The people's advocate. (Montrose, Pa.) 1846-1848, July 02, 1846, Image 1

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    ljc Vcoptiii buccatc. - I) EVERY TLIVBSDAY MOILSII 6 , BY
(Office ot(the west side'of the Public Avenue.)
'l'l RS S. 2 rri E 1)01,L AR a year in advance.
Otte MANI - Fifty Cents it hot phi within three'
months, andAif delayed until ultyr the expiratien of
rear nu dollars will be exacted. -
Disroittoa anew optional with the Publishers, tut
-10,1, ativarAos,are
I,ottor4 tAilte PablisherA on business'with the ot
fi,,. a inst bedpost-paid to itirnre attention.
- 00 ctn.
From the N. Y. Mirror
ashionable song-Making.
Take ilewsind flowery.; sharp or bile,
A broken 1141. rt, a pission mute.
A dm supplies
,•ry kid of speaking eyey—
bar:..y, spiukling. black and flue
Descript au noncleseripi of hue
shred tres.4, ringlets. fildings fUr
'(.4 sunny, Irk mid silken hair,
And mix wirlt them in quantum equal
Smiles swot, la( per sopiel,
Soft, r nsivi l , winning, bright, enchanting.
Pmnd, seorilfid, too, must not be wanting.
Large dropiiiiif seintrate tears axe goud—
lf,those caul'hot be had--a flood :
A q{l3ll. of 4_:11 , . a most bf dint pies.
Anil now W have had euove:Ji of simp les ;
More would( mitke your iiiixtqre thinner,
rat these v,41.1, du for a beginner.
Put these actin a niislerate lire. -
t A I;ri , ; :ht r !,,ax «ill
struie; , •Ili would el e1..11111e the whsle.)
And let 164 is your howl
{ . 111.11 :;tat bubbles rising--
And now foq 311 eiVet surprising !
Shake in a Aandful of pet words,
each :i.seaell album Store idfortis
1,1 - ad, dArktaspelable despair,
Above alls d turd mind be there.
I'Lr in>tantln in,zr,lierag,theet,
aid miLkti your stuff complete;
Tulle a sli4catiih, and NAitli your pelt,
;; I l i ii i i, ;;:l l, o l l '. N lilre now and then,
Measure anil or. and 'twill produce,
For lireseut4ir for future
Nottiheisi tun them as von will,
tart itirkretty versos still ;
their feet on any ground,
lee; music with their sound.
From tip• Angl"-Anwrictui
PRIWT R. .T. .I,tll\
Some y4ars ago when the American fur
company end -the - Hudson Bay traders cat',
Tied On a towerlid Opposition to each other
in the will and rocky territory of the Ore, - -
gon, sever: little forts were erected in the
interior, w.ience the commerce in peltrieS
was nuole*ith the Indians. One of these;
to which 41r tale refers, was planted in ti
green and,lsecluded valley, where pasture for
rattle tuulcomfort for man were as much
as possiblcoinhined with security and safe
ty. A little stream, bordered with cotton
wood and *pens, afforded a constant supply
of water; while in the grand and inagnifir
cent valleil of the Bayou Salade, at no great
distance, liastured, in inexbaustable thou ,
sands, the; buffalo and the elk ; its rivers
abowidin4 moreover, with thn beaver; whose
skins prindipally induce the hunters to tempt
the datigeriS of the great American wildert
ness. In ibi.: spot, known as Spokan Fort;
dwelt Janes '..M'Plierson, the owner and:
~. ,
governor _ the locality. AlTherson was ti
Sco:clumni, who in early days had left his
country a your lad, and -now, by the excl.;
cte of tilt perseverence characteristic of
his countrlmen, had attained the position of
a well-to-4 merchant. Of an enterprising
disposition he had penetrated into the inte,
nor in search of further wealth; and having
fur some two years settled himselfat Spokani i
had there iiriven a thriving trade with the
Indians, if spite the impediments thrown in
his weir bhis rivals. Nothing can equal
the pxcitei,ent of this precarious commerce.
It is die clamant effort on the part of oppo.
salon etunpanieS and traders to out-general
the other. to mutually blind their opponents
as In theirldestination and, plans, as will tui
to •be ever in the field first. These efforts
give rise 41 almost superhuman exertions;
and tend lalways to sharpen the ! wits of
all parties in a very sensible manner. lie
who showi the greatest knowledge Of Indian
tastes, of tic haunts of. the beaver and buf
faio, of OA tune to move-and the time to go
ditto wintkr quarters, is sure to make the
most sucaissful campaign. M'Pherson wars
shrewd 841 acute, and these qualities serv
ing him iq good stead, his affairs advanced
in-a very ilatisfactory manner.
It wasti)mut two years after the, establish 4,
anent of *e fort, and when all were in aci
tivity anOustle, that Edward Ray, a.young
Louisianiir, obtained an appointment under
the owne4 raid travelling the whole distance
from Neat Orleans, had convoyed a cargo of
inereliant4se tir the use of the conmany.--;-
In addition to,this, lie had taken up, to re
join her 4ther, Miss 141'Pherson and a fe.
male attei)dant. So peculiar and so long a
journey hlid thrown the young people much
together, told without any reflection with re
gard to t 1 it difference of position, a mutual
affection lglad arisen between them. Under
'these civinustaticks the voyage up the Illis
sissippi *nd across the vast interiorplains
was of u most agreeable character. , Both
lingered lipon deck to admire the 'duffs and
grassy I) l .iiii?', the vast kitenninahle prairieS;
and nevr.* wearied of their gaze. The de.-
serf. evemliud charms; mid when the Rocky
M.Ountai4s burst upon then in all their su6-
hinny, heir pleasure was complete. At
length, hnwever, they arrives. at their joui
tiev's enm. Ray became; a crli., and Mitie
M'Phersfjon presided over the establishmettt,
as the . daihghter of the owner wits bonndlo
do. Wltever might have been the ladyTa
feelings, he poor clerk never soughtto learn.
He felt t#e difference of station, and, shrinkt
ing from i any manifestation of his aspiring i
hopes, attended to his business honestly a.Od'i
dilligentrt, but without . ever showing the
slightest ii.nthusiasm for the avocation. Utt
der these circumstances he was considered
useful in :1 his way, but failed to excite thtit
notice wtjich might have led to his advance
ment.eserved and taciturn, even his mil
tress tiro ght herself deceived in him. WO
the exci meat of their happy journey, en
his ener es seemed to have departed. The
truth w f ag that Ray, who was not Of a Mil-
o ne disposition, saw no means' of rising to
a l eve l with his master, and idlowed des- '
pondency to mmerve his spirit.
- About three months after his; arrival, the
'me approached when the annual interview
- ith the various Indians took place: a meet
1, lig of much imptirtance, as then the whole
((Unities of the year were decided. It was
I, 'mai to appoint it place for the natives to
amp With their, beaver and other skins,
vitere the rival traders then repaircd,'aud
vhoever offered the best price., obtained a
eady and profitable - market. About two
ays before the time appointed, the heads
f the fort were seated at their evening meal.
kitty and variety made up for delicacies
.d seasonings. Buffalo, deer meat, trout,
h almon, wild fon-1, all abounded on the
)oard—round which stit 111. 1 .1)hersoa, his
aughtcr, Ray, and three other clerks. The
whole party engaged in discussing the mood
kings before them, when a bustle was heard
without, and, after the pause of a moment,
half--breed hunter appeared on the thersh
Id. •
" What news,' Nick'!" said 111Therson,
-ho recognized in the intruder a scout sent
lin to learn the proceedings of the river tra
cts. •
" Bad," said Nick, advancing:" Master
Sublette got ahead of Spokan. The In
inns all at camp already, with plehty ben
! eer. Master Sublette buy up all, but him
t ,, ot no tobacco, so he send away to Brown
itor some; then smoke, and buy all the bea
" Why, that is, good news," said M'Pher
son laughing; "if Sublette has no tobacco,
all is right. We .have plenty ; and not an
Indian will sell a skin until he has had a
good puff at the pipe of peace. So up, my
men," he continued, addressing his clerks ;
you 'must awaytand out-general Sublette,
Oiy taking Johnson a good supply of the.
" Mi very fine," said Nick, with a know
ng jerk of his• head ; "but Sublette him
1-now a trick or two of that. &hundred
tlackfeet are outlaying in the woods, and
tot a soul will reach the market until the
pre gone."
" The Blackfcet l" cried M'Pherson ;
then we are defeated surely. What is to
done' "
•" How many bales will suffice 1" said Ray
"If Johnson, our agent, had but one,"
replied the trader despondingly, "all would
e right. It is impossible, however; and
'lit; year is lost to rue."
" By no means," said the clerk, rising,
with all his native energy and fire beaming
in his Cye; "Johnson shall have the hale,
Or my Scalp shall - hang in a Blackfoot lodge
before morning !"
" Edward!" exclaimed the daughter with
n alarmed glance, which Opened the fa
her's eyes to whet had hitherto been a Pro
oUnd secret.
.' " Are you in .earnest, Mr. Ray !" said
Al'Pliersou gravely, and even sternly.
" I am, sir: give Wild Polly La favorite
are,) and trust to me for the accomplish
inmg of your wishes."
" You will go alone then 1"
1 " I will."
M'Pherson ordered the mare he valued
! , o much to be saddled, and in half an hour
Edward Ray, with two bales of tobacco be- ,
find him, and armed to the teeth, sallied
orth Crom Spokau amid the plaudits - of the
atty'who regarded less the perilousness
3f the-adventure, than the character of the
icrho undertook it. Miss . M'Pherson, con
ions of the interest she had betrayed in
er father's clerk, hastily retired to her
hamber ; while . the father, carefully fasten
`'' i* the gates, and posting proper sentinels,
it his pipe, and,seated himself, absorbed in
eflection, , by the huge fireplace in the prin
ipal apartment . Great smokers- are your
J idian traders; who in more things than one
esemble the men with whom they have to
,If eal.
Meanwhile, Edward Ray,after leaving the
fort, rode slowly down the valley, reflecting,
lon the wisest course to pursue. Before him
Was a journey of seventy miles, with, a hun
dred wild Indians thirsting for a pale face
Ivictim ; no less welcome that he owned a
[ horse, and tarried a rare prize in the shape
)1' tobacco. Ray felt he had rashly ventar
-311 on a wild and doubtful enterprize, and,
under ordinary Circumstances, would have
soon turned back ; but he knew - the opinion
his fellows had 'of him, and felt with pride
that no one had offered even to accompany
him. Besides, in the presence of her he
loved, he had undertaken his bold task, and
Was determined that she should not think
him indifferent and timid. A ride of half
an hour brought him out of the valley, and
u pon the skirt of a plain of some extent.—
Hem Ray halted, and gazing upon the prai
rie that lay at e his feet, endeavored to discov
ler mine sign oflthe blackfeet. The moon
shone brightly Upon the waters and woods,
and hot a sound-disturbed the stillness of an'
l dl American night in the wilderness. Ray felt l '
the influence of the hour and the place, and
forgetting all but the delight of travelling by
moonlight over, that plain, removed thous
ands of miles - I'om civilization, set spurs to
his mare, and trCuted swiftly along the path
way leading in the direction of the Indian
mart. It was Setae time ere the young clerk
paused, and thin a sudden hesitation on, the
Ipart of his mare brought him back to con
sciousness. Raising his eyes, he found him
self close
_upon a wood, between which and
a somewhat broad river he bad now, to pass.
A single glance; told him that Indians were
near, as a light 'smoke arose from amid the
trees; whether they had yet discovered him
was a Matter of uncertainty. Ray therefore
determined to Make a bold dush, and Unfit
ly, to his beast irode at a hard gallop along I
the. skirt of tho forest. The' moment he
neared the treed his hand upon his rifle,
listened with thft most anxious attention.—
Not a sound, stave the clatter of his unshod
mare was heart until he bad half cleared
the dangerous epver. Then came the -pound
d horses in pursuit, and then theigacltfeet
iar-whoop, with the.-crack of rifles. His
. „
pnetuies Were in full' chase. Now it was
that the gallant steed put forth her energy,
:find now it was that Ray's spirit arose, and
tie felt himself a man, with all a man's en
irtries and also with all a Man's love of life.
loking back, he saw the wild Indian war-
tiors coming thst towards him, but still not
wining ground ; and lie felt sure,
koosoi his precious merehandize, and give
it up to the pursuers , that -he could with
lase outstrip them. But he was resolved to
crve his master's interest; and he urged his
txtlen steed to the utmost. An hour passed
in this manner. The howling, whooping
ndians, half a hundred in number, galloped
inadly after him, their long spears waving in
he moonlight,.and their black hair stream
3ng in the wind.
- Before him lay a cane-brake, where the
'eels rose ten feet, dry, parched, and crack
)it P .r Through this lay,l the path of the fel--
.Ray looked forward to the welcome
.'elieher, determined to make a stand, and
there,-at the very cnth-ance, stood, mounted
Oi a tatt-horse, an opposing foe. - Chatehing,
Wlpistol, ilia clerk clenched his teeth l , and
7r ode-madly against this new opponent, who;
Oust in time to sate,lumsclf, cried, All right,
aucy Nick !" There was no time fin. greet
ing,, and away they scampered through the
Banc-break ; not, however, bcfor:• the half-
Wweed had cast a brand amid the reeds.—
Whey had not prOceeded a hundred yards
•re a ti•all of fire arose between them and
Their pursuers. Magnificent was tike scene
vinch now greeted the admiFing eyes'ofy,d-
'card Ray as he halted on the other side of
roe brake. The reeds, scorched by the
".iiiiitner sun, were as inflammable as straw,
;and the flames spread with .astonishing,-ra
iiidity to the right and left. The poor birds
That sheltered in the morass below, alarmed,
Lose on the wing, and flying a few hundred
wards, halted to gaze at the fire, which
*,eeme,d to fascinate them; the wild animals
, :too, clinging to their lairs until the fire
touched their very nostrils, would then un
%villingly rise, and leaping over it, scour
?over the black plain of cinders in the rent
zrf the flames. As the two fugitives retreat
lA, the scene became more magnificent, for
lte blaze was then seen in the distance
s.seeping to the right and left in sparkling
id brilliant chains. • Then, as die wind
*rose,. it hurried after them :- as the roar of
distant cataract it was heard ; while the
?leavens were overcast with the dense vol
<limes of smoke that ascended.
" Away !" cried Nick, urging his steed to
the utmost; " the Fire spirit is awake:; he
tides in yonder cloud ! Away, or our bones
nyill be mingled with those of the red men
i lipon this plain."
tt " But, Nick," said Ray, as side by side
thev dashed across the prairie, "how met
~ N ve.? I left you at the fort ?"
" No! Nick started half an hour before:i
tWould'nt let brave warrior go by himself.'
% - 'oli him -- n (lin— •
but Indian no take Master Ray. Aiek
know trick worth two of that. But hush !"
jie added, as they gained the entrance of a
" the hoofs of our horses have
s-aked the .great Fire-spirit ; but we are not
yet free. Blackfeet in valley."
At this intimation of their being again
bbout to meet a party of their enemies, Ray
prepared his arms once more, and then pat
ing the neck of his gallant steed, urged her
at a rattling pace through the valley. A
',flash, and the crack of guns tired in "haste',
(showed that Nick was not mistaken; but
'iving a volley in reply, and without pausing
to discover its effect, the pair galloped on
lwards, and once more emerged upon the
liilain. Nick now led , the way, and diverg
legfrom the ordinary route, entered a stream,
Filic course of which they followed slowly for
ome, time. At length, satisfied that hp had
;baffled pursuit, the half-bred once mote en-
tered upon the usual track, and before , day
light, reached the great camp, where the In-
Shins haa pitched their tents with a view to
;traffic with the rival white men.
i To the right were seen- the wagons of
Xublette ; to the left those of Johnson,
OrPherson's agent. They found the latter
n very bad spirits, as his rival was expected
fo receive the nee,esstuT supply of tobacco in
"gie course of the afternoon, when all chance
or Spokan would have been over. As o how
ever, Ray detailed the object of his journey,
'the success which had attended it, the agent's
eyes glistened, and at length lie exclaimed
pwith a chuckle, " Bravo, Mr. Ray; I should
just like to be in your shoes ; for if you
:haven't made old Mac's fortune, my name is
snot Johnson. Such prima beavers you nev
Kim. By the immortal head of General
?Jackson but you arc a lucky dog !" i Ray
expressed his satisfaction at having been of
such great service; and after a hasty 'meal,
' le traders began their day's. work. i First
the chiefs were summoned, and regaled, to
.the consternation of Sublette, with a liberal
and . plentiful smoke. Seated around the
'agent's tent,- the Spokan , Kamloops, (Ina
.dieves, Sinapoil, and other Indians, enjoyed
.with unmixed satisfaction what to them is a
most precious luxury. The agent wad most
liberal oldie weed : not a single Indian was
forgotten ; and whenthe barter commenced,
- i ithe gratified aborigines testified their delight
Fiby disposing of their skins in an equally lib-_
leial manner. Such, indeed, was the activi
ity of the Spoken agent, and of his asSistant
Ray, that when Sublette received at length
!his dripply of tobacco, not a beavUr nor
'even a skunk-skin remained for which he
could trade. Well aware that tlie Blaekfeet,
"when once discovered, wouldAffigr off ? Ray,
after a brief hour of repose, borroweda fresl
'horse, and hurried' back ' towards the fort
His journey was tedious in di l e extrei' e, fa
Ithe smouldering grass rendered it as sal"
as it was disagreeable. At length, vever
o t ci
the young clerk, to whom had 'return mud
or his former despondent feeling, cam one
more in sight of Spokan, where he as n
calved with open tams, as wa s Nicii, ii ,
accompanied_ him. ' .
.M.'Pherson, eager to learn the re tilt
the young man's journey, drew Milo to 1
nountiluphouse, andmotioning hint to a tel
installed himself at his 'edger, 'with . ier
. .
hand. Ray began his Stol, and, to the ev
ident surprise of the merchant, related the
dangers which had: befallen him;
and the
manner in which heitad escaped. 1A t length
be came to that part of the Fstory which re
ferred tn the extraordinary rlitniritity an ex
cellence of the heavers Whin!' hadlbeen ob
tained means of his_bold undertaking.
" Know, lad.," said old 417Plierson,.quite
delighted, " that you have lirought me the
best year's trade I have had yet. ' Besides,
man, count it no small thing to ltave beat
Captai Sublette—the mo 4 cunning - trader
on the rontier."
"I am yery much gr, 4'61 Ray,
" that I have been anyway instrinnental in
serving you::
A'Alt, that is all very idterrupted
M'Pherson, pushing his skelacles from their
proper position to one above his eves ; "but
just tell me franklv,.Mr. Ray; -why'you, who
are generally so slow and cnld, should all of
a sudden take so much trofible to' do me a
service 7"
'• It was the, first time," niiilieed Ray, "that
I ever had an opportunity of doing what
others would not do."
" Oh," said the trader, stillvtaere enlight
ened, "and do you not exp4et any share in
the great advantage of last night's adven
" That I leave to you, sit."
" Now, Mr. Ray," said the trader with a
smile, " I wish you would 'be thorOughly
frank with me I can see plainly enough
that you had some reason fiv your' c.onstilut
lack of energy, and some equally good rea
son for suddenly, when ybou' could really
serve•me, risking your KIR) do so. I say .
again, speak out. HtteyOu any conduct of
mine Of which to complain . Is your salary
too small? Your elMnces of promotion—
do they seem too remote"! \ You have doub
led my fortune ; let me do You some service
in return."
Ray datermined to be plain. tie saw that
the worthy merchant was still 'in part in the
dark, and he resolved tol enlighten him,
" My ambition, sir, has been to share your
good fortue ; and did my hopes extend as
far as my wisheS, I might say I have hoped
one day to possess all you nOw hold." This
was said with a lurking smile that still more
puzzled M'ltherSon.
" What ! would you be a partner young
man? The idea is a bold .one ; but, oiler
what you have done, I see no insuperable
bar toit."
" Sir" said Ray burriodly, " I ant content
to be" yourclerk, if you Will, all my life :
but you have a daughter,! without whoin
wealth would be incompatible, and poverty
" Wheugh,'? cried the astonished mer
chant: " sits the wind ih that qua:-ter?—
And pray, sir, does my', daughter know of
this ?"
we Ytin recollect 'our long
ions. 7
" Oh, I recollect till ; and pray, does my
daughter encourage ymt,l":
" She will speak for herself, dear father,"
exclaimed the young [rid; who,, entering,
had caught the import of their conversation.
" I did encourage him, because I thought be
deserved to be yoar son. ; Of late, Mr. Ray
had almost discouraged from my resolu
tion ; but his recent devption to your inter
ests convinced me that he Was the same' Ed
ward Ray I had travelled', with from New
" And so," said the old,' man, pettishly,
" You have arranged' it all, it seems, and I
am to have no voice at all in the matter."
" We have arranged nothin, dear father,
and leave it all to you."
it will readily he belimied that Edward
Ray and Mary McPhersdn bad ,no great
difficulty in talking over the matter with the
hind hearted trader. In Ili few Weeks after,
Ray was not only son-in-law, but partner at
:Spoken ; and I believe that none of the par
ties have yet bad any cause 'to regret the
1" midnight ride" over the bluff-surrounded
prairies of the wild Oregon.
ianntr's Department.
The Happy V4lriner.
DT 31113. 1.. H. SIGIDNEI
Saw ye the Fanner at his k10 . b.,
As you were riding by?
Or wearied 'heath the nooti-day ton,
When summer sans are high ;
Anti thought you that his ldt was hard,
And did you thank your 'God,
That you and yours were 40t. cnndetnn'd
Thus like a shave to ploci 1
Come, see him at the harvest home,
When garden, field and tree
Conspire, with flowing stoic to fill
His barn and granary, j
his healthful children git 4 tiport
Amid the new Mown hay,
Or proudly aid, with vigorous arm,
His task as bast they. natty%
The dog partakes his nntstilr's joy,
And gunrds the loaded }vain,
The featberly people clap their wings,
And lead their yonnglintrain.
Perchance, the hoary dsire's eye
The'glowiug scene sury ys, •
And breathes - n 'blessing o 4 his race, .. 0 "
Or guides the evening raise.
The harverst giver is their friend,
The Maker of the soil.;
. And Raab, the mother; gives thein bread.
Aud cheers their patient toil. i
Caine, join them, 'round the whiny, hearth.
Their heart-felt plensuri see,
And you can better judge ihow blest
The Farmer's lifelnity he.
" Your frequent elections nil, rod things
for the country," reiriarked a foreigner, lay
ing down a newspaper. 1
" Why do you think solraske a friend.
" Why I sec that erfery i stone n Georgia
has been turned by both parties.-i This roust
he equal subsoil.ploughing, at least, and
will produce a good crop next year.".
Why not ,ndopt the same rule in regard
to the time of cutting clover and grass for
hay, that is ,folloWed in ctitting- .medicinal
herbs? The objeilt in both cases is to secure
the intrinsic. virtues of the plant. In curing,
herbs, as all-am . acquainted. with the sub
ject admit, Ole nsost proper ,time For cutting
is when they are full bloom; and it is also
admitted that they should lie cured in the
`Shade, because if exposed,to th e mora di
rect iiifluen6o of. the sun and air, some of
their valuable properties would be evapo
rated. .
We know there is some differenee.ofppin
ion in regard to the proper time for • cutting
grass. The 'advocates for ripe hay donterid ;
that there is.more "substance" in it, than
that which is cut while it is in blossom. And
so we suppbsethereis still more " si*tance"
in scrub-oakbrush, ; and that it w ould go still
farther in feeding (not supporting) stock. Ad
mitting there ;is More`subtance in ripe grass,
is it a kind of; substance which affords more
nourishment to animals?
Plants at the tune of flowering 4 contain
starch, gum amisugar; all of which are lihown
to nourish animals. In the . formation of
seed, the steles '!and leaves are exhausted of
these substances, and the substance which
remains is chielly woody fibre. BM it may
be said that the) composition of woody fibre,
starch and guini, are nearly the same. Ad
witted, but that doe S -hot prove that animals ,
are able to eXtract nearly an equal amount '
of nourishment from each. The ; composition
of the diamond the hardest of all substances,
may be said to iie similar to that of starch, ,
gem, &c.,—earbon being the chief element
of all; but the.- l digestive organs of animals
would 'hardly be able to convert the diamond
into Organized tissue. And though woody
fibre, if eaten by cattle or sheep, might
"stick by the ribs," we think the ribs would
not acquire from it -much fat, or the system
much strength. i
In some Part of the country,. animals are
actually fattincil for market on hay alone.—
This may sound strange. to those who feed
their-stock . only with clover and timothy,
which has gone, to seed; for we presume
stock was never thus fattened. But where
this object is attained, the grass is cut while
it is iptite green, (not past bloom) and made
and 'preserved with great cure. It is true
there are some kindntgrasses--as the spire
grass, or Kentucky, blue grass f roc preten
sis,) which make 'but little bulk in seed
stocks, the chief growth consisting of leaves
which sprung from the root. The greatest
value in fodder would be obtained in such
cases by allowing th, crop to grow till it had
acquired its greatest bulk. This remark,
however, by no means applies to !clover, or
timothy, or the grazisds usually cultivated
for hay.
In making*hay; we would exposé it to the
sun and air no more than is neelssary to its
1157aVe — gWei itr`rei4l#...satne reason that is
Clover can be.qured—indeed it is snore con
veniently cured.:--with' but very little expos-.
ure to the sun. If it!, is not wet, and is fair
ly wilted, it may be put into cocks with
forks; which will weigh. when dry, about
fifty pounds each, and-will effectually cure.
Timothy also!..May he cured in the same
manner. The finer= grasses, when threiwn
into a, body pack more closely, and afford
less spa6e for the air; consequently they re-.
requite tube more thin spread in making.
Excepting, - with clover, which we never .
spread out of swath, our practice ;has been
to spread out the swaths as evenly as_ possi
ble, if the burden is stout soon as" thedew is
off: in the afternoon rake and cock it be
fore the dew falls. • `.' P
We prefer putting ; it in cocks, though no
more than wilted,
,because the sweating -it
will there undergo in• the course Of twelve
hours will facilitate the making, and
if the grass is -Coarse and hard, it will ren
der it much mitre soft. Besides, o ihay that
has been well iweated in cocks, is:not liable
to forinent in the stack or mow. : •
Whether thfkliav 'which was mbwed and
put in cocks the first day will make so that
it willdo to gi• to the barn on the second
day depends ci course on its condition, and
the state of di , weather, if - ,all appearan
ces indicate that the hay can be Made suffi
ciently on the. teecond day, (and repeated oft.
serrations oniY, can determine the of
dryness which(is required,) open the i cOcks
and shake the hay out lightly, thoroughly
breaking all the locks with the fork. But it
should not lie 4pread out later
,than three or
four o'clock in the afternoOn„hut Should be
pat up again,lOr if dry enough, Put in the
barn by this tine, lest it contract ;moisture.
[f from the codition of the bay hr the ap
pearances of t to wather,' ro
`there is a plia
bility that the my cannot !be made enough
in one day, let it remain iMilisturlied till the,
weather is far „able. ,!; l'ls • . . .
There are one or two other considerations
in favor of early cutting-which we omitted
to notice alxwe. It is admitted by physiol
ogists that plains exhaust both their own en
ergies and 010 soil more in forming seed
than in the whole preceding portion•of their
growth. Thus when grail Sis suffered to ri
pen, it gives ibutAittle
,after 7 grOwth, and
from the exhaustibri i mentiOned, ,the sward
more quickly }lies out. 1
. ,
ACTIoN.--DemostheiteS'And Ddniel Web
ster agree in attributing eloquence to action.
Both proved their theory !true, by their'ac
tion. A clerdyinan t have read . . or, did
the same thitig more detnonstnibly. ills
wife had just been buried,rand lte ivas clos
ing the servicer, over her grave. Stretching
forth his hand and pointutg :towards the
grave, lie said "there tile wicked cease
front troublint ;'.! and - then placing :his hand
on : lds breast, ;eontioaed ‘ add-the weary
arc at rest." • ,
A very modest lady, , Fho was it 'passen
ger on 4100.4 of a:"packtit ship; it IS' said
sprung out Of her ''With-A.nd jumped 'crier:
board, ou he, the—elptain during the
storm order the •erewito h Z daunt de shifts,.
This is suppC)led to lie 110 latestzease. L:1-
Terms of A4'6'crtishalr•
- 1 z
Aclverthiementg eeturpictiooy inserted at'tht
al rates Cif Firrr _ evil's poi liolionre for the first;
Twrirrir4'tvE ezzersi eich subset;
nuertion. -
Yearly Advertiretneitte, w i ,
tho privilege
teration, ncit to exert'
QuarterVolumn, with the pitpl.l4l, per-vectr i
Half Column _de 3 1 1 ; 0
Otte Colttutta, do , do 15
Busittessdoills, , a
• AU oda adverrieeineitti limited at
rates.l - -
Advertisementsclhould bei noticed with the
ber of insertion required.
NO. 3.
From the, Nw York ,obilon:
Publio Libraries it PO ind,the Pro m
France, April 184 t.
Remarks on the Wig eelebrated libraries
ancient and 'nuiflern tinies.—Smali be - •
nines of the royal library of Parik+,- -
gre4 increase from kaais XI V, to, , er
times,,,--Present state ,of this library.-- ti •
arrangementaia dassiitcatione---- T4s ,
er public libraries is 4tnee.
Bbolis occupy a larte piece in the • .
of the human race,{ and ipiioliably as ci • " ,
tion shall advance, their !influence will
increase. Formerly, 4 book seldom w .nt
beyond the country when ;it was publish -.
flow it can make in a re* months the ~. •
of the world, and)rou knOw almost as • ..ti,
'in New. York, as the provinces of
Fiance," the new firoductiims of our geni - •
A vast, rapid, constant e*htuige of .all ..e
treasureeof the Nyman mind is now
on, and West: scientific and literary corn u
nicatione enrich all nations.
I propose then to give- Here some acco t
of our public libraries i and especially of
famous roils' library'of Pares; for the in
leotard riches which we have there accumn
lated do- not belong Ourselves a/one,-1---
every American citizen, t;rhen he comes to
Europe, can take his shat But let me firat
glance at the libraries of Oast ages,
It is difficult to say what was the first cit&
faction of books in the world: : Ancient his
torians relate that a king of Egypt, mined
Osymandrias, had in his radace at Thebes a
large library, over the door of which be
placed this inscription :.Glue for the ma/fig f
dies of the soul. This was rather ostenta
tious, and not entirely trite: the soul has
many maladies which this king Egypt'.
books could cure; the only book to which
this inscription can be applied, the Bibk,
was not in this anciont collection,
and prob.
ably few , souls have been
_healed by the wri
tings of the priests of Thebes,and Memphis.
I would add, as a curious fact, that one of
our modern learned - men, Champollion, has
lately diScovered some traces of this great
establishment, the founding of which he at
tributes to Raamses Oesostris.
• Ancient Greece, divided into many petty:
republics Which lived ikeonitant wars, was i
long without libraries. - The real
were then the rluspsoclists, who went from
place to place, singing the poems of Homera /
As to ; the Greek - priests, it does not seem. I,
that they ever cultivated the science with the'
zeal of the Egyptian and 01 4defut pliell` +
As they had not •8o much authority in Is‘'
state, they confined themselves more stPetbr
to the practice of their ceremonies. ;Co the
philosophers of Greece! and - espo Bll Y ?
Aristotle, we owe the earliest exeleftve 041-
lections ,of books. -Aristotle war aifteew
his efforts by the kiurAlexamier ; burthe
calamities which fell soon Wier upon the
city of Athens, prevented the attainment ti.
Aristotle's designs. 1 - -
We -must still return to -Egypt to finft a
aria, fourteto oy toJamAr A f : that of Akuraz
Some historians assert that contained itarfitflir
volumes, This number is probably much
exaggerated, unless we give the name dryob
eve to every fragment of papyrus or parch. ,
ment collected in the cabinets of the learnedJ
But reducing the number' of volumes to -á
more reasonable estimate, it was still the - '
most magnificent collection of the treasures
of ancient science, and that loss old& fibre=
ry has left an irreparable Void in the annals ' .
of the human •mind. The common opinion
is that it was burnt by a disciple of Mahout
et, caliph Omar. 1 'do not dispute Omar
was capable of committing such an act of
Vandalism, and perhaps he destroyed the
last remnants of this libituf ; but to be frank f
it should be said that the greater part had
been already burnt by ignorant christitinsi '
induced by some fanatical monks: Cuiqui
The Romans were in ' used in handle
the lance and sword t books, For adv.:
eml ages they read nort h'' at-all, and were
satisfied with conquering near and remote
countries. When they . ,todktattliage winch
had a more cultivated literature than Rome;
they burnt the books, except some treatises
upon tigrieuhure, which they translated into
Latin. Not till Cicero's time, were libraries
of any importance formed. Lucullus had • -
onn'out of ostentation:lbn aspired - to be the
most opulent of the Rol l mops, even in literary
riches ; and the philosopher Senecaderi%d
some time after those ,: patricians whir t
thousands of books upon gilded tables; Mit
to read them but to gratify their vanity.. :'
The emperor Augusnitt opened in Rome
two public libraries. Then Tindall andotlil
er princes increased ,the number. TIM*
were .-reckoned in this 1 capital toseistight
large libraries in the third century.' Aliwere
pillaged - and bunted by the Barbariase
As they , knew. not howlto read, they thotight,
that books were the taOst' l useless of all inti:
' perfluities ; and we Must now pan everA
space of several centurieit,i:before finding yity
further traMes of libraries. Charlemagne - bid
collected some •books, but all the higVerlit;-
ceptions of his genius were abandoned t i tter
his death. The Opel; themselvelP4tere4teio
ignorant,. too absorbeidfin their , intestine
quaurele; and hence a 'past ofexcellent win-
tinge have been lost. -1 . l• ''.-•'--.- '• • '''': • • - E
Lot' s however do. Jitstioarta the' nionibi
At . first, they cultivatekthe'grannid l' 'sie*?
placing, this toil in the ‘!"iinithi 'of tiervir 4
they- set themselves to. copy manasetip
This 'was an agreeab le employment fofthe--
loneboUre &the moriaSlie life. The lit*
ders:ofreligious orders well iuiderstond thlit'
nothing': is more - danieretti ihan t idlett§ ll is
'and obliged their diSeiples to'becOnto! . Of-.
ism!' .Uilhaiiy, , meirt 4 of the IteSttkiwave
p lunged lit t he grosfiei ignorance; 'the'y' ' .
the philosopher Ansultlgi-forrallietieon - pie
primitivo church, and the OetTliiiit f 1
sorcerer. --. 1 1 heY'' Intro,:" . ' I**
"valtiahle:or - worthless`, *mute r mid
parehnent:tias . lacitintaithitiliflitte'e en
the 'easa...=they Made* 'Of oldlitiannee OS
to: eaPy 'upon Ahern. thattshintiliiiitirf , o me
stupid. doctors. In t is way'llWo 4 :• , he
lost apparently oke - 7 , 4* '
.4 of *mil - eni li
writers 0 . ; - Greeoe:40 ;Ithitai'likti 4 FleOlett A .
;1 4!
, •:' T---