Oilleland, dee'd,
late of Middlesex township, containing
more or less, with a two-story brick house and
bank barn, hay house, wagon ahed and other
outbuildings. Two good orchards thereon. 130
acres cleared, balance in good timber, easy of
access, br about oi.e-half mile from Batler and
Pittsburgh plank road and 1W miles from new
narrow-gauge railroad, is well improved and in
good condition, snd ia well adapted for dairy
puntoses. For tern.* apply to
JAMES WILSON, Agent.
deelTtf] Bakcrhtown, Allegheny Co., Pa.
The well-improved farm of Re*. W. R. Hutch
ison, in the nortboast corner of Middlesex town
ship, Butler countv. Pa . is now offered for sale,
low. In<jnire of W. K. FRISBEE, on the prem
2,500,000 ACRES LAND
Situated In and near the
UPPER ARKANSAS VALLEY, IN SOUTH
—OX TBI- ■
Atchisoa, Topeka & Santa Fe B. R.
11 Years' Credit. 7 per Cf nt. Interest
Tte flrst payment at d ite of purchase la one
tenth of the principal and serai percent, inter
est on the remainder. At the end of the flrst
and second year, only the Interest at feveu per
cent. Is paid ; and the third year, and each year
thereafter, one tenth Ol the prlucipal, with
seven per cent. Interest on the balance, Is paid
annually until the whole U paid.
Six years' credit, 20 per discount.
Two years' credit, 30 per cent. di*connt.
Cash purchase, 83 1-8 per cent. discount
The valley of tho Upper Arkansas l» Juatly
celebrated for Its adaptability to WHEAT
RAISING nnd the superior quality of lt» grain.
As a STOCK-RAWING and WOOL-GROWING
cooutry, it otters advantages that cannot lie ex
celled. Good soil, abuudauce of pure water, a
mild and remarkably healthy climate, with low
prices and easy terms, make up a total of in
ducements greater than is offered anywhere else
on the continent of America.
For lull particulars, inquire of or address
C. A. SEYMOUR.
General Eastern Passenger Agent,
my2l-ly] 419 Broadway. N. Y.
199 Main St, Buflalo, N. Y.
PHYSICIAN AND SURG EON,
iny2l-ly] BUTLER, PA.
Ainu (mnnni lj,Teßt ® dm WiUJHt - ' ,tock,
plaining everything. Address
BAXTER A CO., Bankers,
oct9 7 Wall street N. Y.
Exclusively devoted to the practical educa
tion of young and middle-aged men, for active
huaineMH life. School always in *emion. Stu
dents can enter at any time. for
J. C. SMITH, A. M.. Principal,
»ept24-"in Pittsburgh, Pa.
OU VVALDRON, Grrduate ot the Phil
ip adclpbia Dental College,ls prepared
• 11 sto do anything in the line of his
profession in a satisfactory manner.
Offlee on Main street, Botler, Union block,
up Main. apll
NEARLY OPPOSITE LOWBY HOUSE.
Wv. CaKPmax, J as. D. Axdbmok,
President. Vice President.
W*. Campbell, Jr., Casbier.
William Campbell, J. W. Irwin,
Jaa. D. Anderson, Qsorgs Weber,
Joseph L. Purvis.
Does a Oeneral Banking k Exchange business.
Interest p4d on time deposits. Collections made
and prompt returae at low rates of Exctiange-
Oold. Exchange and Government Bonds bought
and sold. Commercial paper, bonds, Judgment
and other securities bought at fair ratee. |a2o:ly
Mutual Fire Insurance Co.
Office Cor. Main and Cunningham Sts.
G. C. ROESSIXG, PRESIDENT.
\VM CAMPBELL. TUEASCRKR
11. C. IIEINEMAN, SHCRKTAUY
J. L. Purvis, E. A. Uelmboldt,
William Campbell, J. W. Bui K. hart,
A. Troutman, Jacob Schoene,
6. C. Roeaslng, Johu Caldwell,
Dr. W. lrviu, Samuel Marshall,
J.W.Christy 11. C. Hdiueiusn.
JAS. T, M'JUNKIN, Gen, A*'t-
11l YORK WEEKLY HERALD.
ONE DOLLAR A YEAH.
The circulation NF this pcijnlar NEWSPAPER
hat more than trebled during the past year. It
contains aU the LEADING contaiued in the
Dailt Beuld. and is arranged in handy de
embracei special dinpatcliea f. >rn all quirters
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are given the Telegraphic DIR-PATS!'** of tho
week from All parts of the Union- This fea
ture aioae make*
THE WEEKLY HERALD
the li:ot-:t valuable cUrotielo iu the world, an it is
the cheapest. Every week is given a faithful
etrbracing complete and comprelieiinive d:N
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ports of the fpeeclicu of eminent pohticiaus on
the questions of the hoar.
THE FARM DEPARTMENT
of the XV KLT riKiui-D gives the LITEST as well
AA UIS most prac'icsl sojzgestioni and discover
ies relating to the duties of the farmer, hints
for raiting Cattlk. Poci.tby, Grains, Tbees,
Vegetable*, AC., Ac., with suggestions for
keeping buildings and farming utensiie in re
pair. This is I*U(;p!om-)Ht-.d by a well-edited
department, widely copied, nn ier the head of
giving recipes for piactical cliches, hints for
making clothing and for keeping np with the
latest fashions at the lowest piice. Every item
of cooking or economy sngirested in this de
partment is pra -ticallv tested L>v experts before
publication. Let'ers from our I'M is nnd Lon
don correspondents on the very latest fashions.
The Home Department of the Weekly Heuai.d
will save the housewife more than one hundred
times the price of the paper. The interests of
are looked after, and everything relating to me
chanics and labor saving is carefully record**!.
TEere is a page devoted to all the latest phases
of the business maik' ts. Crops, Merchandise,
Ac.. Ac. A VILNIBLFI feature is found in the
mieciallv reported prices and conditions of
THE I'ROLUCE MARKET.
Sroimo News at home and abroad, together
with a Htom every week, a Heuhos by some
eminent divine, Musical, Duamatic,
Pkkmosal and Sea Notes. There is no paper in
the world which contains so much news matter
eveiy week as the Weekly llehald. which is
Bent, postage free, for One Dollar. You can
subscribe at anv (free.
THE NEW Y'JltK HERALD,
in A weekly form,
ONE DOLLAR A YEAR.
NEW YORK HRKALD,_
dec 24 Cm] Rroadway A Ann St., New Yoik.
The Only Known Homed}-
THAT ACTS AT THE «A*E TI*E O*
and the KIDNEYS.
77iii combiral aclirm gitm it vonderfvl
ptneer to cure all (lieeavt.
Why are we Sick ?
Became wc all. w the.a gnat orjara to be
come clogged or torpid, and jnimiiout humort
are thcrrforc forced into the blond tiicit should
be expelled naturally.
BILI.IOCBKEKS, PJIES, COSSTIPATIOS,
KIDHET COMPL'.INTS, CHIS lit 1 DIS
EASES, FE J A I.E WEAKNESSES,
A3D SEKVOL'S DIHOBDERS,
bp eaumng fret action cf tliete organs and
restoring their strength and potoer to throw
MB WHY Suffer Billion* pain* AND achest *3l
Why be tora.l>sted with I'll". ar.d T'ON«t:;.JT;EN I
WHY fright* ll~d ovi.-«l!>ior<!rr.''l I'lrlin J » I
WHY failure nervous hridnrhis acd »HF|dttj
Ut* K.IDNKY-AVO ItT and rrjrjice 1., UmUA.
It U a dm. rr'jrlc'jlt compovtul ami
TM LEEKEGE will ucte tlx qua RU OT Medicine.
QtiUof vo'ir Drujgl t,hf. frillonU.• it/or y<m.
mm, BXCZASX372? h SO., rreplotrfs. S-'Uazta, 7t.
Ifntk. Melt, Bo.€ I Ynttm. JW < 'rtftm ft mi
runrh. AI«o our < •.lehrai** KruturkH
jt I fir I't stO. Warranted or »I» talr. F<I.J
tvl I LLUKUNLVIL CAL:.! O/UL A.VL L'r ,< .J 1.1 ■to
JAMES BOWN A 80N«,
LitarprlHOuWorks, M3O A: t3S *.f..
Established IMS. riTTUBt rv 11,
Persons desiring to have their Old Furniture
repaired, or New Work mxle to order, sacti as
Music Htandn. Rook Cases, Wardrobes, Ottire
Desks, Oflice Tables. Ac., would do well to call on
A. B. WII.HOIV,
Practical Cabinet Maker.
1 hold that a piece of furnilnre ma<le by hand
is worth two made by mtchinery. and will cost
but little more, if any. Then why not have hand
made 't All work made in tl'.e latest stylos and
of the beet mateiiil. I guarantee ENTIRE sat
isfaction in stvle, workmanship aud price. Give
me a call. Bhop CM Miflliti stnet four doors
west of Main street, and opposite A. Troutman'S
atore, Bntler, I'a. *cpl7-ly
GOING WEriT TO
SHOULD GO VIA THE
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R.
CaFTiekota can be had at all oillccs where
Western tickets are sold. aplfitf
Union Woolen Mills.
I would desire to call the attention of the
public to the Union Woolen Mill, Butler, Pa.,
where I have new aud improved machinery for
the manufacture of
Barred and Gray Flannels,
Knitting and Woaving Yum A,
and I can lecommnnr] them as being very dura
ble, as tliey are manufactured of pure Butler
oounty wool. They are beautiful > I color, su
perior in teitnra, and will 1M sold at very low
price*. For samples and prices, address,
Jnl34.'7H-ly) llutlor. Pa
Ci t~Cif\ 70 P*KE catalogue
X>l M I tr ee. BUCKEYE NOVELTY CO.,
™ VVV fns-3m] CFCI? katj, Oufo.
A GRETNA OLE EN IN TIIE
The little town of Aberdeen, Ohio,
on the Ohio River, sixty-one miles
above Cincinnati, is known as the
Gretna Green of America, and it mer
its the title. It is a village of four or
five hundred inhabitants, directly oppo
site the flourishing Kentucky town of
Maysville. Its people are mostly re
tired farmers and their families, with
the usual sprinkling of lawyers, doctors,
parsons and storekeepers. It has a
'.Squire, also, who is a "bigger man
than old Grant" in this regiou, and the
sole and undisputed proprietor and
manager of the only runaway mar
riage establishment in Ohio. He is
not the founder of the business. Ilis
predecessor carried it on for fifteen
years, and in that time made more than
four thousand young couples one and
happy, and exasperated a corresponding
number of stern fathers and unrelenting
mothers. The present owner, 'Squire
Massie Beasley, has managed the es
tablishment for five years, and in that
time has united only thirteen hundred
couples, but he hopes, by strict atten
tion to business, to merit the kind pa
tronage of a generous public, and in
the next five years increase his busi
ness four-fold. He is a wrinkled, wiry
oid feliow, of uncertain age, and he
informed mc in confidence that the
general financial paralysis of the past
five years bad seriously affected his
"They can't raise the money," he
said—"that is, a good many of 'em
can't—and my terms are cash on de
He has no regular charge, but al
ways demands something, and the
figure depends on the degree of grati
tude and happiness which the groom
feels after the ceremony is performed.
He has received as high as SIOO for
uniting a couple, but this was an ex
ceptional case. His reward averages
$lO, and, as he marries at least five
couples a week, the profit is not to be
despised, especially in this part of the
country, where you can board at the
l>est hotel for $1 a day.
Maysville is at the head or the foot
(I don't know which) of the blue grass
country, and, as he depends on Ken
tucky almost altogether for patronage,
you at once perceive the advantages of
the location. Maysville has good roads
leading from it to all parts of the State,
and two ferryboats are ready day and
night to carry the fugitives from Ken
tucky to Abderdeen.
The marriage laws of Kentucky are
very strict. If either of the contract
ing parties is under age, it is necessary,
before a license can be obtained from
the Clerk of the County Court, that
the parent or guardian shall give his
consent. Parents and guardians are
cautious and obdurate; love is blind
and impulsive. The voung people
can't get married in Kentucky without
a license, but they can at (iretna
Green ; so, watching a favorable oppor
tunity, tbey slip away from the old
folks, and the accommodating 'Squire
is ready, day or night, to perform the
ceremony that will enable them to defy
'Squire Beasley's predecessor was a
regularly appointed Justice of the
Peace, and legally empowered to per
form the marriage ceremony, provided
the parties were eligible. His inquiries
as to the eligibility of the parties who
came before him were never very
searching, and he did not require them
to produce a license. The Courts of
Ohio aud of Kentucky refused to
acknowledge the legality of a marriage
unless a license b?;d been obtained, and
as 80 per cent, of the couples married
by the 'Squire and living together as
husband and wife htul not obtained a
license, serious complications arose,
and Chancery and Orphans' Court
cases multiplied. The Governors of
both States were petitioned to set the
matter straight. Accordingly, about
two years ago, the Legislatures of
Kentucky and Ohio passed laws legal
izing all the marriages that had been
performed in Aberdeen for the past
seventeen or eighteen years.
When the founder of the marriage
establishment died, there was no Jus
tice appointed to his place. .Massie
Beasley seized the opportunity to start
up the old business without going
through the formality of getting an
appointment as Justice. lie announced
himself as ready to perform marriage
ceremonies, and signed himself there
after "Massie lieu-ley, Esq., Acting
Justice of the Peace." Legally he
has no more to perform the mar
riage ceremony than your correspond
ent, but he told me that, under the
common law, his marriages would be
legal, lie issues the following certifi
AliKi:l>l:i.N, Broun County, Ohio.
Know alt nun In/ t'uxr /truant* : 1 hut on the
fifteenth day of December, one thousand I
hundred and Heventv-niiie, appeared before me
at my office in Aberdeen, lirown county, Ohio,
John Smith, of .Maysville, Mason county, Ky.,
and Jane Jones, <>l' Paris, Itotirbon county,
Ky., and enterc I into a contract of marriage,
in the presence of the following u'ittnesscs :
[Seal.] Acting Justice of the Peace.
..... I Jons IK»k.
XV j MAItV I)OK.
Provided with this document, the
runaways go home and ask forgiveness
and tin; paternal and maternal blessing.
This point gained, it is very easily to
go before a legal officer and get the
bond cemented so strongly that noth
ing but law or death can dissolve it.
Many of them do this, but the majority
are content to accept Massie Beasley's
ceremony us legal. It is doubtful
whether these marriages would stand
theteiitof a Court of law, however,
either in Ohio or Kentucky.
Many romances could be founded on
the experiences of this old 'Squire.
Very often the twain who seek his
services art; hotly pursued, and then
the words that are spoken are "short
and few " It is related of tho first
'Squire that his ceremonies were of
the most laconic description. A couple
would present themselves, the woman
trembling and blushing, the man bold
"Join hands," the old 'Squire would
This done, he would turn to the man
I "Have her?"
BUTLER, PA., WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 7, ISSO.
"Have him ?"
"Hitched. Five dollars."
When tin l fee was handed out by
the happy husband, he made out the
"certificate," and the two departed re
A few weeks ago the Catholic
i Bishop across the river referred to
these marriages from the pulpit, char
acterizing Massie Beasley as a "dirty
old 'Squire," and threatiling to excom
municate any of his flock who got
married before him. The 'Squire re
plied iu a letter, which was published
in all the local newspapers, and the
consfquence of this notoriety was a
large increase of his business.
"Nothin' like advertisin'," chuckled
the 'Squire, as he showed me his book
of registry aud pointed out the in
crease. "I wish all the parsons, and
priests and bishops in Kentucky would
attack me. Lord bless your soul, I'd
have more business than I could 'tend
A PITTSBURGH CHURCH MIL
PITTSBURGH, Dec. 21, 187H.—The
troubles of the First Reformed Presby
terian Church iu this city will not
down. Yesterday the faction oppo.-ing
the Rev. Nevin Woodside, pastor-elect,
announced through a newspaper that
the Rev. Robert Clyde would occupy
the pulpit in the evening, the commit
tee on supplies of the Presbytery hav
ing so directed. The Woodside people
came back through the evening papers,
announcing that Woodside would
preach both morning and evening.
The anti-Woodsiders appointed 3.:J0
p. M. as the hour for their services,
and still determined to hold the church
against the opposing faction. Wood
side this morning announced that the
Sabbath School would be held at half
past two, an hour later than usual.
Shortly after three o'clock the anti-
Woodside faction gathered at the
church, and Dougald Munn took a seat
in front to leatl the prayer-meeting,
Mr. Clyde having declined to preach.
R. C. Miller, a Woodside man, told
Munn there would be a row if they
held services, and soon after Sunday
School was dismissed Munn announced
to the audience that the Session of the
church had decided to postpone the
"What Session? This church has
no Session !" exclaimed Woodside.
"This church has a Session," chimed
in Treasurer James Houston.
This proved the signal for a row.
Woodside pulled off his overcoat and
with the crowd rushed up around
Houston anil Alexander Ulaek, another
Trustee. A regular melee ensued.
Klder Dickson was struck on the head
and severely cut with a poker. Stew
art, son of Elder Munn, was knocked
off a chair and his spectacles went
flying over the seats. Elder Bickersteff
was run out of the church by the
Woodside men and received a severe
fall. Trustee Borckley was struck on
the head, face and wrist with an um
brella by one of Mun's men. Numer
ous other blows were struck and severe
The excitement ran high and Elder
Munn rushed for the assistance of the
police, but the disturbance was quelled
before the officers arrived. Mrs. Munn
gave Woodside a red-hot tongue-lash
ing, and foul language and even pro
fanity was heard on all sides. A half
dozen young iuen or more, belonging
to either faction, were under the in
fluence of whisky. The scenes were
certainly the most disgraceful ever had
in this city.
At the evening services Woodside
said, from the pulpit, that so long as
he was pastor no man else had the
right to preach there, and, until lie
was deposed by higher authority, no
man should come into the pulpit with
out his consent. And thus the mat
ter stands now, but where it will end
no one can tell.
A LONG-LIVED QUEEN.
And now, as she looks back on the
two anil forty years of her reign, what
changes has Her Majesty seen in the
personnel of her Privy Council, her
Parliament, and her Cabinet Ministers,
to say nothing of her Judicial and
Episcopal bench ! She has outlived by
several years every Bishop and every
Judge whom she found seated on those
benches in England, Scotland and Ire
land. She has witnessed the funeral
of every Premier who has served un
der her, except Lord Beaconsfield and
Mr. Gladstone. .Not a Cabinet officer
of her uncle and predecessor's days
now survives, and those who held in
ferior offices under her first and favor
ite Premier, Lord Melbourne, I can
find among the living only Lord Hali
' fax (then Charles Wood) and Lord
Mowing (now Lord Grey). Of the
mcmliers of the Privy Council which
sat at Kensington Palace on that
bright summer morning in June, 18:57,
to administer the oaths to the girlish
Queen, I can find in the land of the
living only four individuals—(Jeorge
S. Byng (now Lord Strafford), Sir
Stratford Canning (now Lord Strat
ford de Redeliffe), Lord Robert Gros
venor (now Lord Ebury), and the vet
eran Earl of Wilton. Indeed, it may
be said that Her Majesty has lived to
receive at court in very many, per
haps in most instances, the successive
wearers of the same coronet, and she
has seen four Lords Beauchamp, four
Lords Aberdeen, four Dukes of New
castle, four Dukes of Northumberland,
and five Lords Rodney. She has re
ceived the homage of four Archbishops
of Canterbury, of four Archbishops of
York, and of five Bishops of Canter
bury, Lichfield and Durham success
ively. She has filled three of the
Chief Justiceships twice at least; she
has received the addresses of four suc
cessive Speakers of the House of Com
mons ; she has intrusted the great s«al
of the kingdom to no less than nine
different Lord Chancellors, and she
has commissioned eight successive
Premiers to form no less than thirteen
—Doesn't come ajiji*»—A boy baby.
I El>l SO N S EL ECTR IU LWIIT.
THE GREAT INVENTOR MAKES A NEW
AND REMARKABLE 111 SCO VERY.
rN. u York Herald, oftlie 2!M nlt.l
Kdison's oloctrit* llfhl i-* priwliMvtl
froiu :i little piece nf j»ajn r—a tiny
strip that a breath would blow away.
Through this little strip of paper i?
passed an electric current, and the re
sult is a bright, beautiful light, like
the uiellow sunset of au Italian au
tunsn. Edison makes the little piece
of paper more infusible tliiu platinum,
more durable than granite. And this
involves no complicated process. The
pajier is merely baked in an oven un
til all its elements have passed away
except its carbon framework. The
latter is then placed in a glass jrlobe
connected with the wires leading to
the electricity producing machine, and
the air exhausted from the globe.
Then the apparatus is ready to give
out a light that produces no deleteri
ous gas-s, no smoke, no offensive
odors—a litrht without flame, without
danger, requiring no matches to ignite,
giving out but little ln»at, vitiating no
air, and free from all flickering; a
light that is a little globe of sunshine,
a veritable Aladdin's lamp. And this
light, the inventor claims, can be pro
duced cheaper than that from the
Sitting one night in his laboratory
reflecting on some of the unfinished
details, Edison began abstractedly
rolling between his fingers a piece of
compressed lampblack mixed with tar
for use in his telephone. For several
minutes his thoughts continued far
away, his fingers in the meantime
mechanically rolling out the little
piece of tarred lampblack untill it had
become a slender filament. Happen
ing to glance at it the idea occurred
to him that it might give good result
as a burner if made incandescent. A
few minutes later the experiment was
tried, and, to the inventor's gratifica
tion, satisfactory, although not sur
prising, results were obtained. Fur
ther experiments were made, with al
tered forms and composition of the
substance, each experiment demon
strating that at last the inventor was
upon the right track.
A COTTON THREAD.
A spool of cotton thread lay on the
table in the laboratory. The inventor
cut off a i-mall piece, put it in a groove
between two clamps of iron, and
placed the latter iu the furnace. The
satisfactory light obtained from the
tarred lampblack had convinced him
that filaments of carbon of a tex
ture not previously used in electric
lighting were the hidden agents to
make a thorough success of incandes
cent lighting, and it was with this
view that he sought to test the carbon
remains of a cotton thread. At the
expiration of an hour he removed the
iron mould containing the thread from
the furnace and took out the delicate
carbon framework of the thread—all
that was left of it after its fiery ordeal.
This slender filament he placed in a
globe and connected it with the wires
leading to the machine generating the
electric current. Then he extracted
the air from the globe and turned on
Presto ! a beautiful light greeted his
eyes. He turns on more current ex
pecting the fragile filament instantly
to fuse ; but no, the only change is a
more brilliant light. He turns on
inore current, and still more, but the
delicate thread remains entire. Then,
with characteristic impetuosity and
wondering, and marveling at the
strength of the little filament, he turns
on the full power of his machine and
eagerly watches the consequence. For
a minute or more the tender thread
seems to struggle with the intense
heat passing through it—heat that
would melt the diamond itself—then
at last it succumbs and all is darkness.
The powerful current had broken it in
twain, but not before it had emitted a
light of several gas jets. Eagerly the
inventor hastened to examine under
the microscope this curious filament,
apparently so delicate, but in reality
much more infusible than platinum, so
long considered one of the most in
fusible of metals. The microscope
showetl the surface of the filament to
be highly polished and its parts inter
woven with each other.
THE PAPER LIGHT.
It was also noticed that the filament
had obtained a remarkable degree of
hardness compared with its fragile i
character before it was subjected to
the action of the current. Night and
day, with scarcely rest enough to eat
a hearty meal or catch a brief repose,
the inventor kept up his experiments,
and from carbonizing pieces of thread
he went to splinters of wood, straw,
paper, and many other substances
never before used for that purpose,
j The results of his experiments showed
' that the substance best adapted for
carbonization and the giving out of
incandescent light was paper prefera
' bly thick like cardboard, but giving
I good results even when very thin,
j The beautiful character of the illumi
nation and the steadiness, reliability,
; and non-fusibility of the carbon fila
j ment were not the only elements in
cident to the new discovery that
| brought joy to the heart of Edison.
There was a further element—not the
less necessary because of its being
hidden—the element of a proper and
uniform resistance to the passaire of
the electric current.
The inventor's efforts to obtain this
| element had been by far the most
laborious of any in the history of Lis
i work from the time he undertook the
task, and without it absolute success
to electric incandescent illumination,
could not lie predicted, even though
all the other necessary properties were
j present in the fullest degree.
]' issing over the scores of experi
ments made since the discovery that
the carbon framework of a little piece
of paper or thread was the best sub
stance possible for incandescent light
ing, we come to consider the way in
which the same is prepared at the pres
ent time in the laboratory.
MAKING TIIK PAPER CARBON.
With a suitable punch there is cut
, from a piece of "Bristol" cardboard a
strip of the sume in the form of a min-
iature horseshoe, about two inches in
length and one-eighth of an inch in
width. A number of these strips are
laid flatwise in a wrought iron mould
about the size of the hand and sep
arated from each other bv ti? ;: ue pnper
The mould i lhen covered and placed
in an oven, where it is gradually
raise d to a temperature of about six
hundred degrees Fahrenheit. This
allows the volatile portions of the
paper to pass'away. The mould is
then placed in a furnace and heated
almost to a while heat, and then re
moved and allowed to cool gradually.
On opening the mould the charred re
mains of the little horseshoe cardboard
arc found. It must be taken out with
the greatest care, else it will fall to
pieces. After lieing removed from the
mould it is placed t'n a little globe and
attached to the wires leading to the
generating machine. The globe is
then connected with an air pump, and
the latter is at once set to work ex
tracting the air. After the air has
been extracted tho globe is sealed, and
the lamp is ready for use.
REGULATED AT THE MAIN, LIKE GAS—
He finds that the electricity can be
regulated with entire reliability at the
central station, just as the pressure of
gas is now regulated. By his system
of connecting the wires, the extin
guishment of certain of the burners af
fects the others uo more than the ex
tinguishment of the same numl)er of
gas burners affects those drawing the
supply from the same mains. The
simplicity of the completed lamp seems
certainly to have arrived at the high
est point, and Edison asserts that it is
scarcely possible to simplify it more.
The entire cost of constructing them
is not more than twenty-five cents.
The lamp shown is a table lamp.
For chandeliers, it would consist of
only the vacuum globe and the carbon
filament attached to the chandelier
and connected to the wires leading to
the generating machine in a central
station, perhaps a half mile away, the
wires being run through the gas pipes,
so that in reality the only change ne
cessary to turn a gas jet into an elec
tric lamp is to run the wires through
the gas pipe, take off the jet, and
screw the electric lamp in the latter's
place. Although the plans have been
fully consummated for general illumi
nation, the outline of the probable sys
tem to be adopted is the locating of a
central station in large cities in such a
manner that each station will supply
an area of about one-third of a mile.
In each station there will ba, it is con
templated, one or two engines of im
mense power, which will drive several
generating machines, each generating
machine supplying about fifty lamps.
ANU / /•: N T IIA N KINO.
.Mr. F. (}. Hilton Price, F. Q. S.,
read a paper at the opening meeting of
the Institute of Bankers, entitled
"Notes on Ancient Bankers and Gold
smiths to the Close of the Seventeenth
Century." Mr. Price, who is the au
thor of "The Handbook of London
Bankers," gave a large number of ven'
interesting facts on the subject, refer
ring in the opening part of his paper
to the little that is known of the opera
tions of banking, or trade of an equiv
alent character, among the Chinese
and Hindoos as far back as 22f>0 B. C.
Although there were no actual records
of banking among the ancient Egyp
tians, yet it appeared certain that that
class of traders existed, as was inferred
from various uses made of precious
metals. Some of the monetary trans
actions mentioned in the Bible some
2,000 years 11 C. were also referred to.
The author dwelt on the recent discov
eries made in Assyria by the late Geo.
Smith, of the British Museum, and
gave translations of tablets discovered
by that gentleman, especially in con
nection with the tablets of checks, re
ceipts and other records of a great
firm of the name of Egibi, who flour
ished .V.17 B. ('. These tablets ho clas
sified in order. A remarkable fact in
connection with tho tablets was that
each bore the day of the month, date
and regnal year of the monarch in
whoso reign the transactions were
made. Among the tablets was also a
bank almanac of tjie firm, containing
the complete calendar of the Babylo
nian year. It apjieared from this dis
closuru that the usurious rate of cent
per cent, was sometimes charged on
loans. The speaker then passed on to
notice the monetary transactions of
the Greeks, among whom, especially
in Athens, there were plenty of money
dealers. Bills of exchange were, in
these early times, made use of, and
could be transmitted from place to
place 'Although much was known of
the Roman practice, there was no in
formation whether the check—the at
tributis, or per scriptum—was capable
of being transferred to any one else by
the person who received it, or whether
it was only payable to the drawee.
Ilecent discoveries at Pompeii, in the
■house of a Roman banker, had re
sulted in unearthing the actual tablets
used in his banking business, and they
represented receipts for payment and
the registration of payments made to
the public exchequer. After the Nor
man Conquest, t lie Jews were brought
to England by William 1., and intro
duced bills of exchange and the prac
tice of lending money at interest upon
security of landed property. The next
point noticed was the rise and progress
of tin- goldsmiths, chiefly in London.
Previous to the fire, goldsmiths lived
in Chcpe. After the fire they removed
to Lombard street. About the time ot
Charles I the goldsmiths had su|>er
tluous bullion in the Tower of London
for safe keeping; but this led to the
King seizing the whole, amounting to
£200,000, and it was some time In-fore
the sum was repaid.
—A colored political preacher once
told his hearers that "publicans" were
frequently mentioned in tho New Tes
tament. "But de hull Bible," he con
tinued, "from one lid to tother, don't
say dimicrat wunst!"
"Ah," said a deaf man who had
been scoldmg his wife, "man wants
but little hear below."
THE YOUNG INDIAN.
In the spacious lecture room of the
American Sunday School Uuion, 11M
Cliestuut street, there was a large and
intelligent audience a lew days ago.
listening to accounts of the educa
tional work for Indians, under the
auspices of the Government, at Carlisle
Barracks, Pa., and Hampton, Ya. Ex-
Governor Pollock presided.
Gen. S. C. Armstrong, Superintend
ent of the Hampton Institute, speak
ing of the sixty-eight Indian children
there, said that it wat> only a little
over a year since be received the first
of them from Capt. H. 11. Pratt, IT. S.
A., who was then at Fort Marion, St.
Augustine, Fla., but who is uow Su
perintendent of the Indian school estab
lished at Carlisle Barracks about a
He found that these young Indians
bad not l>een used to obeying, but they
were disposed to do right. They
showed skill in all mechanical work,
especially in leather manufactures.
The object of the institute was to pre
pare them to teach their own people to
work intelligently. They were fond of
drawing and sketching and of painting
on pottery, and the institute encour
aged them in this by giving them a
little pocket-money for their work.
They also liked to attend prayer-meet
ings, questions and expressing
their opinions there. Not being poly
theistic their minds were the more
easily moulded to truth. Being sent
there by the Government, no denomi
national influence was imposed upon
them. Five of them, who were Ro
man Catholics, had been given per
mission, at the request of Bishop
Keene, of Richmond, to attend mass.
Nevertheless the institution was de
cidedly Protestant, and if it was de
sired to make Catholics of these youth
they would have to be taken away
from there. Geu. Armstrong l>elieved
that there were in these Indian chil
dren elements of power and an intense
individuality to be found nowhere else
outside of the Caucasian race.
Capt. Prattt said that he had one
hundred and fifty-six Indian children—
forty girls and one hundred and sixteen
boys—in the Carlisle school. They
were brought there by him last month
from the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail
Agencies, away beyond the Black
Hills, in Dakota. At first the Red
Cloud people were not willing to part
with their children, but after Captain
Pratt's arguments to show that the
superior attainments of the pale face
were due to his education, they con
sented. Two thousand Indians as
sembled to see them off, and they cele
brated the occasion by making presents
to the old and poor of horses and
other gifts, in behalf of the parents of
the departing children. The Spotted
Tail people were more willing at the
outset than the others to let their chil
dren go East.
There was room for five hundred
children at Carlisle, Capt. Pratt said,
and it was a good means of testing this
Indian educational question. He had
asked the Government for enough of
children to fill the place. All that the
young Indians wanted was a chance—
just what other children should have.
Instead of having "a fence built around"
the Indians, Capt. Pratt would like to
see them scattered over the country, as
the negro and other races were The
Indians are not lazy. Somebody had
to dig out of the ground what the
Indian ate and wore; if the Indiau
would not do it somebody else must,
and if that somebody refused then
there would be trouble. What good
could be done, asked the speaker, in
the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail
Agencies, for instance, where there
were seven thousand or more persons
whom the Government expected to be
taught farmiug by only one man and
to be educated by only two school
ma'ams ? Capt. Pratt thought that it
would be beneficial also to let the In
dians see the civilization of the large
cities, so as to get an idea of what
could be done through the medium of
education. When educated the Indians
should not be sent back, to be again
drawn under by the resistless current
of barbarism that could not be stemmed
by the policy so far adopted by the
There was a hum of interest through
out the audience when one of Capt.
Pratt's Carlisle pupils, Etahdlcun
Doanmoe (Hunting Boy), a youth of
the Kiowa tribe, in Indian Territory,
was led to the platform by ex-Governor
Pollock. Before coming to Carlisle he
was a pupil of Gen. Armstrong's, at
Hampton, having been sent there by
Captain Pratt from Florida. He is
twenty-three years of age, with a
candid, pleasing expression on his
copper-colored face, and possessing all
the physical characteristics of the
typical Indian. Of neat personal ap
pearance and a highly agreeable ad
dress, he was attentively listened to as
he gave, in broken, guttural English,
a brief account of his life and adven
tures. Ho expressed his appreciation
of the advantages to be derived from
education, and assured his hearers that
he did not want to live again as his
poor people lived in the ludian Ter
ritory. He hoped to be a physician.
Ex-Mayor Fox described the im
pressions made upon him by what he
luid heard, and spoke eloquently in
advocacy of this movement. Similar
remarks were made by ex-Governor
Pollock, after which a resolution,
offered bv ex-Mavor Fox, thanking
i Gen. Armstrong and Capt. Pratt ami
i urging a Congressional appropriation
, for the purpose of promoting intelli
gent education of the Indian, under
the auspices of the Government, was
—A skeptic who was badgering a
simple-minded old man about the mir
acles and Balaam's ass, finally said:
"How is it possible for an ass to talk
like a mau ?" "Well," replied the
honest old believer, with meaning em
phasis, "I don't see why it ain't just
as easy for an ass to talk like a man as
it is for a man to talk like an a*S."
—When people are killed by an
, overdose of opiates isn't It laudan'um
I to the xVfa" ?
One nqnare, on* insertion, 91; wh iuU
inciit insertion, 60 cent*. Yearly advertisement*
exccidiug one-fourth of a column, f5 per inch.
Figure work double these rates; additional
'•liaise# where weekly or monthly changes are
rasde. Local advertisements 10 cents iter liuA
for first insertion, and 5 cento |>«r line tut each
additional insertion. Umiriagee and deaths pub
lished free <>f charge. Obituary notices charged
as ad Torti turnout*. an 1 |ut\*bl-i when handed in
Auditors' Notices, ft; Kiecntors' and Adminis
trators' Notices. 43 each; Estrav. Caution an*
Dissolution Notices, not exceeding ten linee,
From the fact that the CITIZM is the olden'
established and moat extensively circulated Re
publican nenrsfiaper in Butler county, (a Hepub
hean county) it must be apparent* to business
men that it is the medium they should use in
advertising their business.
WHY A WESTERN RESERVE LEOTSLATOR
WILL VOTE FOR A WOMAN.
f< ..lumbt:s Cor. of the lievelund Leader.]
There tire many humorous incidents
connected with the organization of the
General Assembly which seldom
come to the surface. An amusing
piece of history in connection with the
formation of the next Legislature has
just leaked out, aud the principal in
the affair, the one on whom the joke
rests, has finally owned up, saving
there cau be uotbing gained in hold
iug the facts back, uow that there has
been a suspicion aroused.
Soon after the election Senator
elect Horr, of Wellington, Lorain
county, received among other letters
asking for his support for various posi
tions, one from L. C. Darst which he
promptly answered. Soon after Mr.
Horr. while reading the papers, no
ticed the announcement that Miss
Lillie C. Darst, editress of the Circle
ville Herald, was a candidate for Re
cording Clerk in the Senate. It just
then occurred to the Senator-elect that
he had rather placed himself on record ;
he had written the lady and addressed
her as L. C. Darst, Esq. Here was trou
ble, but the law-maker-elect after con
sidering the benefit of time-locks in
banking houses at once set about to
repair the demoralizing effect he
thought might follow the latter. With
true gallantry the jovial gentleman
procured some of the most killing
note paper, gilt edged, probably per
fumed, and composed one of those
most ample apologies to Miss Darst,
who appreciating the situation the
"reserved" gentleman was in allayed
his anxiety by penning the following
letter, which in due course of time
found its way to the Senator-elect,
who now congratulates himself on the
happy termination of his troubles.
CIRCLEVILLE, ()., Dec. 1, IX7O.
Hon. R. A. Horr:
DEAR SIR : lam so used to being
addressed as "L. C. Darst," that I
really feel lost without the title, and
dare say I shall sail up to the polls
and vote some day in sheer forgetful
An editor is an impersonal sort of
person at any rate, and I do not think
a copy of the Herald conveys the
idea at first glance, or even on peru
sal, that it is edited and published by
I want my work judged as work,
not as a "woman's work," and now
that you have "abetter acquaintance,"
when I see you in Columbus, and ask
the favor of your vote and influence, I
will not only not be offended, I will
be quite delighted, if you say "Yes,
Will you not? Sincerely,
L. C. DARST.
Now what can the Senator-elect say
to this sharp response? He thinks
he can only say "Yes, sir," and if
there are any others who have been
addressing Miss Lillie C. Darst as
"My Dear Sir," and "Esq." tbey will
doubtless IHJ pleased to do as Senator
Horr says he shall—vote for her.
When such sharp and spicy letters
reach a member it has a tendency to
fetch him, and when Miss Darst asks
for his vote he'll not refuse to grant
the request. The fact is he "Darst"
A MOUNTAIN OF GOLD.
[From the I'lurnix (Arirona) Herald.]
Some excitement is being created
among the Mexican population of
Phoenix by the story of a Mexican, who
arrived last evening from the Reno
Mouutains. He camo into town under
cover of darkness, as he was nearly
naked. His hands and feet were torn
and bloody and his face gashed in a
fearful manner. His story was told
with the air of a man who had been
terribly frightened and had not recov
ered. With a companion he started
out prospecting about a month ago,
going up Salt river. They left the
river when opposite the Superstitious
Mountain. Their prospecting began at
this point. While climbing up the
mountain, in a little gully, through
black sand, and down which a large
stream of water had evidently passed
years ago, tbey were astonished to
"find that in this sand were large quan
tities of fine gold. In some places the
sand was only about half an inch deep
over the granite. The gold, in pieces
the size of a l>ean and smaller, was
found in the little fissures in the
face of the bed-rock. Very little wash
ing was necessary, and they found a lit
tle spring of water which furnished
them what they needed. They ob
tained, they think, about sfioo worth
in naif a day's work. About 2 o'clock
in the afternoon they were surprised to
see an Indian woman come to the top
of the gulch above the spring and
start to come down. Upon seeing
them she ran back over the hill. In
less than ten minutes they were sur
rounded by fifty or sixty savages.
The Indians were very small, and
seemed to lie of a different nature
than they had seen in Arizona. The
Mexicans were not armed, except with
knives, and the survivor says they
were almost instantly caught with lar
iats. Thejlndians took them up the
mountain and put them in a cavo.
They tortured and killed his compan
ion, and his fate would have been tho
same but for his escape, lie succeeded
in getting away with only a few knife
gashes on his face. They lost their
gold with all their outfit. The Indians
seemed to be cave-dwellers, and were
evidently excited over the place lieing
found by outsiders. Our reporter's
limited knowledge of the Spanish lan
guage makes it impossible for us to ob
tain all the particulars of the affair.
For the benefit of non-residents we will
say that Superstition Mountain derives
its name from the fact that no white
man has ever l»ecn seen again who at
tempted its ascension. It is a tradition
amoug the Mexicans that large depos
its of free gold are to lie found in its
gulches and ravines. It is not known
whether there is any water there or
—A little boy was asked if he had
a good memory." "No," said he, "but
I hive a tfood forgethry."