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THE OBSERVER. No. 11.
The Nation which would be fcrved by Men of honejly
and great abilities, mujl pay well.
IN my excilrfiond tliro several parts of New Eng
land, I have noticed a class of citizens, who
complain ot the compensations allowed by Con
gress to the principal officers of government.
The liberal character of the Americans is an
evidence that those complaints arise more from
their ilrong jealousy for liberty, than from parfi
nicny. A jealous concern for public liberty is a
noble paifion, which will guard the freedom of
yourpolterity, but at the fame time it needs the
rigid correction of reason. A weak and ignorant
administration is one common means of subvert
ing popular rights. Those very principles in the
human mind, which make men jealous of their
liberty, without restraint, will lead tliem into
The end of a good government is to divide
out liberty in proper portions to every citizen,that
all may be free, and none opprefled. In a state of
anarchy, every neighbour becomes a tyrant in
his own little sphere of afflicting ; in absolute
governments there are few tyrants, awful in their
course—and to approach them is approaching
death. If youmuftbe wretched, it matters little
whether the minister of a prince or an ill-natured
neighbour be the instrument. Civil government
is the only poflible guard against these evils. If
you were a nation of slaves, the l'word, bayonet
and prison would give efficacy to the ineafures of
weak and unprincipled rulers ; but you are free,
and if governed at all, men of high talents and
approved integrity, your most literary and indus
trious citizens mult be called into employment.
Such men never have need to beg business, for the
refonrces of their own minds and their applica
tion is a fund of wealth. If the public design to
have their services, the reward must be adequate
to their abilities, and bear some proportionto the
gains they make in private life.
No man will leave a private employment, which
promises him a thousand dollars per annum, for
an office of half the sum, in which he is respon
sible to the public opinion, and perhaps endan
gers thelofs of his reputation forwifdom ; a facri
tice for which no pecuniary fatisfaclion can be
made. Honor or the pnblic notice may with a
few be an inducement ; but these few areperfons
of great vanity, and have not the abilities for a
difficult or confidential trust. Men of difcern
nient, and such you want, know how to estimate
their own consequence in the State, they know
that if for the present you employ mean abilities
for the fake of being served at a cheap rate, the
public system will soon be deranged, and that you
mult then purchase their aid at such price as they
please. It is a better way to commence your
government on such principles as will be perma
nent. Let public officers be few, and make them
responsible both for their capacity and lionefty.
It is too much the custom of this country to pity
a man,who fays " I did as well as I knew." Igno
rance ought to be no excuse before the sacred
tribunal of the public. He who accepts an office
doth it at his own ril'que, and there are as many
reasons why he ffiould bear the consequence of
incapacity as of knavery. Make this the known
rule for decision on public characters, and the
ignorant seekers of office will become less trouble
some in their solicitations. Give an honorable
reward which will command the service of your
mod distinguished citizens, to whatever depart
ment they are called. Such men have a character
to lose, and ambition will unite with every other
consideration to call forth their greatelt exer
If this proposal doth not please, it is easy to
change the system, for in every country there are
rogues and dunces in plenty, who will serve you
at any price : but remember that the first
WILL CHEAT YOU OUTOf THOUSANDS, AND THE
LATTER DISSIPATE MILLIONS BY THEIR IGNO
The compensations determined by Congress,
are as small as can possibly command the service
of your bell characters—a left sum by throwing
the execution of your government into unfkilful
hands would have endangered the whole. The
pay of the Senate and Commons great as it may
found in the ears of some, circumftanccs being
all considered, is not extravagant. It is a preva
lent idea through the union that these gentlemen
lliall hold no other office under the empire or
particular States—moftofthem toferveyouliave
relinquillied lucrative employments—after the
firft year Congress will not probably be together
more than fifty days in a year—tho' your repre
fentativesbe encreaf'ed, the expenceof a legisla
ture will be much less than the funis given by the
several States to support the members of the old
Congress. Your whole civil lift, including every
department, would not half defray the lioufhold
exp ences of an European Prince. The highest
officers in your judiciary, and revenue, have not a
better provision than grooms of the stable, noble
keepers of hawks andhounds, and dependants still
more infignificant than thofe,receive in other na
tions from theliands of Royalty. Useless officers
are the vermin of a State, but foma officers are
necessary to its very exiftenee. Let them be few
as poflible, but men of approved ability—pay
them well—make them relponfible—and if after
this any are unfaithful, demand what atonement
you please, it will not be too severe.
NEW-YORK, October 31, 1789.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Sept. 19, 1 789.
GENERAL ESTIMATE of MONEY requisite for the WAR
DEPARTMENT,/<w the year 1789.
PAY of the TROOPS.
1 MAJOR, 12 Months, at 45 Dol. per Month, 540
4 C*ptains, 35 1,680
8 Lieutenants, 30 2,930
1 Surgeon's Mate, 30 360
16 Sergeants, 6 i>*s2
16 Corporate, 5 960
8 Musicians, 5 480
8 Artificers, 5 480
232 MatroflTes, 4 11,136
1 Brigadier-General, with the pay of Lieute
tenant-Colonel-Commandant, for 12 Months, at
50 Dol. per month, 600
« Majors, 45 1,080
7 Captains, 35 2,940
7 Lieutenants, 30 2,520
8 Ensigns, 20 >,920
1 Pay-Master, 10 120
1 Quarter-Mailer, 10 120
1 Adjntant, 10 120
1 Surgeon, 45 54 0
4 Surgeon's Mates, 30 1,440
28 Sergeants, 6 2,016
28 Corporals, 5 1,680
14 Drums and Fife*, 5 840
490 Privates, 4 23,520
1 Brig. Gen. 12 Months, at 48 Dol. per Month, 576
3 Majors, 20 720
11 Captain;, 12 >158+
23 Subalterns, 8 2,208
l Surgeon, 16 192
4 Mates, 8 384
Rations tor 840 Non-Commiffioncd Officers and
Privates, at one Ration per day each, are, for 365
days, 307,440 Rations, at 17 gothsofa Dollar, per
Cloathing, 840 ) 940 Suits at 26 Dollars
Contingencies, too J each, *4-44°
QUARTER-MASTER s DEPARTMENT.
Tranfportation,including the Transportation of
the Recruits raising in Philadelphia, to the Fron
tiers, the Transportation of Cloathing, Medicines,
Ordinance and Military Stores for the Troopson the
Frontiers, the ncceflary removal of Ordinance and
Military Stores, the hire of Teams, Pack-Horses,
Tents, Boats, Axes, Camp-Kettles, Boards, Fire-
Wood,Company-Books, Stationary for the Troops,
and all other expenses in the Quarter-Mafter'i Di
For Medicincs, Instruments, Furniture and
Stores for an Hospital for the Frontiers, also for at
tendance when neceflary at Weft-Point and Spring
For Salaries to the Store-keepers at their several
Virginia, f3,at 40 Dol. per Month, 1,440
Charlcfton, 1 Store-keeper, at 100 Dol. perann. 100
? Assistants at 15 Dol. per month, 360
1 Store-keeper at Philadelphia, 500
1 do. Rhode-Island, 96
1 do. Lancaftcr, g6
1 do. Fort Harkemer, 120
His Subsistence, 1 dollar per week, 52
Rents of Buildings for Deposits.
Virginia, , j0
-1,50 a 60
Laborers at the several deposits, 400
Repairs of Arms, 10,000
Cleaning 30,000 Muflcets, at 12 goths, 4,000
Contingencies of the War Department, 3,000
Contingencies of the War Office, 800
Salaries of the officers, 3,95°
Carried forward, 167,828 60
Cop)' °J the original File,
Secretary of the Treasury.
(SignedJ H. KNOX.
Brought forward, 167,82860
Dcdutt the amount of the Salaries of the
Ditto for Contingencies, 800
which are estimated 111 the Civil Lift, 4,75°
(Or dollars 163,078, and 66 Cents.) 163,078 60
Secretary oj the Treasury.
Treasury Department, September 19, 1789.
AESTRjICT of JOURN AL of tht first sessi on of thi SENATE
cj the UNITED STATES.
F R I DAY, May I.
The Report of the joint Committee, to whom was recommitted,
the mode of communication between the Senate and House of Re
prcfentatives.as made by the Committee on the part of the Senate,
was taken up and not accepted.
The fame report of the Committee on the part of the House, and
the acceptance thereof by the House vas conftdered in the Senate,
and it was deteimined that it should lie until further order.
A motion, "Thatwhcna mcfTenger shall come from the House
of Rcprcfentativcs to the Senate, and Ihall be announced by the
door keeper, the incfi'engcr shall be received at the bar of this House
by tit Secretary, and the b ill or pspcr that he may bring, shaH iherc
be received from him by Iht Secrdarv, who (lull deliver'
Prefideni of the Senate," was committed to Mr. Ellfwortn
Lee, and Mr. Read. And the Committer were inftrufted't
port a mode of fending bills and melTa.es from the Sen... lit
House of Representatives. Adjourned. 1
SATURDAY, May 2 .
Agreed, That until a permanent mode of comunicjtion f u
be adopted between the Senate and House of Reprefeniative '
Senate will receive mefljges by the Clerk of the House, if theH r
lhall think proper to fend him, and papers sent from the H"I =
(hall be delivered to the Secretary at the bar of the Senate
hnn be conveyed to the President. ' 7
A mefiage from the House of Representatives, bv Mr r»ai
their Clerk. ' ' cckk '/>
" I AM commanded bv the Hoi; ft- of Representatives, tobrin
to the Senate, the proceedings of the House on a resolution of tit'
Senate, of the 27th of April : Also to communicate to the Setiaf
the appointment of the Reverend Willi jm Lynn, D. D. to be on'
of the Chaplains to Congress, agreeably to the resolves of the i-°th
of April,"—And he withdrew. 0
The concurrence of the House of Representatives on the tefol.e
of the 17th, is as follows:
" In the House of Representatives of the United Stat~
" the 29th of April, 1789.
" The House proceeded taconfider the following refolutionof
the Senate, to wit,
" In Senate April 27th, 1789.
" Refohed, That after the oath (ball have been adminifteredt,
th« President, he, attended by the Vice Picfident, and the Mem
ber< of the Senate, and House of Representatives, proceed toSt"
Paul's Chapel, to hear divine service to be performed by the Chapl
lain of Congress, already appointed—whereupon,
" Resolved, That this House doth concur in the said resolution
amended and read as followeth, to wit,
" That after the oath (hall have been administered to the Pre.
fident, the Vice President, and Memberi of the Senate, the Speaker
and Members of the House of Representatives, will accompany h !m
toSt. Paul's Chapel, to hear divine service performed by the Chip.
lain of Congress."
Mr. Strong, by order of the Committee appointed the 28thof
April, on a bill patted the House of Representatives, entitled"Aii
aflto regulate the time and manner of administering certain oaths,"
reported fundiy amendments ; and Monday next was aligned 13
take the fame into consideration. Adjourned.
PRICE CURRENT. NEW-YORK.
Jamaica Spirits, ... ft
Antigua Rum, ...
St. Croix, do. - . wft.
Country, do. - - jy lo .
Molafles, ... s y 2- „ 2 y,_
Brandy, ... .fa. „ S r
Geneva, ' " ' SJ3-
Do. in cases, . . s (\r a 2 gf.
Muscovado Sugar, - . 80/ a jtf.
Loaf, do. . - 1/3.
Lump, do. - . Wij,
Pepper, ... 3/".
Pimento, - 4 2T
Coffee, - - iji. a ljg.
Indigo, (Carolina) » - a 6/i
Rice, - - 24f. a 23f.
Superfine Flour, - . -
Common do. - - 43f. &
Rye do. « . 26/1 a sjf.
Indian Meal, - - • iß£
4Q\f. pr. bujh.
Com, (Southern) - 4f.
Do. (Northern,) - 4/*. a 4/6.
Beef, firft quality, - r 48/r a 50/ C
Pork, firit quality, » - Bi_/&.
Oats, - - - 1/7.
Flax-feed, - . - 6f-
Ship bread per cwt. - - 2\f.
Country refined bar-iron* - 281. a 301.
Do. bloomery, - . 25L
Swede* do. - 451.
Ruflia do. . » 30].
Pig-iron, - - 81 10fa 91.
German steel, per lb. - - 9d.
Nails American, by cask. per. lb. 4d. - 12*/.
Do. do. do. 6d. - - 11 J.
Do. do. do. Bd. - - gj*/.
Do. do. do. lOd.
Do. do. do* i2d. f . , 0,7
Do. do. do. 2od r T* a i '
Do. do. do, 24d. )
Pot ash, per ton, •» . 391. a 40/,
Pearl ash, - „ 481 501.
Becs-wax per lb. - - 2^3.
Mackaiel per barr. - » 26f. a 30j.
Herrings, - 1 bf.
Mahogany, Jamaica, per foot, • IoL
Dominico, do. - • 9^
Honduras, do. - - » 7<L
Logwood unchipped, per ton. - • 81.
Do. chipped. - 14U
2 inchywhite oak plank, per m. • 101. 10[.
1 inch do. - - s'-
2 inch white pine plank, - - 81.
1J inch do. - - 61. 10/ I
1 inch do. - 31. i°A
2 inch pitch pine do. - •
1J inch do. r - 61. lo f>
1 inch do. - 4''
Pitch pine scantling, - - ?/•
Cyprus 2 feet shingles, - - *1-
Do. 22 inch do. s » - *!• \l-
Cedar 2 inch do. - - lo s
Do. 22 inch do. - -
Do. 18. inch do. 1 V
Butt white oak staves, - - 3
Pipe do. do. - - - 9'-
Hogftiead do. do. •» - 61* iO J*
Do. do. heading, - * *
IrisH barrel do. staves, - ~ 5J-
Hogftiead red oak do. - - s*' 5/"
Do. French do. - » 5
Hogshead hoops,. - Vj
White oak square timber per square foot* ! ° •
Red wood, per ton k - - '
Fuftick, - - ' r
Beaver, per lb. . - 12/. a to/-
Otter per Ikin, 9r 3y'
Grey fox, - V 7'
Martin, ... 47'
Racoon, - . - 3/ 6 3 Vj
Mufkrat, ... iod.<"¥-
Beavcr hats, . -
Callor do. ... - 4 J"
Publifked by JOHN FENNO, No. 9^^']
L «ii e, ncarthe Ofwcgc-Markct, Ntw-losK. t 3