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Administering the Oath to Wit
nesses in Our Courts
HOW TO TELL A PERJURER.
People Who Take an Oath Mechanic
ally and Without Reverence.
,THE TEOUBLES OF FAIE WITNESSES.
Simple bnt Solemn Oath The Stick
TVitnett Scenes In a Courtroom Per
son! Who Will Not fewenr, bat Attlrm
An Ancient Form of Onth A Curions
Germnn Superstition Swearing; on the
Bible Kissing the Book Tricks of
Witnesses A Lady's Sad Dilemma A
Study or Character A Safeguard
Against False Testimony.
tWBITTEX TOR THX DISFATCE.I ,
OTJ swear by Al
' mighty God, the
searcher of all hearts,
that the evidence you
shall give in this case
shall be the truth,
the whole troth, and
nothing but the trnth,
and this you shall answer to God on the
great day 1
Such is the oath taken by witnesses before
the courts of Pennsylvania. It is a simple
form of words, but its very simplicity is the
soul of eloquence. Spoken with uplifted
hand, there is a ring about this oath of the
grand old Bible vows. It is difficult to im
agine anyone callous enough not to be im
pressed by the solemnity of such a declara
tion. Yet, in our courts of justice, the casual
Kitting the Boole
-visitor is daily shocked by the cold, matter-,
of-fact manner in which the Tarious wit
nesses declare the truth of their evidence,
Sad'caif upon their Creator to support the
statements they are about to make.
A short time since, the writer chanced
into one of Pittsburg's criminal courts.
There was a very important case before the
jury a murder case in point of fact. The
murder had been of an aggravated
character, but there were circumstances
-which seemed to throw a doubt upon the
guilt of the man arrested for the crime;
everything demanded the greatest caution.
One of the objects of an oath in such a case,
should undoubtedly be, to impress the
-witness fully with the importance of his
testimony, and the grievous nature of per
jury committed by him.
Tet when the witnesses were called, the
oaths were administered to them parrot
fashion; they could scarcely have under
stood fire words of the sentences mumbled
by the clerk, and the manner in which they
accepted the solemn declaration was callous
in the extreme.
Upon one witness the conviction, or par
don, of the prisoner really depended. His
evidence was the crucial'point in the trial.
On his name being called the man minced
up to the table, clearly delighted because all
eyes were nxed on him. .He bad been Dull
ing up his collar and arranging his dress
for some moments before the summons, and
it was painfully evident that he had donned
his best suit for the occasion, and wanted
everybody to recognire the fact
SWEAHtNG A PEEJUEEB.
When confronted by the clerk his face
assumed a preoccupied look. He was
thinking of the clever answers he would
give the attorneys by and bv. The man's
right hand went up. mechanically; bnt his
brow was puckered with thought. When
the words of the oath were over he was
ignorant of the fact for several seconds, for
' he continued to hold his hand up. until the
voice of one of the counsel reminded him.
Then he started, hurriedly lowered his hand,
and prepared to swear away the life of a
Similar littlescenes wererepeated frequent
ly throughout the case; and the traits of the
system were apparent in the self-evident
perjury of several witnesses. The word
perjury is used advisedly; for when two
sane men swear to two diametrically opposed
versions of the same incident, it is but
natural to accuse one of them of downright
perjury. By a happy euphuism, the word
"mistaken" is substituted by the legal
lights for the word "perjury," and thus a
good many guilty folk escape's well merited
But to the most solemn occurrences, there
is often a quaint, and even a humorous side.
In church the old gentlemen will select the
softer cushions, and doze on the sir, and the
ladies cannot help observing each other's
bonnets. Slumber and bonnet criticism
would go on, even while the air vibrated
with the utterances of a Taimage. At the
most hoerible mnrder trial, the counsel for
the prosecution, will make a joke, if he can
think ot one, and the Judge, not unfre
quently, caps it with another. So it is with
oath-taking in the courts. This solemn
ceremony has its oddities.
customs nr othee lakds.
In almost every country the witnesses
oath varies. The custom in her Britannic
Majesty's realms is to kiss the Bible; but a
few years ago affirmation was made legaL
In some States of the Union affirmation is
the only form in use; and in New England
the kissing of the Book is still observed.
Throughout the continent swearing with the
band uplifted is much practiced. This
method is a relic of paganism, and was
adopted and harmonized by the Christians,
lifae many other ancient forms. The writer
has seen in the Leabbair Breacan, an Irish
MSS., inscribed prior to the Christian era,
a passage ot which the following is a trans
lation: "And then the King, dipped his
right hand into the blood of the slain bull,
and fifted it up, before the hosts. And he
said: 'By this right hand I swear to speak
truly, in the face of Bel, father of gods and
men! And may the godhead smite me with
rpJi litrhtmnr if I do speak falsely before
him.' " This was probably the old form of
the oath, as we find Vercingetorix making a
similar one in Ceiar'i Gallic War. It is
HOW 00 YOU SWEAR?
1 somewhat consoling that the dipping in
, blood has been abolished. It would be
rather expensive if a fresh victim had to be
slaughtered every day for the law courts,
not to mention the complications which
would arise were lady witnesses compelled
to dabble their lily hands in blood.
Even in these later days difficulties arise
In the swearing of the fair sex. The dear
creatures will get a little frightened and
begin to lower their hands before the oath
has been half administered. Many of them
do not hold up their hands at all. but con
trive to keep it suspended about half way.
"When ordered to lift it higher, they jerk it
the three-fourths of an inch and then allow
it to fall once more. Others persist in hold
ing up their left hands.
The older generation of Germans observe
a curious superstition wnen swearing. They
close the two last fingers of the hand, leaving
the thumb and two first fingers pointing up
ward. This is symbolical of the Trinitv,
and they believe that the oath will be in
valid if the custom be not followed. Every
body knows that Hebrews only consider
themselves bound to their oath when thev
are sworn with their hats on. An experi
enced clerk will always request those whom
he knows to be of the Hebrew pprsaasion to
resume their headgear while taking the
SWEAKEf O OK THE BIBLE.
A good many people prefer swearing on
the Bible. Catholics especially are very
particular on this point, and nearly always
ask to be sworn on the Do nay version. Some
people, however, prefer certain portions of
the Bible. Some months ago an old gen
tleman belonging to the Dnnkard sect
asked in theKezistrar's Court that he might
be sworn "on the Pour Evangelists."
The Registrar was rather su-prised. Such
an oath was quite new to him. He finally
agreed to swear the man as he wished, and,
opening the Bible at the Gospel of St.
Matthew, administered the oath. The old
man kissed the page reverently, and was
The number of those who affirm is yearly
increasing. Several clerks of the courts in
formed the writer that they always look with
suspicion upon an affirmer. "We believe
that he's alraid to swear," one of them said,
"though I suppose a good many really have
In countries where the Bible is used in
swearing the peasantry have an idea that if
they do not actually kissthebook they arenot
bound to the terms of the oath. In a certain
wild portion of Devonshire, three years ago,
the writer was present at a petty sessions
court, over which two well-known country
'squires presided. The name of John Lee
was called, and John (the name was pro
nounced Jan) stepped up to the table. He
was a wiry, keen-eyed little son of Devon,
with iron-gray hair and straggling whiskers.
He took the Book and made believe to kiss
it, but in reality touched it with, his some
what prominent nose. Justice Shallow
nudged Justice Surface; Justice Surface
grinned at Justice Shallow, but as the case
in hand was not connected with poaching,
but onlv with attempted murder, the worthy
J. P.'s let "Jan" Lee give his evidence.
The.result was that "Jan" perjured himself
royally, and the prisoner got oif.
DODOtNO THE ISSUE.
In a Cork Court House, not very long ago,
Mrs. McCarthy was sworn as a witness, in a
case where her husbaud was accused of
assault and battery. Several witnesses had
been already called to order, for "kissing"
the Book with noses or chins. The eyes of
clerk and policemen were fixed upon Mrs.
McCarthy, but she did not falter. Calmly
she lifted' the Book, and to all appearance
bestowed upon it a resounding smack. But
the writer, who was sitting beside the wit
ness box, saw that Mrs. McC. at the critical
moment had quietly protruded her tongue,
and touched the Book with that exceedingly
sharp organ. Then she went to work and
swore an alibi for her husband. The wounds
of the man assaulted "those poor dumb
mouths," were unable to convict Mr. Mc
Carthy, in the face of his ingenious wife's
Many, indeed, and various are the anec
dotes told in connection with oath-taking.
Avery pious and painfully guileless old
ladv was once called as a witness beiore
Sir. Tennyson-D'Eyncourt, the Bow street
"Is it a fact, your Honor," asked the
ladv, "that Imust take an oath ?"
Certainly, madam," replied Mr. D'Eyn
court "But I don't like to do sol" exclaimed
"You must do so. or go to prison," said
Mr. D'Eyncourt "Every witness has got
The lady was hard to be persuaded. For
a long time she held out against what she
termed a cruel injustice, but finally con
sented to comply with the magistrate's or
ders. She then took the Book, and, to the
surprise and amusement of the whole court,
rapped out a tremendous oath, after which
she covered her lace and cried in pitifnl
tones: "Heaven forgive me, but I had to
The witnesses in every .case present a wide
range of study, to the observer of character.
From the small child, whom the Judge
questions as to the nature of the oath, to the
old gentleman, who has been a witness in
many long-settled cases; everyone has some
peculiarity in oath-taking. This peculiarity
is frequently an excellent key to their char
acters. The man of strong character steps forward
and puts up his hand, holding it stoutly up
lifted till the oath is over. Sometimes you
can see bim bite his lip and clench his left
hand, as though making a strong effort.
Ton may put that man down as
A FBOSPECTIVE PEKJTTBEB.
There is another kind of man, who clenches
fingers, and trembles somewhat while ac
cepting the oath, but this man is not nec
essarily'a perjurer. He may suffer from
moral cowardice, or mere nervous affection.
Clerks of courts say that they have frequently
seen witnesses pale as death" when taking the
jl lAidjfa Mistake.
The Sight Position.
THE flTTSBURd DlSPlTffi
oath in the -witness box. A woful scene oc
curred in western Ireland during a cele
brated niurder case, where an informer was
so terrified, that great drops of perspiration
and even tears fell upon the Bible as he was
being sworn. The Bible is still preserved,
all blistered with the evidences of this mis
Another species of oath taker, the most
common of all, has been already spoken of.
This i4 the man who pays no attention what
soever to the oath, and merely treats it as an
absurd formula which must be got over any
There is a fourth kind of witness-the man
who treats the oath as a business matter. I
am not sure that this man does not take the
best view of the matter. He is careful in
observing the smallest particular of the
oath, and is generally a reliable witness.
"With regard to lady witnesses but there
the line must be drawn. The foibles of
woman are not to be ruthlessly criticized.
Suffice it that women nearly always take
the oath in its true spirit; though whether
they do so because of the novelty ot the
proceeding, or because of a little "super
stitious fear which" (says George Eliot) "is
hid somewhere in every woman's heart,"
it is impossible to say.
Policemen are notable oath takers. They
apparently regard the oath as some kind of
a drill; and they stand squarely and raise
their hand, much as thev would do when
saluting an officer. The clerks of the
courts declare that they can easily recog
nize an honest, truth-telling witness, from
the manner in which he takes the oath.
"He does not put on airs," they sav, "but
raises his band simply and unaffectedly.
His facial expression bespeaks acquiescence
with the terms of the oath, and sometimes
you will see him forming the words with
This latter trait, it must be observed, is
also characteristic of the shrewd rogue, who
wants to appear unusuallyingenuous, but
the trick nearly always fails, as the most
practiced rogues, in their anxiety, generally
overdo the part altogether.
It may be argued that the oath is no pro
tection against perjury. It is true that the
man -who wants to perjure himself will not
stick at breaking his oath; bnt it is equally
true that there are many men who, from
fear or worthier motives, will not perjure
themselves. Thus the oath is partially, if
not wholly, a safeguard against the bearing
of false witness. Beenak.
SOME REMARKABLE TOYS.
The Cnrions Conirivances to Be Seen nt
the Paris Exposition.
Among the many curious articles exhi
bited by Austrian and Hungarian mer
chants at the Paris Exposition this year,,
there is. a case of toys which -o-ill bring spe
cial delight to the small folks. Older
people, indeed, often stand with greatly
amusea visages, watching the surprising
antics ot these ingenious playthings, which
appear notonly to possess life so cunningly
are their internal parts contreivd bnt to
be possessed, each, by some imp of mischief.
There is a gorgeous peacock, which not
only walks with nodding crest and stately
steps across a stage, but expands its broad,
many-eyed tail in the most natural manner.
A small dog next dasheB forth, barks
furiously, then, as if recognizing his master,
wags his tail and frisks about, so true to lite
that one can scarcely believe he is an auto
maton. A rabbit a very lifelike little bunny
then comes out of his warren, pricks up his
long, soft ears, stares timidly about for a
few moments and hops rapidly away.
Afterward a monkey drops 'down from his
perch and performs a variety of amusing
antics, which invariably set the children
shouting with laughter.
Bnt the most attractive toy of the exhibit
appears to be a fat Chinaman, which is in
reality a huge top. His large round hat
seems to be another top, a top atop of a top.
The hat turns around upon the Chinaman's
head, while the Chinaman himself turns
slowly around, nodding, and presently un
folding his large, gaily-colored Ian, with
which he fans himself in a most languid,
but aristocratic, manner.
WHT MOUNTAINS WERE BUILT.
Remarkable Theory of the Origin of Tiro
New Zealand Peaks.
Uew York Star.
"The islands composing New Zealand are
800 miles from the nearest continent, and
the largest boat the natives hare is no bigger
than an Indian canoe. Then they resemble
neither the South American Indian nor
the native of the Australasian continent.
Their own theory is that the Great
Spirit was fishing one time, and threw
His line down from the sky to hook
a whale. The hook stuck in the ground,
and He pulled and puffed until He drew a
mountain up to the skies, which is now
called Rangariri. He flew along the clouds
in a rage, and tried His luck 600 miles
awav with no better success, for this time
He brought up Mount Egmont, a peak 10,
000 feet above the sea level. Both these
snow-capped peaks may be seen to this day
by mariners far out at sea as a proof of the
correctness of the tradition.
"It is not easy to convert the Maori, but
once converted he is a pious and intelligent
Christian. They all ride on horseback and
are very fond of fine and bright-colored
clothing ana jewelry. It is nothing un
common to meet a Maori lady coming into
town in complete riding habit astride of a
fine horse, puffing away at a black clay pipe
under her veil."
Bis First Race.
Bullson Hold on, Dickl Where now?
Glittering Dick (from way up in the
mouptalns) I've heard 'm say they was five
to one on a feller named, Proctor Knott, out
here somewhere, an "I'm goin' t' see fair
play if I hev t' shoot. Judge.
An Mvery-Day Duty.
fjLJ (y ;ife-g
BEAUTIFUL IN DEATH.
An Italian Method of Eternally Pre
serving the Dead.
EYEEY MAN HIS OWU MONUMENT.
The Eesults Produced by a Hew Process of
A DEAD ITALIANS WONDERFUL SECRET
rwurrra tob tux dispatch.
Italy has not nowadays as much to do
with human genius and art as she had in
the splendid time of her grand poets, phil
osophers, sculptors and painters; bnt she
has, as she has always had, much to do
with human anatomy, and above all nations
busies herself with the ugly problem,
"What shall we do with our dead?" The
anatomical museums of Italy are peculiarly
rich in curious preparations and models,
some of them too horrible and ghastly for
one with only ordinary nerve to inspect.
Cremation, in spite of the pronounced op
position of the Church, is flourishing. Cre
matories are going up in Italian cities al
most as fast as churches in our Western
towns. For cheipness and despatch this
heroic process of disposing of the dead has
no rival, though attempts are made to in
troduce censutation and electro-plating of
the entire body, by both of which methods
our poor mortal organisms, which become
when apparently lifeless most alive with
nameless, noxious activities, are reduced to
a state of "innocuous desuetude," impris
oned pestilence, arrested putrefaction.
Another process, as yet far more experi
mental than practical, is that of petrifaction,
partial or perfect, the latter state of which
may be called marbleization.
Italians have of late years had lively dis
cussions on the question of conservazione or
cremazione the preservation or destruction
of the body. It is more of a theological
than a sentimental question with tbem.
Professors Manni and Gorini, eminent
scientists, have for several years been ex
perimenting in the line of petrifactions.
It was one of them, I think, who treated the
body of Joseph Mazzini, turning it into al
most transparent marble, having the great
pear-shaped head and the dark, intense,
worn, but still handsome face, so wonder
fully iifelike in color, contour and expres
sion that they who loved him could scarce
be reconciled to the sealing up of the coffin.
On the filth anniversary of his death that
coffin was opened in the presence of, some of
his faithful followers, and one of them told
me that they fonnd the face of their beloved
chief quite unchanged. He seemed to have
fallen asleep but yesterday.
Dr. Marin i has received several medals
from expositions for his discovery, which.
after all, is only a partial rediscovery of th6
secret process of Segato, the Florentine,' and
which he in turn keeps to himself. At the
fairs in Tnrin and Milan, ot a few years ago,
he exhibited in a special cabinet many
specimens of what seemed an occult art.
Some were solid, permanent petrifactions,
some provisional, capable of returning to a
fresh condition, all preserving the fulnesn
and transparency of life, while most were in
a pliable condition. All the varied mem
bers of the bodies are, it is said, hard at
first, but become after a time supple, and
even capable of furnishing studies in anat
omy, ot muscles, veins -and nerves. Nela
ton". the great French surgeon, examined a
petrified foot in January, 1868, and onJTebM
rnary zb wrote ot it: it has regained its
suppleness to such a degree that I was
easily able to dissect the fifth toe."
The most impressive of Dr. Marini's
preparations is a beautiful little girl, dressed
as in life, and lying, on a sofa, apparently
asleep, her long curls spread over the pil
low. The face is pale, bat round and
dimpled, and the limbs are sott and flexible.
The professor affirms that thus the gentle
form of little Maria Courier remains fixed
forever for those who loved her to gaze on
when they will a painful privilege, I
Paolo Gorini, of Iiodi, has had his prep
arations in petriiaction and embalming re
ported on by the Paris Academy of Medi
cine, as "wonderfully beautiful and per
fect." Bnt the pioneer in this field and
the master of all the. workers was Girolamo
Segato, who died at Florence in the early
part of this centnry, taking with him bis
secret. Before bis time there were only em
balming and mummification the means ar
senical and balsamic the results more or
less ghastly. Few visitors to Florence have
the curiosity to see the old hospital of Santa
Maria Nuova, which dates from 1288. It is
an interesting fact that this was founded bj
Folco Portinari, the father of Dante's Bea
trice, moved by the pleading and example
of a good woman, Monna Tessa, his daugh
ter's nurse, who had begun by receiving a
few poor sick people in her humble home
and there ministering to them. She finally
dedicated the savings of a life ot faithful
service to the endowment of two beds in the
hospital, which at first was part of a con
vent. In a cloister we were shown a quaint
bas-relief of this devoted woman, whose good
work lives and multiplies itself from cen
tury to century an immortality uncon
sciously won by herself, more blessed, if not
more glorious, than that bestowed on her
young mistress by the great poet.
A DISGUSTED INVENTOR.
In the anatomical museum of this hospi
tal "are treasured the matchless preparations
of Segato. He was a most enthusiastic ex
perimenter, believing that his discovery
would be of immense benefit to science,
especially to anatomy. He first experi
mented on small animals and reptiles
which still remain, perfect examples of
petrifaction but when he would apply his
method to the marbleization of the human
body he raised a storm of superstitious oppo
sition. Priests accused him of sacrilege, of
seeking to throw obstacles in the way of
Omnipotence in the final work of the resur
rection of the dead, and his brother anato
mists lacked the courage to stand by him.
It is a sad story the experience of Galileo
was repeated in the persecution he had to
endure and yet he asked for no great thing,
only the dead body of a criminal or a pauper
to petrify entire. He had been allowed por
tions of bodies, fragments fallen from the
tables of the hospital anatomists, among
them the head of a girl and the bnst of a
peasant woman the first an astonishing
piece of preservation, all the features re
maining as in life, the hair exquisitely soft
ana lustrous, tne teem aazzung; the seconu
is a marvel of beautiful color and conlonr,
and ivory-like in smoothness and firmness.
At last he obtained from the Grand Duke
Leopold permission to use for his purpose
an entire human body, probably that of a
criminal; but jnst as he was going to work
the gracious hand was withdrawn through
the influence of the Archbishop. Thank
heaven there are now no Austrian arch
dukes in Florence, and archbishops have
learned to mind their own businessl Segato
was in despair. It was known thatjie had
carefully written out his process, intending
after more fully demonstrating it and testing
it by time to make it public; but one day
his private study or laboratory was broken
into and his drawers and chests ransacked
for papers. Those containing his secret were
not discovered, but in his indignation and
desperation he burned them. Soon after this
he died. On his deathbed he tried to de
scribe his process to his most intimate
friend, to whom he had promised the reve
lation, but voice and sight failed him, and
murmuring, "It is too late," he closed his
weary eyes on a life of vain struggle and
A WONDEBTUr. TABLE.
Among the preparations left by Segato is
the slab for a small fable of various rich
colon and highly polished surface, appar
NOVEMBER 10, 1889.
ently marble, but really a mosaic formed of
fragments of human members, visceri, etc.,
nothing extraordinary to behold until you
know it is so "fearfully and wonderfully
made." It occurred to me that this would
be a capital piece of furniture for the King
of the Cannibal Islands or a spirit medium.
As I looked about the room in which is
keptthe Segato collection, so fragmentary
and incomplete, I thought how it he had
hadhis will there would have been ranged
against the wall a goodly company of de
funct Florentines, silent and rigid as so
many English footmen in a ducal hall, a
more fearsome assembly than the homicidal
wax figures in the Toussaud "Chamber of
Could the Segato method be fully made
known, I hardly think it would be exten
sively utilized, except to take the place of
embalming, for buried potentates and presi
dents. The process would check any grave
robber not provided with a derrick. I fancv
that none but the very handsome and vain
would really care for'such eternal immuta
bility, and in statuquosity, every man his
Perhaps some politicians might be per
suaded to become at least permanent petri
factions of their already hardened selves to
adorn legislative halls. Politicians can be
persuaded into almost anything, and they
love a permanency. Ex-Presidental candi
dates, ranged against the walls of the Senate
chamber, conld still serve their ungrateful
country as "frightful examples."
In spacious old Italian palaces the Segato
preparations might, after a century or two,
have a gallery to themselves, when each
grand signor, "dressed in his habit aa he
lived," and each signora, in her best Genoa
velvet or favorite tea-gown, might mingle
with or rather be mingled with the other
ladies and gentlemen on festive family oc
casions. In making out schedules of prince
ly personal property, ancestors might be
estimated by the ton!
THE IUXTJBT OF A2TCESTOBS.
In our country an ambitious millionaire
might occasionally indulge in the luxury of
a few petrified progenitors, and relations
might even prefer a mother-in-law in that
that state, but a careful housewife would
scarcely care to have such cumbrous, "stone
cold" images of life and death standing
round in her best rooms, to hit against in
the dark, especially if they should be mostly
"husband's folks." But should there be
among them a member of Congress, a rail
way magnate, a gallant train-robber, or the
author of a nanghty novel, she might stand
it, in case she lived in a country mansion
and had a big garret to banish the least
famous to when the collection should need
thinning out. We can imagine such a
housekeeper Baying to her daughter, on the
morning of a far future Thanks
giving, when the large, .usually closed
"front room" is to be thrown open. "Anne
Belinda, hive you dusted your great-grand-
latherY Have you set the General s wig
straight? Have you put a clean, new
speech into the hand of the Hon. B. Har
rison Jones? That's right, and I do hope
yonr father won't notice that I haven't furn
ished his mother with a new black silk:
gown he gave me the money for. I needed
In large city houses a select few of the de
parted, who did not all depart, might he
accommodated, but in a flat such retrospec
tive(nospitality were quite out of the ques
tion. Scarce room would there be therein
for the funeral urn, sent' home from the
crematory with en advertising tag and the
bill attached. I really fear that if there
were several -of those classic receptacles of
attenuated remains received, an urn or two
would finally have to be relegated to the
shelf of the bathroom. ''
jBUEgfKripariiald ProiL J-lfce.Presl.
dears uocae. '
Sir Edwfn Arnold, while in Washington
City, was told that it was proposed to alter
or rebuild the White House. He protested
in the name of posterity against any such
action, saying thct future generations of
Americans would wish to look upon the
very house in which Jackson and Lincoln
had lived and worked. He added that there
was danger that a people so young and en
ergetic as the Americans would neglect to
preserve the historical buildings associated
with their infancy as a nation, which to
future generations would be priceless.
The English themselves are not free frofa
reproach in this matter. Many an Ameri
can, his heart burning with eagerness to
see the houses and spots in England which
history has made immortal, finds them
swept away by the advance of trade or
"I spent half my time in London," said a
recent traveler, "in looking for houses that
are no longer there."
This matter concerns even the youngest
of our readers. As they grow older let their
influence be given to protect all houses or
landmarks connected with our early history.
It will be needed. We are so close to those
historic days that their events appear com
monplace to us. We forget that time, which
destroys houses unceasingly, adds enormous
values to their associations.
In another century the visitor to our
shores will make a pilgrimage to the house
where the Declaration was written, or the
spot where Franklin was buried, as we do
to Westminster Abbey. But will they be
able then to find either honse or grave?
OILING AN INEBRIATE.
Queer Remedy That Quickly Made a
Drnnken Man Sober.
St. Louis GIobe-Democrat.l
If you have ever been out with a friend
who has been drinking too much and yon,
sober and unwilling to leave him until you
get him home, are trying to persuade him to
start for his house, then you will appreciate
the situation in which I found myself not
long ago. I could do nothing with my com
panion, and he was rapidly getting helpless
ly intoxticated. The drunker he got the
more obstinate he became. Finally I took
him into an all-night restaurant, hoping
that a enp of hot coffee would partly sober
him. By the time the coffee came my friend
was sound asleep with his head on the table.
I was in despair, when the waiter asked me
if I wanted to get the man sober. "Why,
certainly I do," I said.
He took a bottle of sweet oil from a table
and poured a gill of it into one Of the cups
ot coffee. "Make him drink that," said he'
and walked off. I roused my friend and in
duced him to drink the whole cup of coffee
without stopping. The effect was magical.
I never saw any medicine act so quickly.
In ten minutes he spoke clearly, braced up,
got ashamed of himself and started home.
I had never heard before of sweet oil as a
Money Raised on Salmon, Docs, Babies,
Champmrne and Other Articles.
New York Btar.i
Passing along Third avenue yesterday I
saw a well-known pawnbroker, whom we
will call Mr. X., smiling as if something
droll or pleasant had occurred. "What are
you smiling about, Mr. X," I asked. "Is
"Oh, business is about as usual, but do
yon see that fashionably dressed, young man
Jnst turning the corner? Well, he has jnst
left with me half a dozen quart bottles of
champagne, on which I lent him $10. It is
as good almost as money. Whv did he
pawn it? I give it up. Perhaps "his father
has lots of wine in his cellar, but will not
give him pocket money. Oh, I take in
carious things. An actress left me her
child one time, and I gaye her?25 on it.
She redeemed the little one an hour later.
On another occasion I got in a 32-pound .sal
mon, alive. What do yon think of that?
and on another time a lovely Newfound
land pup, which I have now, grown up to a
uug, iTuicu x numu uui punt wiia ior uuv.
SATED BT SULTANS.
The Tombs of Dead Monarchs Filled
With Treasure Beyond the
WILDEST DREAMS OP AYAEICE.
Kept Intlct From Spoliation by Mohamme
TAULTS FULL OF DIAMONDS AND GOLD
IWUiriXW TOR THE DISPATCH.'.
we call it here, or Stam
boul, as the Turks call
their capital, has under
gone great changes in
these past CO years
Should Selim the Great,
the conqueror of the Da
nubian provinces, or the
glorious Achmet 111. be
'called back to life, they
could hardly recognize
their country. The "Commander of the
Faithful" has lost his divine crown. You
will see him chatting freely with the officers
of his house or with his visitors, dressed in
the latest Paris fashion. When tired of
An Ancient Monarch.
talking he will retire to his own apart
ments, and taking out of his library a novel
of About or Alpbonse Daudet (some people
I know in Stamboul say that he is espe
cially fond of Zola's prose), will read a few
pages, pulling at his "narguile" (Turkish
pipe) and looking the verv picture of luxu
rious idleness. Soon he will drop his book
and have a nap. Then Kedjib Pacha or
some other tavorite will be asked to accom
pany'him for a walk, or drive along the. en
chanting Bosphorns, and his companion
must be ready to answer him many a ques
tion. The Sultan is rather intelligent, and, it is
only to do him justice to say that, with all
the faults pertaining Xo his race.he has some
good qualities. He is much intertcd j
alLtbat is going on ia 'otberan&ies
alwavs desirous of knowinitmoro These
past years he has beeajenraing geriffUsly all j
The Sultan of To-Day.
questions relative to the management of
finances and, being given the present state
of politics, there is no doubt that he is
studying more than ever the question of
finances, for it has become of great moment
to him. The Sultan knows that his empire
is verv much menaced; that maybe to-morrow,
maybe the day after' to-morrow, some
great power, probably Bussia, will attempt
to move toward Constantinople. True,
other nations, notably England, have great
interests in Turkey and would rather nave
her remain what she now is than see her
dismembered or passing into the hands of
the ambitious Czar, lor instance. Bat,
should the armed peace be broken, nobody
can tell what England or any other nation
could or could not do.
The Sultan wants money and he has none.
He has none and yet he might have plenty.
Where he might find the money without
having recourse to English or French capi
talists is what I propose to tell you. The
treasure is to be found at a few hundred
yards from the palace.
THE TOMBS OJ" THE SULTANS.
There is a treasure in Constantinople, the
reasure of the'Thousand and One Nights,"
' The Tomb of the Sultans.
Aladdin's treasure, and the celebrated door
that will show you mines of gold and
precious stones when you bid it open. What
are the "Casaubas" of Algiers, of the Maroe
of Tunis, compared to that of Stamboul!
Ton might just as well compare a broker's
office to the Washington Treasury! The
Immense treasure belongs to the "Golden
Horn," and Bussia knows it well. All
Sultans are buried with their treasures and
savings in a walled chamber, hence the
name of "Golden Horn" or "Cornucopia"
was given to the neighborhood of the
Let us now look through the keyhole, if
not allowed to open the door.
Mahomet IX, on taking possession of
Constantinople in the year 1453, inherited
all the treasures of the Grecian Empire.
We know that he Iras assving maa, aad
the wealth locked up in his tomb, according
to the Eastern custom, is known to be eor
moas. Baiazet IX hardlv left say fertwe,
pawn rip- w' --
aad I OJ this beM hd better b Mt -J
" T -5 ?;fi"T,
" - TM1OT
"- V "!
disturbed. His successor, Selim X, made
himself famous bv the conquest of the
Danubian provinces. He left considerable
money, and precious stones by the bushel.
Boliman H. was called the "Magnificent"
because of his love for luxury and of his
extravagance. He was theCrcesusof the
Sultans. Selim XL, Amurat IXL and
Mehemetm. were not so fond of treasuring
up, and yet, were their vaults open, they
might find money enough for one month
pay to the whole army. Achmet I. was a
great money lover, and his tomb, we doubt
not, must be well filled. His successor,
Mustapha L, reigned only one year. It
would not-pay to open and search his tomb.
Othman IX was about as poor; and as for
Amurat XV. 'and Ibrahim we have some
reason to think that their tombs are empty.
History tells us they had a weakness for the
Treasures of the DeacL
handsome slaves ot Georgia and the beau
tiful daughters of the Caucasus. They
lavished all their money on them. Ma
homet IV.. not worth mentioning. But
Soliman III. and Achmet XL were the
"Lucullus" of the Crescent. Their tombs
were overfilled with gold and treasures of
all kinds. Were all that wealth changed
into dollars, there would be enough to buy
off the largest iron and steel firm in the
States. Achmet ITX made immense money
by his wars and treaties with the Venetian
republic. He had business abilities, as we
know, and was most successful in all his
speculations. His walled chamber .must be
nice and full. Mahmoud X well deserved
his reputation as
A OEEEBT SXTLTA1T.
He ruled for about 24 years, which seems
incredible; that glorious "Commander of
the Faithful" treasured up with care even
to his last day. Indian caravans brought
him diamonds from Hyderabad. They
said that Mahmoud X had incrnsied on his
cimeter Znphalgar, the famous .diamood
that Emperor B,aber found at Agra in 1526;
that diamond weighs 672 carats. Pitt's dia
mond only -weighs 137 carats. Judge then
of the value of that of Agra ! And it has
been locked up with Znphalgar ever since
1763 1 Is it not abont time to extract those
untold treasures-from the tombs? Othman
XIX was a most sober man and a very quiet
man. His sole ambition was to have his
tomb well filled. If we break open the
door of his vault we are pretty sure to
find another Crcesus' wealth. Mahmoud XT.
the .Reformer,, arrived in 1808. He enjoyed
a long reign; bnt his reign cost him dear.
He had to keep up large armies and fleets;
he fought many a battle, and his life was' to
the last a busy one. It is said he only left
debts after him, and ws are bound to be
lieve Xet him sleep in peace. ,
To conclude: Some (300,000,000 are locked
in the tombs of the Sultans. What an
emotion in store for the Minister of Finance
when shown that wealth of gold, and. difl-
monas anp runies wnea looking at tfce
thousand vards of ''eacheaire" and other
Lprecioia stuff spread before his eyes!
The czar rater Jcnew of the buried
wealth. He was still employed as a joiner
in Sardim that he thought afcoat it, makiag
plaes to get hold of it. He failed. Now
things are altered. Turkey iBt-peer
BwiWwWsistcssVjPsMr,s9sTjr EB'WsWj Wnx JBMMM9Cl
PPW .Wf sfvjsssjpsj HtW jPOTsftt.nS I
some use. mm stadvnW'Twfcev. aniTitir'
.Sard to teUVM"t wilt all enoU" Oae thlny
is certain, Turkey might defeml iterself.
"well helped by some power; but even ia this
case she must find moaeyjpleatyof aene.
The reigning Sultan, overcoming hu
scruples, shpuld not hesitate to look lor it
where it is to be found. Mahosaet will
surely forgive him. Chables Faxes.
1 TICKET AGENT TAKES DOW J.
A Plot That Resaked la the HoatUatloa of
nn Arrogant Tooih.
Ne-w Tort San.
One of the ticket agents of the Michigan
Central Eailroad, at a certain town in Ca
nada, was an airy, independent yonng man
who began work with the idea that he
ran the whole line. "The boys" had num
erous complaints against him, and more
than once he would have caught it on the car
had he not been fenced in where he could
not be got at. One evening five or six of us
happened to meet there as we came in on
cross roads, and we soon got on to the fact
that the general manager and two or three
other ofEcals of the road were in the ticket of
ce. We laid our heads together and put up a
-. ..- i.. t.-. ;
job. We all had 1-000 tickets, but each of
the six went to the window in turn and
bought a ticket for the nearest station east
or west When we all had been served the
first went back to the window and said:
"Young man, I think yoa made a mis
take." "I guesa not."
"I got a ticket to C . That is 30 cents.
Igave you a dollar and yon gave me 92
"HumpI That's tunny)" muttered the
young man as he took in the change and
corrected the alleged error.
Then the second went up and said.
"Young man I don't want to beat this
railroad. I bought a ticket to LV , which
is 25 cents, gave you half a dollar, and yoa
handed me 60 cents."
"I did, eh?" quirred the agent as he
finished up and took the change.
Then the third, fourth, fifth and sixth
man went up with, a similar story. The big
officials were taking it all in, and they got
very nervous. The young man was w'hiter
than chalk at the end of it and he was not
wrong in believing that he was doomedL
Next day he was replaced, and I learned a
few weeks later that he had quit running a
railroad and gone into a woollen mill. It cost
each of us a small sum out of ou rown pock
ets to work the man, bnt it was pro bono
publics, and worth double the amount,"
A S0C1ETI WOMAN'S BEBTJO.
A Terrible Revenge, Tet Oae That Wu
Ladles' Homo Journal.
A few years ago a strange mistake was
made in New York society. Two ladies of
the same name gave an entertainment
within a hw doors of each other's houses.
Many persons got into the wrong house.
The hostess who- gained that day the ad
miring comments of all New York, was the
one who received perfect strangers as if
they were ber best friends, and made them
her friends by that gracious reception. She
knew how awkwardly they-woulb; feel when
they found out their mistake; she did all
she conld to prevent their Jeelinjt awk
wardly while with her.
The other lady, less well-bred, said to a
person who had come into her house,, under
a mistake. "I think you have got Into the
"Yes, Madam, I have," said he. "I
thought before! entered it, that this was a
It was a terrible revenge, but, under the
circumstances, an entirely justifiable oae.
Two TJMMwersd HaesHsss.
"Why," said the htukaatf, "4e yon put
"Why," retorted his better ksjf, "V yW
VSMsssssaWC lsss AglSJssssl ssr
". RAGES 9 TO frv&
THE EICH MAN'S MAi
Treatment Accorded to Begging-Eel-El
tera by Onr Millionaires.
A PEW TERY MODEST MISSIYESS
Demanding Everything From Cratc&eato
AIL KINDS OF PEOPLE ASK FOE ILFJ
rwxrrrxxTOB tbs DisrATCn.jf
"Not a poor contribntion to literature
would be those letters written to anybody
who is supposed to be helpful." wroto;somel
one not long ago.
The replies which are made to ibestfjbe-M
ging letters would perhaps be equally inteM
esung that is, if the recipients ever vouch
safe to make any response. That they.do
in. some cases X have fonnd. upon investie
tion, to be a fact For instance, Mr. Jplinj
iiacoD Asior, wmrproDawy receives mor
missives of this kind than any other person?
occasionally replies to them, with his "own
hand, although the greater portion orchis
begging letters are relegated to thai proper
receptacle for such literary productionsthe
To a letter received by him a few months
ago, requesting the loan of ?J0, and offerSg
security thereror, Mr. Astor replied as'foljj
348 Piitiil AVgjtiiial
Mr. Astor begs to acknowledge the recalnt of
's letter of the 10th Inst; and regrets
ueiug iwiopeucu 10 uecune maxing uio loos o
a as requested.
This was written upon black-edge
paper ana Dy jur. Astor nimseli; it lil
rare occurrence, however, for him to take
any notice ol letters ot this descrintion. TJ
Mr. Elbridze Gerrv is well known to bal
charitably-disposed person, and on thatfae-f
count tne greater part of his duly mail. cob
sists of reauests for assistance In some far
or other. To some of these letters he sends
replies through his private secretary. ' One
letter received by bim not long ago was froai
a young gin wno wrote:
Please pardon the Hoerty I take In address-
ing yon, but I am very anxious to Join one of J
the free drawing-classes atithe TousgWomen's
Christian Association in New York, Aslft4
aersranaiypewnunj-j. can nearly support anr-l
seir unnng tne winter hy that means, if mtbsTI
first place I can procure a smallaum of moaerl
typewriter. Would yon be find enoaghrto
loan me a small sum, perhaps s0 or 950-untiliIj
am able to repay it. as I am certain I caafcdol
before the winter is over. -trwm
Hoping youmay not consider this request
too much of a liberty, I remain very retpect-J
To this well-worded and very definite 3J
mana tne louowmg was sent;
TTTW WPTrVmrt gMil una
TOE TOE PBEVEHHOX OF CBCJXTT TO
CHILDKETf, No. 100 East Twestt-
THIRD STRUT. COKXEK Foint-n
AYiNTXE, NxwYobk. October , lSBfcvj j
Bear Madam President Gerrv directs
to say In reply to your letter of the hiscH
that he must decline to grant your request catt-l
R! Fnxovs Jxzncxsrs, SswS
Mr. Jay Gould's letters are all opeaillH
his confidential private secretary. To
which relate to hasineM affairs in wkfeKkil
lis interested, are- laid- upon hi itnssryi li
isasjsssjas, lvuuwier usiare are cassta
ohliviMt is the waste basket, ftisi
emM, aed Jmidw the n 1 i IE
'henriasT'letters there are fhfi si mi stsSi
i ? - . tttj:
HU dsvsakten Miss Helen GouM. U.
kaofoi: her chanties, and sine sttejkaa
Been sucn aireqaeni visitor at tM J
for CnDDled Children, where sLa
boks and pictures and zoBaetiaie a jl
HU1I1 SWCBU, SUB OiU UCO-flZiiJ (
besieged with letters reqnestinir
in some- shape or other. These bsIsmhs
came usually from suburban to was. awl &ss
mothers who have sick or crippled cMWiii
whom they wish to remove to aome!JIUm
York hospital, and for that purpose thy7?
quest a loan., One such letter receivekjjiy;
.suss uouiu mis summer was irom a yew;
woman who wished to place her "little Jmm
brother" so the note ran in abotBifcs.
for this purpose she begged the loa of'lttl
Miss Go nd directed inquiries to be bmsK
regarding this letter, as she coasidesl,tSj
obiect a worthy one. but a lavs
failed to reveal said yoanr woman wi)5
lame brother attachment, Mist GouM i
allr concluded she bad been unooseel
Hereafter her begging: letters will sfee tfcsj
fate accorded to those receives bvherJ
The Yanderbilts, of course, receive. fcssi
oi similar letters irom aiienaa
tions ot people there is the aMrwWil
"valuable" patent; he stater hie reIStl
men is as in tne neignoornooa or sererM
hundred dollars. Then there is tMi
student or artist who begs' the loan of I
which will be repaid in a few yesi;.'tKt)
seamtrese, who cannot pay her ret, aad
wants "to borrow the Joan" of 912. .No j
tice is taken of any of these letters.
-WOUETOT OFTES BKOOABS.
Mr. ChildY and Mr. Drexel's MilfM
carefully sorted every day bytfeeiri
taries. Any letters of a beggiaz
which zeem to be genuine or rather if tsMjrl
bear the stamp oi poverty ana wom-re
sometimes answered, if, upon iaveetiftrfttijl
the writers are found worthy. As a.rilH
however, the. worthy poor are the laet Wj
Ei-Post master James says that heir
ceives many letters from people who revest
wort: or a smaii joan. "xne latter leuetri
pnt in the waste-basket Very few are fteat
women. As a role they are more seit-reUsaK
and plucky than men, for if awoawc
get bread water u free, and she woa't ber.Jj
People write to a Iadjr who, like Mr
Astor, ia famed for giving, aad say tht
they have a lame sister who needs a cra&l
and would she be sure to send one silver;
mounted, because the family is a proad mm
and would not accept a common thia...'Ii
nearly all these cases the writer goes into
a very long account of what it has cot.br
to ask you (a perfect stranger) for 70. Ttw
recipient of this billet-doux finishes it wit
a partial feeling that she ia totally wroazi
having caused this sensitive, prond crtatBta-
thepainoi astunga-tavor ot her. UaeFM
these letters, written by a perOBwWJ
really, nowever,seedea the help of sesss
surgeon in New York, was emphatic oa om
point: she "would not travel secead-eJasIS
nor would she come North without a sill
umbrella." Another suDnliant was
she would "need gloves and a traveling sac
and a plain gown (brown merino- prefcweJ)
and perhaps $20 (or make it )i1
Hsoaev." . USB
It Is very easy to abuse the rich flw.aS
"doing more," but if anyone conld keJCjNtj
the beszin? letters which come to eveVeiel
rich, man or woman, or even at the e3
respondence of those who are not verxriwjl
he would change his mind. No imul
who has achieved success in any waHfaCl
life but can tell the story of aa ateest
fabalons readiness on the part of al
majority of the-laiy, Incompetent aaiasin
successful, to borrow the results of tti ssteq
cess. The world ia full of tramps wa
ready to spend the money of Mr. Assar.atw
Mr. Vaaderbilt; the world is full ol
who consider from the fact that a eerta
person has done one or two serriettJWJ
charity, he is therefore to be expected Ufimt
JL 8HIMV kWsla
TMS MrtiBg. J
Bade Yoar eruel panafa
saaciiaa to oar aaiaa. IMm !. j
EswtGirl Byaa auaaetBa yMJSn
' . . t AljIJ j ...avaiM. ss. f . ssisssssssssssl
jST.tk-fTf .t ..S-3"T. i