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domestic and imported food products. The development of
a HACCP plan and a HACCP system involves the applica
tion of five preliminary steps and seven principles.
These are Preliminary Steps
1. Assemble the HACCP team.
2. Describe the food and the method of its distribution.
3. Identify the intended use and consumers of the food.
4. Develop a flow diagram which describes the process.
5. Verify the flow diagram.
6. Principle No. 1. Conduct a hazard analysis. Prepare
a list of steps in the process where significant hazards occur
and describe the preventive measures.
7. Principle No. 2. Identify the critical control points
(CCPs) in the process.
8. Principle No. 3. Establish critical limits for preven
tive measures associated with each identified CCP.
9. Principle No. 4. Establish CCP monitoring require
10. Principle No. 5. Establish corrective action to be
taken when monitoring indicates that there is a deviation
from an established critical limit.
11. Principle No. 6. Establish effective record-keeping
procedures that document the HACCP system.
12. Principle No. 7. Establish procedures for verifica
tion that the HACCP system is working correctly.
The written document that is developed from the applica
tion of these steps to the production of a food product is the
HACCP plan. The next step is to implement the plan with
the result being a HACCP system. Finally, the HACCP
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system must be maintained through periodic verification
With a HACCP-based program in place, it is believed
that a Government investigator can determine and evaluate
both current and past conditions critical to ensuring the
safety of the food produced by the facility by arriving on the
scene at Step 12 in the program. Many groups have encour
aged the application of these principles to every stage of the
The HACCP concept is to prevent food safety problems
before they occur. These food safety problems include bio
logical (bacteria such as E. coli 0157:H7, Salmonella),
chemical (pesticides and antibiotics) and physical hazards
(needles and shots). Yes, HACCP has been widely accepted
and used in the food processing industry to ensure food
safety, however can it be used for ensuring safe production
of food animals and their products?
The Food Safety and Inspection Service of the USDA is
inclined to believe that many of the quality assurance pro
grams such as drug residue avoidance program have similar
preventive concepts like those found in HACCP. Among
Food Scientists and Veterinarians, there is a general con
sensus that application of HACCP as used for the process
ing industry for food animal producing farms might be
difficult as: 1) management and production practices be
tween farms and within farms vary considerably, 2) lack of
an effective control point during production stage of the an
imals to eliminate or minimize the hazard, and 3) variation
in the environmental conditions that cannot be controlled
effectively, make it very difficult to actually develop a
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• Important tissue amino acid
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equired for horn tissue development
• required by Immune system
required for normal skeletal
sntial for collagen tissue formation
latural source of trace minerals