Newspaper Page Text
• • • •- •
• Healy t ont!) . Memorrat,
PUBLISHED EVEItY. TIIIIIII9DAY ,TIOANING, , •
By J. B: OVIATT,
SMETHPORT; AVICEAN COUNTY, PA.
ppleE,"s: ociitliEß OF YCDLIC,E.Quip.2
TERMS: • ffil 50 in 4dvanie
I6,tes of Advertising.
Column one Year..., • ,•—•-• •-• • • 435 0 0
•X • " ""• • '••• " "...•••• 20.00
• , t2OOO
.... ....... :1200
One Auer(' Of 12 lines of loss),:l . insertions i 1011
'.l , :udb subsequent insoftion,—;,. • '25
Ituotinesit Cards, with ;.....0 00*
Rule or figure work will be . 3loublci•ibti above rates:
Twelve llnes. °racier tynel . or eight lines nonptireil;49
rj. These Terms will bo strictly adhoreil •
'• • • BENNETT . 'IIOI7SE; • '
,nettipo'rt, St , Reail CO.:, • Pa: E. S..lllAscoi, Propyldtor
.titpositertho Ociurt Douro. .4. new ; Info ' 'comthodl
" tilts and, lantl furnish6d.hduse. • •
Dealer.itt Stoves,.Tin• Ware, Saonined Ware' ace.; 'west
side of 'the Public, Square, Smethport,.Pa. Otistom
• ”.,work'done to order on s thtA shortest netico; . ansi in. the
,boat substantial."nanner: • ' :
Do. AL. 'A.. Santana . sirotild respectfully announce to the
• . eitisens of dinetliport and.Sicibity, that ho has fitted .
up do Office, and id prepared to 'attend to all Isatinese
mlll4 profesalon. Artificial teeth ; inserted upon. sci
'eatilic principles', Midi', as fo'preservolho natural ex- .
ipression.of the face All' operationitn Dental Surgery
'doue In a skillful manner. - • , •. lOt
. . .
Deiler'ln Stoves. Tin Ware, me, Ware, &.3'.', Nest
and of.. tbo 'Public Square, Smethport, ..Pa.• Guitom
work done to order' collie .shorteit notice, find In the
inentnubatantial manner. • ' . - .
• , . .
'A,'- P. Proprietor.. Olenii, 'N. Y. . Omnibus runs
- to ind.from the, New. York and Eric IT:tittle:ld: - Stages
..for Stnethricire:and Cpree. •. .
S. J '.osonoo Proprietor; ...111 . ctoray. Pa. This, lEotel. ja.
new and-furnished In nthdeim atylo, liaa 'ample :cown
.modations, arytin, in all reapeeta,.a Fir,atClasa 110te1...•
.11.id;leay,Elk Co. Pa.lle.y 24.1E180 ~ , • . .. :'
Jonx WEpt, Pioprietoi• Thin house Is • eituated•hal
• "way t.ctwenn Scsethport and Ole:us. 'A. cons - mien
commodious hens', eltentivi,' and obliging attend
entn, and low prices, • ' '' • • • • •
• ' Eldred Man 17
•l• .'' ,'-' A. D. HAMLIN',. .
. . ..,
suryo, v or, ' DrattAntn Conrcyance'r,- •And Reil . Ectato
Azont. fimetbport,- 1I Kean county, Pa,' -
.'.•• • . 'WILLIAM WlliKlff, ' •, .
. . .
Practical .Mazlianic., - MillnCight;. Bridge-buitOrr, , .k.c
„Port Allagliony, SPliaan county; Pa.... . . .
J. L. BROWN,
SURV.EYOR; DRAFTSMAN. CONV EY!i - Ng ER and Real.
,Retikte Agf!nt; . Ofßee, Wlllianylvi Ile, Elk Venn'a
• . nereannnee-
Chapin & Doyle, ..Fleren.,
lion, Theinae Rt.rether;,
A. I. WUona.
CARVER - HOUSE; ' '
J un:4 It, Iluct; Protirietnr. corner of Water and Ilicker,t•
Streets, Warren. Its. tletteral Stage 011iee. •.
rosts I .HOUSE,
Fronting the Public Sgoarei Oiean,.N. Y... 'Ltasks M.
!diLtuti. Proprietor, The Fobes !ToWsn is entirely-new
and built of brick. and la, tarnished in modern atyle.
. The proprietor tiattres hitriaelf that lila aceruinoda
. tioUs•ard not uttrpassed.by Any hotel in,Western Spry
York. Carriage's run to an.d& froni the New York•diad
Erie Rail Road.:
BYRON D. HANILIti,
. , . .
At rt)EiY IT . LAW; ;11 - 11etbp0 . rt, M'Kein CA.IIItV. p:l.,
X z ent r 9 r , AteSsrs. Iceatin.z. ,k,- 1!.) , A Laeols ' 'Attends
espociallk to the. Coll Optio n. of Claims; Exalninatiot: of
Cand,Titles; Payment of TaTp, ntr.toil husinehii refs.
ting tp Iles, Estate.. Office-in liumlin Block.. : . • ,
E. BOUGIITON EI;DRED,
. . . . . . .
.Attorney nod' Counsellor nt limy: Smetliport i . filigenn
County, Pa. Iliieriess .entrusted to LI? care fur the
counties of MiKean. ('otter and Elk will be pronimly
' nitoruled Cu. Office In the Oeurtlieusei' second floor:
DR. L.' It. IN ISNER,
Phyalciiin and fificgeon, 'Sulk!wort, Pa, will aitend
all profesalowil cello .witli. promptness, Office in iiart•
well Block,alecond•floor. • , . .•
THING k MILtER,,
Wholesale find.Retal Dealers in Slaple,'and Farlek Dry
• Goods, Carileting; Ready Made.Clolhine., and General
Purnivhing Onedn,,Boefe and 'Shoes, Wall and Window
Paper, Looking Glainea.ke.,. At.blean. N. Y. •.
JOHN C. BACKUS,
, . .
Attorney rind Counsellor at Law, Hmetliport, IKlKran Co
IPa.• 'WilLsttend to 01 business'in his prnfessloo In the
counties of MlKeen, Potter and Elk. Office oter O.K.
• .9artwell.& Brothers' Store. .• •
. . ,
,Comer of Sooon , l,an'd I,llForty, atreata, : Warren, Pa. R.
.'.. A - .. Bannon, Proprietor:, Trurolora vrill find good itc. ,
commodationa and roaaonabie clirgos. , . . .
itr Lenteec . . eroprieto'r,-6Alleghony ltridge; Ml,Kesn
. This bonne is.eiturtted About nine Innen from
ihnothwirt on the Thad , lo,O r leavii and round a
convenient stopping•place • '
• • EARNERS' 'VALLEY HOTEL
ay. T: Goo riwrs. This house is situated about five mile
.• train Smathpnrt on the road to•Oloan. ,Pleisit re partie
• and othO,a can bQ accommodated on•the atm . :lest notice
W. S. BROWNELL,
Poalorau DiT. Bonds, Grocorien,"Crockert, .flsrdwaro,
'Boots, Shoos, Hats, Baps, Glass, Naps. &c.
Bast side of the Public Squhis, Smethport, Pa..
Shlppen, NVlCein 00,, PrOpylelor
/ A nomnuidinus nnd'woll-turninhed house: Strange.
ind Gisvelers pill find gciod kneconmodn,iiinin.. • , •
PORT ALLEGANY ROUSE,
. . . . .
Elfontill. potter,. kroprietnr o at Port ; Allegany, ne:
gentiCounti . ra. This Hotel issituated at the june
. tton of the Smethpert and Allegany Itivor toads, nine
. ranee east of Smathport. - . .
SZIIETIIPOILT; Co, Pa.' •
WI. -HASKELL .. : :.• :
This Gouse Iserell Calculated for the accommodation
mt the .Travelling Public. hoeing feecntly been repedrell
and remodeled.. Good deem and BMbles. Charges rats
-1!°,011.11• ' States for %Beni Shippenand Ridgway.
limethoort, July 2,1860, :• " ' •
To Those . Inferested in Mining and
. - . • . ,
W. IL • BARNIIS offers his . services for the exemtne,
of , thin of Mineral Lands- In St , finan end 'Elic enim
-414C,412CV will gfire his opinion as to tho VALUE OF
Ming, *o. • Those engaging hisserviessarill receive
iallieneseary and'rellable informat i on: Residermo at
.1100ker 0111 • • . • , , • •
80rgesnt, .131 , Koan C0 .,- Juno 30,3850.. • '
• B. itYDE,
i ppe, o sii.ii , -Law t :timethport,. ?Aeon no., Ps: Col
pronvtly stip:led to. Feb. Itt
„ . .
Representatitiii:' '• .
•'. HaVing.been convened cin •en extraordinary
• necirsiii, as, authorized. by :theiConstjt.titiod;
your : attention is.not.ealled 'to any. or d inary
subject of legislation.... At the begibring.of the
present Eiresidentiaf term four Month .
functions. of - the 'Federal .Government Were:
- found to be:generallylitiSpended:Within the' sev .
oral States of .S'ouin :Carolina; Georgia, : Ala
bama, Mississippi,` Louisiana and' Florida;
cepting only those:of' thd ,Post
anent.' Within these•State.s,:all the farts, arse- -
nals, dock yards;ciistorti houses, - and
'including the 'movable and 'stationary property.
in and about them; hid been 'seized and were
held in'oPen hostility . to the 'Government,- es,,-:,
rept ing only. Forts Pickens, Zaylorand.jefler
sofa, on and.rwarthe coast of Florida; and Suim-:
ter, in Charlestim Irlarbor,.Soirt . h . .Carolinl. The
forte; thus seized had been pat :in improved cop
ditionoiew ones - built, and irmed.:Jorces had
:beerrorvanized and were Organizing, all avowed :
iy . with7thepa*.hcistile prirpose. • • .
The forts remaining. in the paSession of- the
FederalGovernmentiri and ne.ir these States;
were either besieged-or ntepaced . ly 1, - varlike
preparations, and espccidily'Fortj . Sumter was
nearly'surroundedftry.wellp - rotected.hdstilebat
tries; with gOns.equal . in quality to the be l n t . of
tits 00 - n, and; outnumberingtheiritter-as, eis
hdps',ienfo one. A dispropo - rtionate ,share . of.
the federal muskets arid rifles had; some how,.
found their wayinto these States, and had been
seized to be used, against the piverriment: 'Ac
cumulations of the public revenue; lying with
thern,liad 'been,seiied for the sameobject: The
navy was' scattered in distant-seas„leaving but
a very small pir t. of it” within- the 'immediate
.reach of. the. OoVernment.' Officers of the fede
ral army had resigned in great•numbers, nnd of
those resigning a laige.proportion haul taken Op
arms against . the'Goverriment.' 'Simultaneously
and in common with' all this, :the purpuiso
sever the - Federal *Union was, openly avowed.
In accordance with' this purnose,:an ordinance
had been adori . telf !each' of these: States,, de
claring' 'the Stafes respectively to be separated
from the National Union:: A fOrmula For insti
tuting-a combined ; government of the States
had been, prorriulgatecl:and this illegal organi-
zation . .—in ..the' character of. the .Confederate
States, was already . invoking recognition, aid
and intervention'tiomloieign powers,
. 'Finding this condition of thing and.belieying
it to' he an imperative duty Upon the incoming
execittiVe to prevent, irpossible, the:eonsuma
•tion'of such 'attempt destraythe 'Federal' ti'm
ion, a choice of -means to that. end became in—
chspensable: Thisi choice •was Made and was
declared in the inaugural address. • The policy
:chosen looked-to the'exhaostion•of nil peaceful
measures before a resort to stronger ones. It
sought o nly to hold tlk''public'Places anti:mop
eri'y notalready wresteil from the D'overnment
and to collection the revenues;' relying foi 'the
.rest-on time, iliScnision and; the ballot-box.
It prothiseda continuance ofthernails.at goy,
ernment . expense, to the 'very:people. who • 'were
resisting the Goliernme.itt,' and it gave repeated
pledges agairistany'disturhances to any of the.
people or any 'of -their yights, of .all.that,..which
a President might coristitntionally'additistilia- -
bly do in, such a . :case. !'.F.vertliitig, was' for
berne; withciut Whichit was believed possible
,to keep. the, Government 'on root. On.' the
of March, the.firesent incumbent?.i tirat full dayV .
iii.ofilee; a letter (rent Anderson',' Com
manding at Fort the-,.2Sth .
.of February, tied reeelved at the War Depart.
meet on the 4th'of March, :was tha.t Depart- ,
in, his hands..' This let ter express
cal the Prolessronalopinion of the writer, 'that
teinforcements could - mit 'lie • thinivn, int,o',llie !
Fort.svithin the tinie for.: rellef; Tendered !
necessary by the lintitki!supply of provisions, ,
anti with it'vievV.of: holding possession of the
!airte-with a force of less than twenty thou and
good and well disciplined men. •
This.opiihion 'was: concurred in by'all•the oili.
cerstot hid command, .and their :melt - tore tufa, nq
,stibjectVwer'e Made •errelostires 'or illajOr An-
. ... ,Wirre.- P.
But,nn. Yifith. Pa
. . .
derion's 'leiter. • The whole was laid I eture
Lieut..Cen. Scritt, - .who fit C*C.conctirrid.wiol
MajiwAnderion in his ,opiiiiom On 'reflection,
ho we'ver;• he took time-,conseiting with'
other officers both of the army. and ~the littvy;
and at the 'end of (Our days came' reluctantly .but
decitledry.to : the xame•canclusion hs before,
also stated fliat •no .such,.siifficient'.force wa's
then at:the control of theGovernrnent, or could
be raised and brought to the, ground within the
time when the proViSioni of tlie :Fort Wonld
exhausted. do a fiipery, military point' of.vie'w
this reduced the duty ot• the •adinintStration• in
the 'ease; to the mere mattera 'getting the gar:
rison safely out of, the fort. '..• - '
It was beiievedi hopiever, that to go 'abandrin
that tiosition under' the scircOmstapces, would
be Utterly' roinotis; • that the necessity' under
which it was be One 'would not be fully 'Un
derstood, that by many it,would ' be construed
: part.of . I . yoluntary• policy, that at borne it•
would discourage the friends of, the Union; em
boldening its advaxaries and go tat' to.insure to.
thelatter..aiecognitio • n abroad, that, in fact, • it
woidil.be our national dextroction Oonsutnated,
Thiscould not be allo•Weilt starvation was not
yet' upont hu garrison and ere.it would be reach-,
ed, Fort Pickens'. might, be '•reinforced.•'Thii
last' would be a clew: indication Of. policy, and
-would better enable the country to,aeCept. the
'evacuation of Fort Sumter as - a Military nitres- .
sity. . An order was at once direeted to:be.sent
for the landing of the • troops from. thesteainship
.13rookly.n Into• tort Pickens. This • order could
not go' by land, but. Must take the longer. and
slower rcite by sea, ...
• The first return newsfirim . the-Order was re
ceiver just one,week 'before the fail of. .sumtr.
Tiwnetes itself siballtiet the offieereemmand
leg the•Sabino, to. which .vessel, the .troops , had
been.transferred Ir m the Briteklyn, acting upon
some Ounsi'arMistine of the latendroinistratio9,.
,exiatence . Of 'which the present ad
ministration, tirt,to the timethe 'ortl9,l , .,wi,ede;,
.spotched, had only . too vague and uncertain ru
mors to fix attention, .had refused to land the
troops: To now•ieiforce Tort Pickens berore
a crisis would .Ife reitctied.at-Fort .adrrner
mpossible;—rcnclered .so by the nnor exhtius
ion of pi:ovidons in 'the latter , named fort: In
precaution againrt such conjuneturdthe.Gov.
einnient had a few days heferepommencedlire
riarini an expedition, as :welt ailipted.us might*
be, to relieve ,Fort Semter ) .wiiich .expedition
wag intended to k ultimately need or not, ae.
earding to cironmitarieeo. The,. striingf!t an-
, PRESIDENT'S . MESSAGE,
' ' $1; , ?•, ':' , •'4
, i l' . ''' ,
~ .•:, , 1 ,:. .. , '• ' ;: i. ",i , i >
,' ',: s
..i. , , ,
.. , :
:') ~'• !;:,
~,,.t •.' , ' ~. •' ' e
SMeJrHP . Q . R.T,:3l..'ic,fat:A . N . : ,.COU,l:4l''''. '':1'...e.,A , ,,•i : . ..1... 1 :0 -- #.giso , ..Ay . ;,; ., ,A • vo'::::2 . 2,;', i ): Sal;
ticipated case: for A useing it. was now presented.,
and itWae resoled , to :send it forward ,. as
It: was also - reibl ved to .notifY 'the' GkVernor
of Smith Carolina, that'll:a 'Might expects.in et
tempt belt - Jade : to..Mnviii.ans the 'fart; and
that if the . attempt..sflutrld not be resifted there
would be no .ettempt to
.throw in,trien, arms •or
anonniiiOn; . withent ttirther•notice, or in Casedof
an attack upon, the fort."
::This, notice was accordingly giveni_Wiie . reup•
:on the'fort.was- , attacted..and beinbarded• to its
fall, Without even awaiting
.thO 'arrival of.the
provisioning thui ''seen' that
the assault, upon tbe.,retinetion of Fort sarOter,
Was in no; sense a • Me tter.MS . ell-delence-on the;
part of. tile 'assailants.... They . .well knew that
the garrison in the stem could by ' . .ao'PeSsibility
commit. ageCession's...upon:them... the y knew:
they avero expVessly notified-that the.giving of.
bredd...to the few brave hungry 'niou-of the' was ail.'which•en thats:occasiOn , be at
tempted, . unless themselves ~by• resisting 'so
much should provoke s: More: •• • ‘'s
they. knew that tbis.Governtneit desired -to
keep the' garrison in the Mit, not to assail theni; -
. hut:merely:o maintain '.visible possession and
ihui to preserve' the Union from' actual artitm:
trusting as , herein b e f ore
,sta:ted to;-time; discussion' . and the hallot..box
fot final' ad)uittnentpand • tiwyasi'ailed—aiiiire
•duct4l.the fort for preeisely the reveries' ohieo,
to clriVeout the.' visitila , a.utliority of the:Fedll
ral and-thus !Dice it to immediate disso
That Allis was their object the exectitivo well
understood, andn'having saitfttr.'thern In' the In.
anntpral Address; — "Yon can live no .contlici
Withowt.b'eitrz yoursid yes' the. art'grca sors,"'he
kooli•puiris . not only to ireep 'this . . declaration
4.i00d,. but also to keePthe c'inSe'S'O - far from RO
phjit 1 . ); as that the . N%bild.:Should not inisonder
stand:sit. By the affair at-Fort Sumter with its'
surrOur,oing circumstances, :that pOirit 'was
.reached. .Then.cfrof thereby'the . l'aisailants of
the government began the conflict of arrns With
out a non in Sinltt. or in
_expectancy to 'return
their fire, save onlythe, few in the for tSent to
t het 'harbor yeltrs 4fore for their. own protec- .
tinn, - ;14)(1 stilt ready to niVe treat protection. in,
whatever was lawful: In this act itisearding
else,' they. have forced upon - the Country the (Hs ,
tinctissne=immethate 'dissolution or .blood.
And thiSinistie einhraces . more than the fate of '
these'pniterl.States. It presents to the whole.
ftrinity'of man One question whether a constitu
tional republicor democracy, a , government of
the . people, by the sarpe •people,. can or'eannot
maintain its territorial. integrity against its OW,II
dorpesric . foes. It presents the quesfion.wheth
er discontented individuals,foo few in numbers .
to control the•adoiinistratron 'accordin4•.to the.
Organ inslaW in any cese,.Crill al wa ys',. upon the
:pretenses. made iii this case or -any 'other prc-
ce..erhitarily, without any: pretense
b s reair up theii - g . neern inept, •n'nd . thus prne deal
ly put an end to free goVer.hinentupnn the earth
It luices us to ask,: "Is,•ihele in . all .rerun!li:'
.this 'inherent and fatal. we.akrie.is/' I\ u!t a doe
crotnent, Of neeessity, be tOo str ong for. the lib
. Own , . . .
(! rties• of its people, br.. - too , -weak to Main
lain 119 own..oxbi.tencel .- ' . • '. - , • '''..
So viewing the: icioc.no choke vt'as
. . .
to call our ''the way:Power of • the .Government.,•
Mal SOito resisribe force employed for iIS de••
stroction,.by force for- its preservation: 'The
culliwas 'mOde'and the response of the countrY
:was most griatilying., surpassing in . unanimity.
and spirit the' must sam;uine•expec'tationsi.• Yet
none °lithe Sta,les:cominonlyealed . Slive States
:except belasvai•e, ka,ei a r s egirnent•thiOugh the
•regular. State or•ganization. few 'regiments
organized syithio.isome — others of
those• States by individual, enterprise end. re
.ceiSierr.into the GoVernment service, •
f) rouro' the secede:a litotes, so. coiled. and
to which 'Texas has beenijoinedlobout the time
orthe irranguratiom ;gave no troo•ps to the cause
trrthe Union: i• .. •
. . ,
The Border States, so ivere .not 1.1111.
'form in their netiop—tunic being aj
mps't for the Onion, ichilc ill others,nsyrrgin . -
.M, Nortl;'Cofoli . oa; itod A rkz,msps,
the Union„ , ,eritiinent . w4s • nearly represst.id. and
sikneeti. The. course tak en Virginia' eras
most remarkable; per haps tfle,toost. impot-
. . .
trill. ' A conventioei el e etedflyy klie imOp!eilt
that State-to consiOe thti very tpreutiOnOl dm
repting ihe : Vederal Union, ivas iio.fiessiou at
the, capital of Vireitiftrwhee FOrt Sumter (ell.
To this body thepeopio litid , ohort a.. large
ifieb; , Almost i m .
rri,eiti.itrly oiler . the fall' of, Su iote'r, nt iiy met();
, . . .
oers, of . that majorttyAveht ov'er - 14the Origirral:
disunion ininority,nn(l with.t . hom •adopted an
oroinaiic . e for' witlidi : awin g . ‘the: St a te from' the
Union., Wl k ejllvr tlik.eltapge was willaglit.b
their great appro.ral of.th€ tiFsa* .Ipoti Sumter
or their great resentment at the. goveintnerit's
resitstanee'tn I he asSautt, is mint definitely known-1
Arth . ough:they'sol.nriitted the ordinance for rat-
iticationto a:vote Of 'the people; to be:dal:ea an,
a clay then'nmevehat ort*Vtlian•tt :rnotith.dis•
tent, the Convention and the I.,egislatui - e; whiCh'
wasalsoln ..sessidn'at,t he 9 . inie time and 'place,
with. lead m; men•of the State 'not members of
either i .jrnmeiliatelSr•cOinmenced eetinp as•if the
State wa - 4 . .atready 0trt..91 the Union: . •
. . .
.... . . , .
• They pushed , milinir-y . pr'epriratirini vigorously
fo.rveUril all over the stilt , /: _They seized the
U. S. Armory at klarper's Ferry; end the navy
yard at Gosport, near ,Norh;lk. They rgeoleeil,
perhaps inyited,lnto, their state, large .hoilies
of troops Avithi their WEI dike appoint merai, (rpm
the so 'called seceded si 'wee. formally
entered.into a treaty of temporary alliance with
the'so called Confederate states, and sent rneot-
hers to their eongress - nt: Montgomery; and fi
nally they rierrnitted the iniurrecttonnry goy,
eminent to be transferred : tst..their cnpi;ol itt
- The people of . ..Virginia:haw& .thus:
allovred.this giant in!urre - rtion to tnaltelts:nest
Within her borders,- and ttis: government has
nq'choiceJrftlmt•tc; . othil'v6th it , where, it' findi
it; ;00 it.has the less to.regret, as . the . loyalntt.
izens, have in, diteforrn 'claimed its protection.'
Thoseloyal citizens this government, is hound
to. recognize"and'olotect. tis being in Virginia....
• In.the border States, 'so called, in the
'Middle States, there ore those who fayoril pol
icy` which they cell an armed neutrality; that
is, an tirtit:ing ot 'these States to prevent the 'Um
ion forces- 'passing one ivay, or the dis.niiion the.
other, over their nil This W0ki.14 . 13e disunion
campleted: -. .Figerlatively speaking, it , would'
bethe' htiildintz 'of.an impassable wall along-thi
line of separation, and.yet hot quite an itnpas-
Sable one; for wider the gniSe of neutrality,' it
would 'tie op ,the• bands. of Union men and
freelypasa stipplies (rpm ameneAllem
•InFitirrectionists,*.hich :it'. could.' 'iror.do_ as an
OpetVenenly.•. At:a. strokti it would take'all'the
trouble nif th.e:.h.inds.of s e cession - except only
what t rocseell4 froldthetexiernal blockade.: '•lt
theAlisunioniste•that whiCh. 'of all
things they . .mo . “ de4re;feed• 'their tried, . and
give them disunion without' a . itruggle'of-, their
. . •
• It recognizas : ncill4liti l to.lliti elonsritiitioti
obligation, to maintain lam. Union," 'and
While very Many' who haverlavored- it,are
don httess' loyal citizens, it ianeyertheless, very,
injurous in effect, • .:.• • : • •
Recurring to : •the:action : .if the..goveriirnent,
it may he stated that 'at &it:I:call .wa' t ;
for .75400 militia, and rapidly folloWing this ..1.1
proclamation Wasilisued for. clOsing. the Torts
of the insurrectionary. districts' by 'proceedingi
in:the nature of. a blockade. So far elf was be
lieved to be,strietly legali•
At this Point tbe,insarrecrionlits announced
heir, piliposetoentaftipOsiAlie practice.'of pri
-.Other calla were made for'voliintaert tOierve
three yenro, unless•soonerdiacharged, and 'elite
huge addititine to t. he .regular army .4d j:stry.
These measures; whether strictly legal. or'imt
'were...ventured uponrunder whatTappeared to be
a tuipular de - Mend and a public necerr,ity,,trust- -
4,4. then ea now, that Congress would .readily:
It is belieVed . thalliothing, has been done be'-,
yOnd the con'stilutibrial corniiitericy'ot Coop esit
Sogn after the first call for militia,. it was con•
sidcred a dtitytO, , ,ett'hotixe, the Cernmending.
General, proper ea , srs , according
cretion,,ta suspend : the privilege.oltheWrit. of
'habeas corpti.4.or in other ivoids;toarresiand
detain, withoilt - resortta - theordinery processe's
and forms of law, such-indlviduala as he
deem dangerons.to' the Thilan
thority.iaapurposely been exerciied, hut very
sparingly.. - N - evertheless . , thelegality.end pro,
pri , !ty or w baL has,been . done'under itfarestues--;
licitied; end the •.attention 'i . oattotty
been'called. to thepropoiititni that one who has 1
NOp I to. take care that . .tlie,,, laws be: faithfully
.executcd.should not himself,' violate them. Of
b ourse some Consideration was given to the
questions of power and propriety before thisH
matter was actedupon.e. The Whole of the lews
which were 'required to be liiithfullY • executed)
were •liping rearsted . rind executioirin
- nearly one‘third'of,the States..' Must tlieY, be,
allaWed:to..finallyfeil execution„ even' had 'it
been perfectly dear that by the use of . means
necessary to their,execution;. soma. single law
made in 'such extrinti'.tendernese of. the' Oki
zees litieriy, that, practically,, it relieves more
of the guilty than the ehould'to A . vety:
limited 'extent be, violated? Testate the rpeS•
Lion more directly,.are , all-the laws but one to
go unexceuted and the Government itselltii go
to pieces, lest that one be v iolated? .
Even in such a case', , would not the dfGcial
oath be broken if the. dOsernment :should be .
oi;eri brown when
. it was' believed that • disre
'gartitng tire single . law 'woutillend to preserve
it. Snt.it won riot believed-that this question
Was resented, It was,,riot believed 'that any
was'Niolated.:,,.. The provisian'Orl:the. Con- -
stit9tiutt 'that the privilege ottbe,mit orbs - bees ,
r'ortus . ::shalt not he suspended;unleati Wheu . in
Cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety .
may 'require' it,.ii. equiVolent tcra pro'. talon that
such privilege may be auspended. when in . cases
of rebellion i rot'of asionobe public safety doei
, . .
' r equire t. .
It' was decided that we- have, a.case of r elief-.
lion, arid that the public, safety does'
the qualified suspeoSion of the privilege' . of . : the,
•writ, which was aiitharized to'be. made'. '.Now
it is insisted that Cohgreas . ,liiiil spit the' E./cacti
tive,-ievested'witti this power. But the 'Con:
slituticiiiiteltis Silent as to ti.lijch or'who is to
ex e reise .t h e power,. Out as , 'Coo ' provision was
prtlid y: in a . de tor a dit ngerous'e margeni.y, i lan
nut be believcit.th4t the framers of - the instru
in-tended that -in every 'cas . . he' doifger
ihoold.ren its course until Cone could be
eatied., logeiliiii, the very' asscrubli gof 'which'
might be p'revCrited,.as :i.vtial . tided in thie
dose by the tebellion. • ' .. .. : - •' . : . -..
. • .
No moreextended argument is now afT,rded,as
an Opinion at somelength will probably be pre
sented'. by the Attorney-Giinexai; : Whetlici;r
there pliCll'bmany :legislation, on i the subject;
'and ilso, 'wiitit;'is'subrhitied •entirely . to the
better judgmeAt biCongresS... ,
The (mbearance of this Government has been
so extraordinary aifil so lung• continued,. iiii : to
Lind some loVeigli nations to shape their. action'
as if they 'supposed, the early - destrUctien of our.
Notional Union. Was probable.';. While. this, on
disrovnry; gave the Executive some concern,
Thels'now hapPOo - say' that. the Sovereigitty
and rights of the United States are DOW every-
Vhern. Practically reapected.by foreign Powers,
and e general .sympathy with the
. country Is
.rnanifesled throughout' the .werlif.
The reports. of the: Secretaries of the.Treas 7 .
uty, Weir and Navy, giyeithei nfor mation
in detiiifdeenied nedessury.'end • nonienient for
your deliiii;ration and antion, while the Execu
tive and all•tlie'Departments vend ready .
'to supply •omiasihns...or communicate new
facts considered important for you to know.
ft is now recommended that you give the le-
riot means for 'making - this contest.a- short and
decisive one; that you place 'at the control. of
the Government for the• work at 'least 400,000
men and $400,009,600. .That number Of Men'
is about one-tenth of those of, proper ages, With
in the region's where apparently, all are wilting
to engage, end' the sum is less than a twenty
. nioney4alue' o,,imed•.by.•the
men who 'seem featly to devote. the'whole.• A
tlehtof $§00,Q00;000 now: is, a . less sum per
head than wail Aehl'ef our ,Itevplotion, when
we came out of that n - truggle; and
.the . money.
value in .the country bears.eVen greater per.:
Lion to what it was then than does the pop:da
tion.- Sorely each man has as 'strong ti'motiee
now :o preserve our'libertiea as each had theh
to establish thee):
right' result at..this - time „wig be Worth.
.morn to' the, world than ten times the men and
ten i;tnei the money. ..The evidence reaching
us, from thOcountry.leaves no doubt that the
material for,the work le abundant, and .that it
rieedoinrily'th . e hand of lrgisl+~tion a,o give it le
gal l'ahoton and, the. he nci '9f the
give it practical' s'hepe arid; etrielency.*
Oneof the. greatest perplexities of ,the goy.
ernment is to avoid receiving troops (aster than
if can provide for therm , In i'werd'i the people
will save their govern if the government
itself will do its part onhi indifTerently .
Might seem at first thought to be of little differ.
enee' whether the present moveruest et
,fre; (Idled 'Secession Of retiellion ! .The'
movers', however, welr.uptierstartd
enco.. A; the , beginning they kneW that they
could'never.Tiise_their treason :to,any,rispeatit
ble Magnitude by any name which iniplies
!titiatt oTlSN'!, , j.,they knew their people , p
as mu c h of muralsens; as muchof.devotion, to
.law end order, - and.asbticif kit)* in;it.s
rerice for the history and Government of their
common country es any other ciellivid nrfd pat.
!lode :rliey new they:couldmike:no
advancement_. directly: in the: teeth: of these
strong and noble . sentimente.
commenced py an
,Anstrilous debauchery of - the
Public rnind; they invented' an 'ingenious !mph
.ism, wlfic . h, if "Cnitceded,Wiri.folloWed by per
fectly.fo,,'icalsteps through all the lireldents' Of
the complete deritriction - ot . :the 'Onion. The
sciphisarv.itself ls; that any State of the Union,.
May, Consist:6oly with the. natieri's Constitu
tion and, therefore,; lawfully'and Peacefully,'
o ve from'the. Union Wit Milli the Consent .
of the, Union; s orof soy other State. .
Tbelittle disguise that.the Suppesed right 15'1
to be exercised.only for just cause, themselves
to be the sole judge , nf its Justfee, IS too thin to'
merit any notice. ,With.rebellion, thus' stigar.
'coated. they. have been., droggirig 'Alta publii.
iniod of their section for . more that! thirty years
and urititaf length' they have :broire,ht %Many
good 'Men willingness te., : tak,.up: arms'
against the Gevcratnehe the day atter' some; as.
.se.mblage.of men have enacted Alie. farcical Pro
tease of. taking their Siete 0nt...0r the Uhler!,
who .could have been brought 10 no such ',thing
the daY. before - . •-, '
This • sanhilern derives much, perbaps., the
Whole; of its currency from the assumption that
there ii'sOme' ornnipoicnt :, and sacred 'eu rn
ey pertaining to .a State—to each Stale •of our
Federal Union. .otir States have •neithermore
nor less power than that...reserved to 'theses ' In
the Gnian by 'Thu Constitution, no one of them
ever haying been a.Siate ()pi at
The ort4tnarcuyai' p'es Ned' intci a 'U nion even
before.theyeast,oll their . fliitish'riironiel
peridence,-.and the new ones came.iMo
ion directly from o conditionof dependence, ex
cepting Texas; and' even- Texas, its:tempo
rary indeiiendence, wits never `designated is a'
The new onetronlY took the designation of
States_onceming into the Union ; •While.-that
!lathe:was tirat adopted' fer:old ones in :and by
the Declaration of Independence... Therein the
united colonies were declared to,befroe
States: ' But . .even'titen the :object
'plainly was-not to declaretheir indaneudenctrof
one .anotber-of-the Union, but ditectlY the: con
trary; as their mutual pledge and their.. mutual'
action before, at the titne i and afterward, abun
dantly show:. The' express: plighting of faith
by each - and . of . .the original thirteen:
in the articles of confederation tWo.years'htter,
that the Union shall be. Perpetual, is most con
clusive; having never been Stites either lir sub-.
stance or in name outaide'of the Union.. Whence
ibis Magical utrioipotenee•of State , Aights,-as
carting uelaitn of poWer : to • lawfully destroy,.
theMnion itself? 'Much . is, said about the • Roy. ,
ereignty . of. the .States, btit.the word even is net
In' any . * the Statedonstitations.- - • -
- What is a sovereignty . in -the'political sense
of the terml•: ; WOultl . it be far wrong .: to define
a . P9liiiFal commu nity without a political
'periort Tested by . this no one or our, States;
except Texas,. was 'sovereignty, and *even
Texas gave up the. eharacter on' coming 'into'
the. Union, by which:act she acknowledged the
Constitution of th.. United States, and :the laws
and treaties - bi . the-United Stores-in pursuance
of the. Constitutioti;.ro be for her the supreme
law, The States,live their 'status in the Union,,
and dhey. ha ve'tio other legal ,status. '' lf. they
break fiOrn:this they . can only dose' ugamst.law
and'hy revOlution.. • •
The- Union, and not •thernselvei . separately,'
procured their independence and -their liberty
by conquestor . purchuse; the Uiiion gave each'
.of thei ' whatever of indepentlenee and liberty
it has.. The Union is 'older than any of the
Stiti.es,and in tact it Created them as States.--
Originally some dependent -colonies made the
Union; and turn the , Union threw off their
old, dependence for thetn and'inede theni Slates,
such as they.ate:• .Not one of them over
State Constitution independent of the Union.
'Of course it is not forentten that all the 'neW
States- formed their Constitution before they
entered the Union',neveitheless dependent up
on arid preparsteiy to coming into the- Union.
,Unquestionnbly the Stafes.have the.powers and
rights reserved to thorn in and by the National'
Constitution, • but among thee surely..are.- not
included all conceivable' powers, however mis
chievous or destructiver E but at moat such only
na'were known in the world at the . . .time as
GoVernmental powers; •und certainly a 'power
to destroy-1110 Government:itself had never
bier' known us a Governmetafi\ As' n' merely
adritinistrative power, ibis relative molter. of
national power and State s rights, es a principle,'
is no other than the principle of generality and
locality. Whatever concerns,tbeWhole should
he, confined to the whole Get ral Government,
while whatever concerns onliThe.State should
be left exelusively, to'the State.
• This is all there ionf prineipleahout
it. Whether the National Constitution, in de;. ,
finingboundaries bet Ween the two, has riPplied
the principle witheract accuracy, is not to be
questioned. We are 'all bound , by; that defining
without question. What is iiirtkr"combatted, is
the position that Seceisien.le cptisistent with the
Constituticin-L-is.lavvful andit'eiteeful..lt-is not
contended 'that there -is is. express law 'for
it, and nothing should ever:l4.lhplied as law
,which leads to'utijustor ttheitid consequences.
The nation purchased with:Meney the countries'
out.of which several of these Stitiswere form
ed. Is it lust thattheyshotild go off without
leave, andwithontrefunding?•The nation paid
very large .earns in the aggregate--4 helieve
pearlYiLhundred • millione.—to.reliove Florida_
'of the aboriginal tribes. •
• • ..
Is it just that she shall now- be 'o ff without
consent or without - a ny return? The nation' is
now in debtfor money applied to the benefit of •
.seceding- Staleb . ,•itr . ,cornmon
With the reet;. Is it just either that, creditors
unpaid;.; or the'rOmaining l States pity
the. whale? A part. of the 'preseti t national ';dept
was.,t Ontracted to.PaY the pld debte Of Teise. •
Is it just. that she sholl4eavearid prti'y no part of
this herself?. Again, if onti l Statir rutY4tfoOdO so, '
may anotherr and, when:Sß:Shall' hisver:SeCeded;
none is lift to pay iike debte....4 this,quittsilisC
to creditors?'Did we notify, them, or this , '„stige,
view of ours when we beromed :,th'eoiirseney?
• ~ ~.,
' .-Zii, A:el'`.;ll.tilj'
'';' -,,.' ,6ii,iii4qlit*tt.
'; ...:,. 'A e5,.,X 4 ; 1r
4 ~41,11 il
' . ,r, fk',ll'l.:oA.Q`4' rW*YII
~..T.' T,i.,14. ticil,tq; '•,':.' '....e.,'''' ''
,_ 3.•;.";::::;•••,`Ii•M'•', ;',,
•• ''••• "...',l-,' ,ii'i,:"i•vl.',,,,,i••'''N2•••,:l.
2'''.' •'' • ~.- a.• ').,4%.??,,•••• -;•(.1
. _,, , .
.:"' ' '''
If we now, recognize this thaetrtne L he 16,) _Ot t ,
the seceders to go idlihace,
whht we can do it• oibirti vit49 ll o
tort terms upon which they wM p 7601444:
`The stecedars insist 'that our Contitlft s itkiit
admits of secesiion" They havisisistit.
make a;National Constitution of thett, r ovrikiii:
Which, of.necessity r lbey haveoithiedisetOdlldh
or retained the right of secessio,l l ; l6- .0411.061
it exists in our'., It they 13a . Aigesoo4l ,
they thereby: admit that, on principle; It ought
not to exist in uurs; if they, have revile/1C "
by their own construction ot ours
that, to be cOnsistent, they must Secede feser:,
one another - whenever they shill and it** .
easiest way of settlthg their debtsorAktioll
any other selfish or unjust c4ijeet. "'
The Principle itself lioness( dlainfegratl e tie; ,;
and - upon which' 'no government pesk!Obik,"l'h,
endure.. if 'lithe /n
Statesye eqe", nhotald'utiiireet.
the power td drive thet onst:Siut Itb,n4Ltitliliti-,';
it Is , presumed . the' whole clue Ot 40(14 ; 4i:oh.
iticinne Would at ence:deny the
tiounce .the' act as the granted Atit41111",:'10011'.1,.
Stites rights, 'But leppeae anti!' pisi,eliislittaki , ;.
same.act,,instead of being.ealletdrivinisbnnttn-:'.;.''
out should be'ealle'd he seceding oflbs,sitheito
froM'that it would ' be exactly ;
seceders claim to it;
miles. 'ln - ireedA4y.mike
the. point thatt he one, beeituie
'it„is; m inority
may rightfully what the Others; liecitiiithey'i
are a majority, may nat rightfully do;
'nein pOl it lelau II ' are subtile' and, Otifepeeln
the 'rights of minprities They ire nntfpeithil.
to the power , :which '
- made the ConitiincioN Ind
ipeaks from the.preamble
people.” It • may well : be. ipleinintied';'*ltether
there to-day a majority of the
ed voters of any State .'exCept,'perhispe e Souto.
Carolina, in favor of Disunion. There' is much
rotten Co believerthee the, Union; nye, the •
majority in nnny, If not in eifery.uther Oak,
the itocalled Seceded States. ' . •
-• • The contraiy bas not been . deinonitrited
any one ofthem. It is ventUred - toStilllriri, Ibis '
even of illrginla s end Tenneseee,. fiat, tfin .I'4ol ,
of an. election held .'in military' campe; Where • the boyoneti are all on oils side of ihe questiOni
voted upen,,cin edarcely, bi considered'. al de
monutrated popular sentiment, ,At siieb an
election 1111 that large deed who ere at:epee fir •
thelDnion, arid agoinsreoerCion,frould
ed to vote against the Union. It may bendlimed
without extiavaganee, that•the free institutions
w e enjoy have, developed the powers and im
proved the condition of, per whole 'people : beyond.
any enamPle in the world. Or this We 'new
have a striking and.impressive
So large en army as thelGovernmenihne ntiw" , ` , ;••
on loot was never' before known WithOnisi lel-
dier in it but who has: aken his. place' there or","
his own free choice. But more thattthisitherc
are `many single regitnente Whose:, nteenbert u ,
one and another, poem full:prietieeh,*niret- , ,
ledge'of all" the arts sciences proftisione, end - ,
whatever else, 'whether Usefuj,ollk:elfilin4
known in the wh6le Worldf t erid there ii Neva- ..• •
ly One. from which there could net'be - selektelia
President, a Coiiinet, a , COne.ress, and - perhaps -
Ceurt, obundahtly.etimpeteet adminliter ,
the government • •
Nor. do Inarthis Of' al so' true *l in the.aral •
'•• • •
. . . .
of ring' late friends; 'fie) , Citdverjaries,- - .'fn •flifs
contest.' • But it jr:tio mini,kr Oita the . 'resin*
Why: the „Government se,hiiikiikconferred:sucki , •
beneflis, on 'beth them and' no
,'Osontd noF bs',
',broken op', Whoever . in any sect 4 proposes,'
te'aban'don such a Government woult.do welt ,
to consider in deference 'to wheerprini'Ole 'f; is
that he .dires it; sS , hai.beffer'ke . is likef),:tosiet .
in its stead; whetbo :the eubstifue wili.giv; or;
be intended to Ove; much of good • telbis
, • • ..• • -
'There ar e some foiesttadowingkon. ttini,stsh••,.
ject.'.'Our adveriaries,,have stiopted . sOrtif r 46.,•• •
elalations'of independenie In which,
good old one penned by,Teffersop,Otarninit
words, inn men are created • rquitl.?•., •
They have adopteda totrilitorary National ' .
stitution in the , piettrnbical which, onliki ova.
*good old one signed by iVashington,' - tbsy'olnit; •
"we, 'the penple," and Substituta,'“wa,Vils...:. •
Deputlesiof • the: Sovereign. and ladepandlint
States:! . Why? . , • ,
.Why : this denherate prealingoutpf
rights of men and the authority of the people?
This inaspantially a people's . eonteo; On' tilt,
aide of the Union it lea s truggle for maintain
thg in the world.that fo rm an4.:tubstaocal
Government whase'leading ohjeet it itiel . eystes •
tits cendition of men,.to lift artificial,
from all shoulders, to clear the'insths oflaudible.
pursuits for all; to , affortt all an unfettered itik:
Anita fair chance
. in the riesystlite; . ylehlinigto .
partial. 'and iemporary . departitrasloiat )teue,lo-:.
~. • .
This is.the leading, object *alba Government.
for.whoie'existente•We contend.. "am' wok :
i/appyto believethit.the- plein *opt.. under.' .
stand and appreciate thi s . :•ltav
is'orthy of notsi • •
thee whi,le,in the:.Government's botir..of
trial; large numbers of thosit.iii the army aid 1..
navynavy.who'bave been favored With office! hive '
resigned, and proved 'false to the . bald which'
pampered' them,. ,not one common -Soldier or:,
comon sailor is .known,lo. -have deserted
flag.. Great honor in dile to those 'oflicors who
remained true, 'despite the ex . /lanais of their
treacherous associates; but the greatest honor.
and the Most imporian
irnons _firmness of tlie common eoldiers sod.
c -fact .or all, is the ttoirs,`
To the last man, io ter as,enown,• 11)4 barei
suceesefelly re‘isied 'the traitotout 'efforts
thole whose commands, but en hotir betote;thas
o . heyecl as 'absolute law... Thie• ratttiatis
instinct •of plain people.. They •undasitanti r •••
without en argument ,that ?ha deetrorinitAlk!„',
Oovernir en t .Which.Waa. made by • Wsishisigt,*.:
means:no good to:them." , Out puNitst'OeNllrllif.'.
ment has;often, 'been :called _ an ',experimedl4:44:::
wo points in it, our_ pen* hatie:
successful establishing and therinOvrat:ls,4l,::t
ministering 'alit ; One iiill4ll 44 l ""lts:Oct ;•
them to demonstrate to,;Ate,,,:machll
who can lairlY earrY an 4 leAtif**
[ troth a rebellion; matltipt,qiirC.
and peaceful "auteestaare
When baliele : hii;e:fairlviliik , coeif
decided titaii,can be Wo
A°, banal ;
e ems !
gianlro of t