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AiTD PAEMESS5 MECHANICS
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY JONATHAN ROW, SOMERSET, SOMERSET COUNTY, PA.
TUESDATT, FEBRUARY 10, 1846,
Vol. 4. No. 13.
S. J MCKNIGHT.
CAKSOX 5 McKMGIIT,
(successors to H. Coulter & Co.)
"B7 II OLESASE Grocers. Comrois
Y y sion and ForwarJirg Merchant?,
Dealers in Produce and Piilburr Manu
factures, Sixth street, between Wood and
Liberty. Pittsburgh, Pa. janlS
iR. G. fKIGICOIl;
RESIDENT J) EXT is r,
Hon, J, S. Black, Dr, J, McCreky,
Hon. A, TrioMrsoN, Dr, N, W, "-h
Office at Ankcny's Hotel.
E S P E C T F U L LY informs his
friends and tlic public in general,
that he continues to carry on the .
Saddling and llarness-jla- .
king business, t
et his fliop on Main Cross street, nnnh j
f Parker &. Ankeny's store, where he ;
will constantly keep on hnnd. cr mr.ke to :
crder, .V.Vy JIM) GUYvo'
SADDLES, DlilDLES, 1L111
NESS, COL..1 Its, 4Cm
all cf whih he will dispose of at very
lo'.v prices, for cash or approved country
Having supplied himself with excel-
lent materials, -mJ being c'etemuneii to
do his work in a neat and substantial
manner, he flatters himself to be able to
give general satisfaction to all who may
favor him with their custom.
Somerset, novl 1 '45
TIlllEE BIG BOOKS.
W8 WITH - MEXICO
Las not yet coin:nenccJ, anJ we are s.il sel
ling soda at the alove &;.mJ at very
"7 hzvc received 'this day' from
Y T Philadelphia, Baltimore and
Pittsburg, a variet of
consisting in part of
CLOTHS of various qualities 2nd color
CASS1 MERES !i da do
SATTINETTS do do tin
JEAiNS d do do
LADIES GOODS such ns Romelia
stripe. Polka Cashmere, Casliniere De
Cosse, Afghan Satin, plain, figured and
changeable Alpaclus, Mousliu de Laines,
&.C, tr, fcc.
In stl'ing loots ami shoes,
Wc promise tolcat the Jews.
mil. SO on ha ml a rlioice lot of Gro
ceries, Hardware and Qucensware; all ol
which we shall endeavor to sell on such
terms, as to ini'iu-c a generous pub!u to
give tis a libera! support.
Don't 'forget the place, remember the
Three Big Doors.
sep.30 1 J & H F SCH ELL.
Don't stand up while chairs
and sofas arc so cheap.
"VITOULD respectfully inform his
Y Y o'dcusionie'rs and the public in
general, that he has purchased from
Mr. Jocub Myers, chair maker and
wheel wright his entire stock cf materials
and has commenced the chair making
business with that of cabinet making, ;.t
his hop on main street in the Borough
f Somerset, one door eat ol tne resi
lience of Simon Gebhart Esq., where
lie will constantly keep on hmd and
ill make to order, common fancy and
Muhuzoini Chairs, bed steads, wheels
Tables, Stands, Settees, So
fas, e., 50., jc.,
lie will fell common chairs at $5 per
eil, ami other articles in proportion.
Thankful for the patronaje heretofore
axtended to him, he would invite the
public to call and exemine his work,
which he will warrant to be made of the
Viesl materials and finished io the ueatest
itnd mnsl durable manner.
Approved country produce will be
tikrn in exchange for work, at the high
est maiket prices.
The bird that sings on highest wing
Builds on the ground her lowly nest,
And she that doth most sweetly sing,
Sings in the shade when all things rest;
In lark and nightingale we see
What honor hath humility.
The saint that wears heaven's brightest
In deepest adoration bends, crown,
The weight of glory bends him down
The most when high his soul ascends;
Nearest the throne itself must be
The footstool of humility.
The Mother and her Family.
BY MISS SEDGWICK.
Philosophy is rarely found. The most
perfect sample I ever met,, was an old
woman who was apparently the poorest
and most forlorn of the human species,
eo true is the maxim which all profess to
believe, and none act upon invariably, viz:
that happiness does not depend on out
ward circumstances. The wise wouian
to whom I have alluded, walks to Boston,
a distance of twenty or thirty miles, to
sell a bag of brown thread and stockings,
and then patiently walks back with her
gain. Her dress, though tidy, is a gro
tesque collection of "oh reds and patches"
coarse in the extreme.
"Why don't you come down in a wa
gon?" said I, when I observed she was
wearied with her long journey.
-We hav'nt got any horse," there
plied; "the neighbors are very kind to
inc, but they can't spare their'n, and it
would cost as much as mv thread would
"You have a husband; don't he do a
ny thing for you?"
"He is a good man he does all he
can, but lie's a cripple and an invalid.
He reels my yarn and mends the chil
dren's shoes. He's us kind a husband
as a woman need to have."
"But his being a cripple is a heavy
misfortune to you," said I.
"Why. ma'am, I don't look upon it in
that light," replied the thread woman, "I
think that I've great reason to be thank
ful that he never took to any bad habits."
"How many children have you?"
"Six sons and five daughters, ma'am."
"Six sons and five daughters! What a
family for a poor woman to support!"
"It's a family ma'am, but there ain't
one of 'cm I'd be willing to lose. They
all are as healthy children as need be, all
willing to work, and all clever to me.
Even the littlest boy, when he gets a cent
now and then fordoing an errand, will be
sure to bring it to me."
"Do your daughters spin your thread?"
"No, ma'am, as soon as they are big
enough thev go out to service, as I don't
5? m tm
want to keep them always delving for me;
they are always willing to give me what
they can; but it's fair that they should do
a little for themselves. I do all my spin
ning after the folks are abad."
"Don't you think you would be better
off, if you" had no one but yourself to
"Why, no ma'am, I don't. If I had'nt
been married, I should have had to work
as hard as I could, and now I can't do
more than that. My children are a great
comfort to me, and I look forward to the
lime when they'll do as much for me 33 I
have done for them."
Here was true philosophy. I learned
a lesson from that poor woman which I
shall not soon forget.
From the Pittsburgh Gazette.
During the last week an accurate ac
count was kept, at the old Allegheny
Bridge, of the number of foot passengers
crossing each day, for the week. The
average, wc learn, is two thousand five
hundred each way; making the crossings
of foot passengers amount to five thou
sand per diem. When it is considered
that we have four Bridges across the Al
legheny, including the Aqueduct, which
is extensively used by foot passengers,
some idea may be formed of the magni
tude and importance of our sister city,
and the extensive communication between
the two cities. Allowing the other brid
ges and the Aqueduct only half the num
ber each of the old Allegheny, and we
have the astonishing number of twelve
THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED Crossing of foot
passengers each day.
Although we are yet comparatively
young, it is in our recollection when the
only communication between the two
banks of the river was by a Ferry. In
facL the first time we ever crossed the
stream was in a flat or scow, propelled
with poles. Very many of our citizens,
who are now active business men, in the
prime of life, number among the remi
niscences of their boyish days, the rather
dano-prous expedition of crossing the Al-
5 1 - o
legheny in canoes to gather hazel-nuts,
and other productions of nature, while a
sharp look out had to be kept for the
prowling red man of the vast forests be
tween this city and the Iake. On the
same spot where these boyish exploits
were performed, now stands the beautiful
I city of Allegheny, with her twenty cliur
' ches, her Mayor and Town Councils, her
Theological Seminaries, her numerous !
school houses, her palace like manufac
tories, her beautiful private residences,
and her teeming thousands of inhabitants;
and where some dozen individuals cross- j
ed by means of a flat boat or canoe, up- j
wards of twelve thousand now cross in a
day, by means of her magnificent bridges
and the Suspension Aqueuuci, 10 sa no
thing of the constant streams of wagons,
carriagesand men on horseback. Such
have been some of the astonishing won
ders wrought in but the space of a few
vears. Who can calculate what the next
half century may bring forth; or even
the next twenty years.
Farming Scenes at the West.
About 8 years ago, a Dutchman, whose
only English was a good matured 'yes,' to
every possible question, got employment
here as a stable man. His wages $6 and
board, that was 36 dollars in six months,
for not one cent did he spend. He wash
ed his own shirt and stockings, mended
and patched his own breeches, paid for
his tobacco by odd jobs, and laid by his
wajres: The next six months, being now
able to talk good English, he obtained 8
dollars a month, and at the end of six
months more, had 48 dollars making in
all, for the year 8 1 dollars. The second
year, by varying his employment, sawing
wood in the winter, working for the cor
poration in the summer, and making gar
dens in the spring, he laid by a hundred
dollars, and the third year, 155 dollars
making in 3 vears 399 dollars. With
this he bought 80 acres of land. It was
as wild as when the deer fled over it, and
the Indians pursued him. How should
he get a living while clearing it. Thus
he did it: he hires a man to clear and
fence ten acres. He himself remains in
town to earn the money to pay for the
clearing. Pehold him already risen a de
cree he is an employer! In two years'
lime he has twenty acres well cleared, a
log house and stable, and money enough
to buy stock and tools. He now rises
another step in the world, for he gets
married, and with bis amply built broad
faced good natured wife, he gives up the
town, and is now a regular farmer. In
Germany he owned nothing, and never
could; his wages were nominal, his diet
chietly vegctabb, and his prospect was
that he would be obliged to labor as a
menial for life, barely earning a subsis
tence, and not leaving enough to bury him.
In five years he has become the owner in
fee simple of a good farm with comforta
ble fixtures, a prospect of rural wealth,
an independent life, and by the blessing
of Heaven and his wife, of an endless
posterity. Two words tell the story
industry and economy. These two
words will make any man rich in the
West. Indiana Farmer.
Common Schools in Pennsyl
vania. We have not the report of Mr. Miller'
Superintcndant of Common Schools-in
this State, but find the following interes
ting abstract of it in the United States
It appears that in 184 1, the number of
school districts were 1172, of which
number 939 were accepting districts. In
1845, the whole number was 1189, and
the number of accepting districts had in
creased to 1012 exhibiting an increase in
the total number of 17, and of accepting
districts, 50. During the present school
year, 18 10, the non-accepting districts
nave been diminished, and the caiue of
common school education is gradually
but surely gaining ground. The appro
priation for 1846 is $200,000, which will
give to each district the proportion of forty-nine
cents to each taxable inhabitant.
An alteration is recommended in that
portion of the act of 1835, which regu
lates the levying of a tax by the School
Directors in districts the desirable pro
vision being that the amount to be levied
should be fixed by law, with certain dis
cretionary powers to the Directors.
The average time the schools were kept
open during the year, is much less than
that of former years. The reason is, the
reduction of the State appropriation, and
the consequent reduction of the tax le
vied by the School Directors.
The expediency of conferring upon
School Directors a discretionary power
as to the admission of children between
four and six years of age, is suggested as
matter for consideration; the reason be
ing that well informed people have
thought that the progress of education
has been retarded by the crowding of the
schools with very young children.
The principal practical defect in the
working of the system, he considers to
be "the employment, in many instances,
of those who have not sufficiently quali
fied themselve for the responsible situa
tion they assume in becoming teachers."
This he attributes, "in part, to the inade
quacy of the compensation frequently of
fered, and partly to the too indulgent and
informal examination of the competency
of those who apply for certificates as in
structors." As a good and feasible means of im
proving the condition of our schools, and
elevating the grade of teachers, he sug
gests the appointment of County Super
intendents, whose dutv it should be to
meet the School Directors in their several
districts, preside at, and aid in public ex
aminations of Teachers, give counsel,
and sirn certificates of Teachers who
have been examined. These officers, he ;
thinks, might and could do, a great amount
The decline of the "Common School
Journal" is noticed and lamented, and
the report closes with a eulogistic refer
ence to the Schools of the County of
Philadelphia, where the operation of the
system has been carried out most effec
tively, and where the result has been most
The document is plainly but sensibly
written and is valuable, because its sug
gestions look to an enlargement of the
usefulness of the School System.
2911i Congress I t Si-smcii.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
Tlesday Janeary 27, 1846.
ACCEPTANCE OF VOLUNTEERS.
Bv Mr. Haralson, from the Commit-
tee on Foreign Affairs: A bill to author
ize the President of the United States,
under certain contingencies therein named
to accept the services of volunteers.
The bill authorizes the President to
resist any attempt which may be made
by any foreign nation to exclusive juris
diction over any part of the territory of
the United States, or any territory in dis
pute between the United States and any
foreign Government, as well as to main
tain the rights of the United States to,
and to repel invasion upon, the said ter
ritory; and for that purpose to employ
the military and naval forces and such
portions of the militia as "he may deem
In the event of actual invasion of the
territory of the United States, or if, in the
opinion of the President, there be immi
nent danger of invasion, or of hostilities
with a foreign Power, the President is
authorized to call for and accept of any
number of volunteers, not exceeding
thousands that may offer their services to
serve six or twelve months.
The volunteers so offering their ser
vices shall be accepted in companies, bat
talions, squadrons, and regiments. Their
officers to be appointed in the manner
prescribed by law in the States and Ter
ritories to which they may belong.
General officers and general officers of
volunteers to be appointed by the President
In the event of either of the contingen
cies mentioned in the bill, the Prsident
is authorized forthwith to complete all
the public armed vessels, and to purchase
or charter, arm and equip, such merchant
vessels and steamboats as mav be fit or
easily converted into armed vessels, and
in such number as he may deem necessa
ry for the protection of the lake coast, and
the general defence of the country.
The bill to continue in force two years,
and no longer.
By Mr. Baker, from the Committee
on military Affairs: A bill for the relief of
John Stockton, late a lieutenant in the
CLASSIFICATION OF THE
By Mr. Black, of South Carlolina,
from the Committee on the Militia: A
bill to provide more eflectually for the
national defence, bv organizing and clas
sifving the militia of the United States,
and providing for 'calling them into the
service of the United States, and lor oth
er purposes. Read and committed.
By Mr. Thomas Butler King, from the
Committee on Naval Affairs: A biil for
the relief of Captain JohnEricsson. Com
mitted. Also a joint resolution directiag the
Secretary of the Navy and the Secretary
of the Treasury to appoint five scientific
persons to examine the invention of James
Montgomery, called the "Safety Guard,
to prevent the explosion and burning of
steam-boilers, and to save fuel in their
use;" and if it should be reported that it
is expedient to use the said invention in
the naval and revenue service, to pay
said Montgomery such sum as it shall be
adjudged to be worth to the Government.
Read and committed.
By Mr. Hage, from the Committee of
Claims: A report against the petition of
John Otis. Laid on the table.
By Mr. Schrack, from the Committee
en Naval affairs: A bill for the relief of
the hoirs of Robert Fulton. Commit
ted. By Mr. Stanton, from the Committee
an Naval Affairs: A bill for the relief of
A bill renewing widows naval pensions
for an additional period of five years.
Both bills were twice read and com
mitted. By Mr. Stanton, from the same com
mittee, to which was referred the petition
of James. F. Miller; A bill to repeal the
fourth section of the act making appro
priations for the civil and diplomatic ex
penses of Government for the year end
ing 30tb June, 1810. Read and Committed.
COLONY OF LIBERIA.
By Mr. Charles J. Ingersoll, from the
Committee on Foreign Affairs, on the
memorial of certain citizens of theborough
of Easton, in the State of Pennsylvania,
complaining of thr conduct of the com
mander of British man-of-war toward
the colony cf Liberia, on the coast of
Africa and asking Congress to recognise
the said colony and Government of Li
beria as a soverign and independent Gov
ernment. The committee ask to be dis
charged from the consideration of the
1. Because the application for relief or
protection doe3 not come from the colony
of Liberia, but certain citizens of this
2. Because it does not appear that the
colony of Liberia is in that state of na
tional power and capacity, such as here
tofore have beein deemed sufficient to
authorize our Gavcrnment in acknowl
edging any foreign country as independ
ent. 3. Because the correspondence on the
subject between the American and Brit
isn Government proves that the colony
of Liberia is now an object of the good
will of the Government of the United
States, mors available fer their protection
than its acknowledgment of independ
ence. Tee report was ordered to lie on the
lable and be printed.
PUBLIC WORKS IN IOWA.
On motion of Mr. Dodge, it was
Resolved, That the Secretary of War
be directed to transmit o this House the
report of Captain Joshua Barney, the of
ficer having charge of the public works
in the Territory of Iowa.
Before the call of committees for re
ports had been completed
The House, on motion of Mr. Hop
kins, resolved itself into Committee of
the Whole on the state of the Uninn,
(Mr. Tibbatts in the chair,) and resumed
the consideratian of the joint resolution
reported by Mr. C. J- Ingersoll, from the
Committee on Foreign Affairs, for giving
to Great Britain the twelve months' no
tice of the termination of the convention
of the 6ih August, 1827, concerning the
joint occupation of the Oregon country.
Mr. Douglass, of Illinois, (chairman of
the Committee on Territories,) who was
entitled to the floor, having the preceding
evening moved for the rising of the com
mitteef addressed the committee during
his alloted hour in support of the expe
diency of giving notice of the termination
of the Oregon convention, and argued to
show that it would be no just cause of
war, but would, at the expiration of twelve
months, put us in exclusive possession
(according to the treaty of Ghent) of the
vallev of the Columbia. He also took
the ground that Great Britain possessed
no rights on the Northwest Coast at all,
and ought not to be suffered to hold an
inch of territory on the shore cf the Pa
cific. He was followed by Mr. Bayly, of
Virginia, who briefly ran over the heads
of a more extended speech he meant to
prepare for the press, in opposition to
giving the notice proposed at this time.
Mr. W. W. Campbell, from the 3ixth
district of New York, next took the floor
in support of the notice, (discussing, in
a digression, the position and injuries of
the Native American party )
The floor was then obtained by Mr.
Owen, of Indiana, on whose motion the
committee rose. Mr. Owen, of course,
will have the floor as soon as the com
mittee shall sit again.
Mr. Hunt, onleave, introduced the fol
Rccolved, That the Secretary of the
Treasury be directed to report to this
House a" detailed statement showing the
amount of public money lost by the
Treasury since the 1st day of January,
183 4, by reason ot the failure or delin
quency of deposite banks, and also, the
amount lost during the same period by
reason of the defalcation or delinqency of
collectors, receivers, and all other officers
charged with the collection, custody, and
disbursment of the public funds; and
what steps have been taken for the re
covery of the same.
The resolution was read, and, pending
the question to agree to it, the House ad
journed until to.morrow at 12 o'clock.
The following petitions were presented
and referred under the rule:
By Mr. Harper: The petition of George
A. James and 132 other citizens of
Zanesville, Ohio, praying for the erec
tion of a bridge over the river Ohio, at
Also a like petition from Henry Orn
drof and 8G other citizens of the Mine
place, for the same purpose.
Also, a like petition from James Gran
ger tnd 87 other citizens of Muskingum
county, Ohio, for the same prpse.
Also, a similar petition from C . 1 or.er
and 43 other citizens of said county, for
the same purpose. lf ,
Also, the petition of J. G. Metcalf and
132 other citizens of Guernsey county,
Ohio, for the same purpose.
By Mr. McClelland; The petition of
masters and owners of vessels on th
Lakes for lamp-lights on West Sister
Island, in Lake Erie.
Also, the petition of R. A. Forsyth and
oter citizens of Dctroit,for the improve
ment of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers.
By Mr. Dubbin: The petition of Wil
liam Crocker, of Wayne county, N. C.
praying Congress to avoid the evils cf
war by having national disputes settle!
by arbitration, or by a code adopted by a
Congress of Nations.
Ry Mr. R. Smith, of Illinois: Tho
memorial of sundry citizens of Warren
county, Ohio, praying Congress to mako
the public lands free (in limited quantities )
to actual settlers.
Br. Mr. McConnell: Two memorial
from Georgia and Alabama, signed bv up
wards of 300 citizens, praying Congress
to establish a mail route once a weelc
from the terminus of the great Eastern
and Western Railroad, at Atalanto; also
the terminus of the Georgia and Monroa
Railroad, in De KalU county, Georgia,
via Villarica, in Carrol county, Georgia;
thence to Talapoosa post office, (Robin
son'? ;) thence to Shady Grove, Benton
county, Alabama; thence to Jacksonville;
By Mr. Schenck: The petition of
Daniel Jordan and 38 other citizens of
Ohio, praying for an appropriation for tha
continuance of the Cumberland road.
By Mr. Hillhrd: The petition of John
R. Chapman, of Alabama, praying ihit
Congress would grant him the balance of
the appropriation voted by the last Con
gress for the improvement of the Choc
taw hatchie river.
By Mr. Hungerford; Two petitions
from inhabitants of Jefferson county, New
York, for fortifications at Sackett's Har
bor. By Mr. John A. Rockwell, of Con
necticut; The petition of Thomas W.
Williams and and 23 other citizens of
New London, Connecticut, praying for
the adoption of peaceable measures for
the settlement of the Oregon question.
Also, the petition of Wolcot M. Mors?.
By Mr. Bell: The petition of John Turn
er, of Wayne county Kentucky, praying;
a pension for injuries received while in
the service of the United States during
the late war with Great Britain.
Also, the petition of Mrs. Cathrina
Gale, widow cf the late Col, Anthony
Gale, praying a pension.
By Mr. Martin, of Wisconsin: Tho
petitions of citizens of Milwaukie for
appropriations on certain roads in the
Territory of Wisconsin.
Also, the petition of citizens of Brown
county for apropriations on the Green
Bay and Chicago road, in Wisconsin.
Also, the petition af citizens of Brown
county for a road from Fort Howard to
Also, the petition of Col. George Boyd
late Indian agent, to have certjiu allow
ances mads him in a settlement of his ac
counts. Also, the memorial of citizens of Win
nebago county for improvement of tha
Fox and Wisconsin rivers.
By Mr. Chapman, of Maryland: Ths
memorisl of Dr. Edward Earle, of Phila
delphia, asking that his process for pre
serving canvass and cordage may be a
dopted for the service of the navy of tha
By Mr. Lewis: The petition of citi
izens of New York for the completion of
the Cattaraugus habor and for the erec
tion of a light-house.
By. Mr. Tibbatts: The petition of tha
heirs of John Mountjoy, praying for tha
allowance of the commutation of five
years' full pay, with the interest, for th3
services of the said Mountjoy during th
By Mr. Lumpkin: The petition of sun
dry citizens of Georgia, praying ths es
tablishment of a mail route from th-5
Stone Mountain Depot, on the Georgia
Railroad, in De Kalb county, via Law
renceville, in Gwinnett county, Gains
ville, in Hall county, to Clarksviile, ia
By Mr. Holmes, of South Carolina:
The petition of M. II. Dcbow, executor
of Dr. Thomas Cooper, to be refunded
money paid under the act of 1798, called
the alien and sedition act.
By Mr. Sawyer; Five remonstrances
from citizens of Ohio against the im
provement of the Maumee river.
Also, one petition for said improve
ment. r ,
Bv Mr. Darragh: The memonr.I of L.
Board of Trade of the city of Pittsburg,
which presented important consiuera
tions and information relating to the im
provement of the navigation of the Orua
river, and directing the attention of Con
gress' to the improvement, by means of
locks and dams, and asking for a sufficient
Also, the petition and papers of George
Cochran, asking for a settlement of his
clams agaicst the United States, by rea
son of tha non-feUhner.t of a contract
with the Commissary Department in;
On motion of Mr. R. Smith, the bill
reported at the last Congress to incorpor
ate the Washington Mutual Fire insu
rance Company, w referred to t a
Committee for the District of Ceixr.bia.