Northern democrat. (Montrose, Pa.) 1844-1848, December 14, 1848, Image 2

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' of American il Of
The temperer* depression 4
oar manufactu ng interests is the effect f foreign
closes. and isarT less severe than "haa.prevalerrcia
all similar Occallons.' . .
•-• , • ...
It is believed - that - looking to the great aggre ale 01_
all our interest!, the whole country was neye r' -more
prospereue thug at present: And never mor el Yiipidly.
advancing in eicalth and population. Neitiiisrhe
foreign'war in erhich we have been involved, der he
loan, b4e absorbed so largo a portion Of 'ur '
capital, nor thOcotnmgrcial revolution in Greet ri.
. ' "tiro, in 1847, tier the perilous condition of credit nd
commerce throftgbout Europe, in 1.848, havesifeeted
injuriously, to any considerable extent:. sir itfAlic
. -great interests tithe country, or arrested our onward
march to greatness. wealth, and power.
Mad tlsidistirbancewiti , Europe not occurred, our
eiSitnereeiriauM . undoubtedly have been still more
,euttended, and *o uld have added still more to the na.
tional wealth d public Proiperity. But notwith
statidlnCtileselidisturhances,. the operations of the,
revenue systernMitablished by the tariff, act of 1846
have been so giterally beneficial to the Government
and the inisinetd nf the' ountry, that no change in'tts
prtiviiimili deljtanded by a wise pnblie policy, end .
, •,. ,
alone is recomulnded. ' - .
' The operatiMs lathe Constitutional Treasury. es.
- tablObed ity,l.l4cct of the sixth of August, 1846,._ in
the receipt,cuS i ody, Sod disbursement of the public
money, have continued to be successful,. Under thin
eysteinithe put ic finances have been carried through'
'' :Z• a foreign war, nvolving the necessity" of loans ,and
eltram ip
dinaiy Oxpenditdres, and requiring distant
transfers and diOursements, without embarrassment,
and'no loss has o ccurred of any of the public Money
deposited ' under is provisions. Whilstsit has proved
to hosafesnd nseful to the government,- its effects
have beepmos; beneficial upon the business of the
country, It ha , tended powerfully to secure an ex.
- Stoptibrifroci, thilt inflilion and fluctuation of the pa
per currency, 14injurious to domestic industry, and
-rendering so undertain.tharowarde of labor, add it is'
believed hiaJargely contributed to preserve the whole
country front a Jierious commercial revulsion, such
- as
once occurred lender the bank deposite system. 1 -lii
the year 1747, there was a revulsion in the business of
G*eat Britain oil great extent and,: intensity, which
was followed-b?„failures in that4ingdom unprene:l
dented in nUcnber•and amount of losses. This is he.l
i lived to be the ' first instance when such disastrOus
bankfueteies, aring in a country with which We
beve - tioch ext ensive commerce, produced little or no
*minus effect ppon our trade or currency. We re- i
stained hnt little affected in our money market, and
cur business an& industry were still preaperous and
proietiskire. 1
During the p'esent year,.nearly the whole coral
'wenirof Eoropelias been convulsed by civil war and
tiughtioete, attdnded by numerous bankruptcies, by
an unpreAdent fall itytheir public securities, and
dn'alitiosfuri' ' sal paralysis of commetcoadd indus
try!, and yet, I hough our trade and'-the prices of
i t
cue products m have been somewhatunfavorably
.affected by the causes, We have escaped are v ulsion,i
our money mar tis comparatively easy, and public I
and private QM t have advanced and improved.
Itli confidiiit believki that we have been saved
from their effect the salutary; operation of the Con
• stitutional T ry. •It us certain. that if the twenty
flour pillions Alf Opecie imported into the count** du. I
ringthe fiscal ye)ir ceiling on the thirtieth of 'June.)
7847, had gime ipto the banks, as to a great extent it I
must have done, t would, in the ahsericelof this aye. I
teachave been'Made the bails of augmented bank
paper issues, priably to an amount not less than six
ty or_seventy millions of dollars, producing, as an in.
'evitable consequtec of an inflated currency, extrava. I
gent prices fur slime, and wild speculation, which )
must have been thetved , on the reflux to Europe, the
succeeding year, fSO much of that specie, by the
prostration of thbusiness of the country, the milieu.
ohm of the bank ala_d most extensive bankruptcies.
Occurring, as tit would have done, at a period when
l it
the estuary wailengaged in a foreign war; • when
ewnsiderable butte) of specie Were required for distant
llisbareemehts, and when the banks, the fiscal agents
-of the Governmet and the depositories of its money,
were suspended, t e„public credit must have sunk, and
'many millions efalcairs, as was the case' during the
marl of 1812, meal have been sacrificed in discounts
myna baps, and upon thedepreciate&paper currency
which the Governpent would have been compelled to
• eise. - _ t
Under the operations of the Constitutional Treaeurf.
net St dollar has been lost by 'the depreciation orthe
currency. The Ktans required to prosecufe‘the war 1
with Mexico were, negotiated by the Sectetary of the
• Treasury above p*r ,
realizing a large:pmium to the I
Government. Tgo-reessoung7tlect ocine system
' neon the tendenciis to excessive paper issues by banks
Ms saved the Gpvernment from heavy losses, and
thousands of- ourusiness men from bankruptcy and
n i t
rail. The !glad* of the sysjern has been tested, by
the experience o the last two years ; and it is the I
dictate of soundpolicy that it should remain undue_ I
tutbed.- Thew ficatiorui in some of the details of
-this menu re, inv wing none of its essential principles,
baretofare recoin ended, are again presented for your
favorable considesistion. .
In my measagof the sixth of JulyJast. transmit-1
tins to Congres s the ratified- treaty of peace with
Mexico,-I;recotediended the adoption of measures for'
the speedy paytneOt of the public debt: In r ot e s ai .Iqt ,
that reeommendallon„ I refer you to the considerations
presesded in thatessage in its support. Ihe public
debt, secluding t it authorized to be negotiated, In
.parseattle. of ex - g laws , and including Treasury'
sushmasseunted that time to sixty-five million seven
hundred and seventy-eight thousand four hundred and
CIL dollexs and fty-one cents.
Funded stock 'the United States, amounting to
idiom half* milli '
purchased, as
ofdollars, has been
authorized by WO, since that period, and the, public
• debt has thus heed reduced ; the details of which will i
bc,prisentwl in tea annual report of the Secretary - ofl
theTreistary. ' 1 . 1 - -
The estimates 'Of expenditures for the next fiscal
year.submittai bi, the Secretary of the treasury, it is,
. believed will be ailliple for all necessary purposes. It
the appreptiationemide by Congress shall not exceed
the amount eitinited, the means in the treasury will I
be sistaCient to de ay all the expenses of the Govern
ment ;to pay off e ,next instalment of three millions 1
of dollars to Mex which wilh n. fall duo o the thir- I
ti o.
lieth of May ne ; and will a considerable surplus
- will remain, whim should be applied to the further
purchase of the-public stock and reduction of the debt:
' illitinild enlarged alopropriations be made, tLeMeccsaa.
:7 consequence wall be to.postporie the payment of
the debt. Thouith our debt, as snippet-0d whit that of
other nations, is mall, it is our tree policy, and in
. harnionywith t genius of our institutions, that we
shoed rieetit tthe world the rare spectacle of , a
p l en
'great'Sepulbc, snug east resources and wealth.
, wbolkettempt fr
,' public indebtednese. This would
add still more ingoer strength, and give to us a still
alolit-COMaLlUldin position among the nations of the
earth. ' ~
The public es ' ditans should be.economical. and
be nwfined to Intl_ necessary otlects as are clearly
within - the power Q i.Oon g reas. Aft such scare not
absolutely demand - 1;d should be postponed, and the pay-
Mint of IliPtiblicildebt at the earliest practicable pe
riod should be a es)-dinal priiici pledfour public policy.
'--IFor iheteasost, ignelf in intlast annual message .
ItePellit- the r rears mendatiou that.a:brafth of the
wrintof the ; Unit States be established at the city of
e ls
Ifielrerit. The portabeepf this measureiirgreat
/y increased by gull:linden-of the rich mines, of
the precious meta in New Mexico ' nd California.{ i n
and eepeeielly in t e latter. '.• -- ' /
- Irepeat rgiereekinimentletion, heretofore' made, In
favor ofthe - grads( Lion and reduction of the price o
such oft:We - public - ends SO ,hare been long offered' in
the market, and t i remained unsold, and in favor
,-• std extending :the ' lite of pre-emption to aetuel.fet
; 4 " " th e *near ' ed.'s welt* dereurveyod lande.
.Thu conditions -ad cperaticce.rit, th e lix.Rl.:** 4 th e
seen of other .tir ' - .orthemighlia service tuiderithe
-- ar i . a o ll or th e eiDifiartfaiiit, are 'betlsfettiarily.
g r
1:::_i iii the a om p ul iagteport of the tireeita.
- irgsf.frik- '' . • ~:- • -... , c..,;'. •: ,; 1/" .
,„.-___., °it 01-445: pea ce , . our fetees - werifWith,drawa
• •innw2. ,I2fris MO' is aolunteeri find th at f isertien liif
4 : *aredic gaged for the Wairweivi disdain' ' •
At: Orriiirlooici;, - for stationing . the forces
ii ; 000:::: '_ ' ' inient at aariotte.rieltheee je
41 *- 4 4 41 *0 0 0 1 --w * *3 "` - " f r i t - '-s.s required.
` = its' -
i ge . ~ ' i' , gintrico thei*, Posit - Wee.
''''''iliii - - ' 'fiat yet readheetbeif *alai-.
, .
vvi i iov el ,--' " '' "igkifesteneion of the:lope CI
441iiressitlf' ' forma repaired intbnnewo.
.. - 41eraltia ' ' that oar present military .
*.- **
01 •,'
ei' t i ei;4l l , 4 t n i e l e e d eajo g
Ai iur* ;.L,l;
434,.ort i i iisie - ui dl
iiitigkoleneea . eehed!la
- 7 'ilediagiie'o' .ealial*.atiadifia. 1)4 sixty-aide
- 111. taw be aitl'AM*4elleel i aPplieil
'"u 4 7 - 41i rrir t rt a tr nt iiiim — ,01: `, 61
Ed iiiiiiiiiii- ,
`, . lit `f ix Ain : fend , three . „ .?nd
ilikci4estillui ii elwo d4 ' , ? ) J
it ", : Peare f :3 4 l 44 o4 M l .l l ,ll, Kl
IS alli
Ongair4l =Vie collection of tbeskfllopOri ' After the
pimaldinisiiidi of piece; -- no further diaborsinutitil were
madioftany unexpended - moneys
,arirring free" this
eettfeii: . !tTlic Inlet - lees on hand were {directed to be
Odd jou! pie ireirmry, cud individual claims on the
fund. will teuiam unadjusted until.Congrcits shall am.
Chortle th eir settlement pay ment.sod- - These.plaitds
are notconsiderable iu number or artiOiii4.•
iteeommend to your favonible consideration:the mit
gusionerrifthe Secretary tit Warsuid the Illeetitary of
the ie,iegbri to theilegialatibn oitehisi'sublect.
Oar lodise relations Kre presented in a most fimorable
view fef,the- I :XePort :from . the War Department. 'The
wisdom of out policy in regard to the thbeS within our
limits, is clearly manifested by their improved and rap
idikimptovintcoriditiog,- : , i
A - moat itimortint Areaticwith the Menem:moles has'
been recently negotiated by the Commiuhmer of Ina
ata Affairs-in person, by which 'all their land in the State
of Wisconsin—being about 4,000.000 of acres--has been
ceded to the United States. - This treaty will be mid
milted to the Senate for ratification at an early period of,
- ,
seta present sessil. -
-Within the last our years. elitit important treaties
hue been negotiated with different Indian, tribal, and 1
ei, I cost of 81,842,000; Wise lands to the amount of
.more than 18 400,000 acre, have been ceded to the Uni-
Arid litotes ; and provision has been made far settling in
thetmuntry west of the Missiaikippi the tribes which oo
] cdpied this large extent of the public domain. The - title
':10 all the Indian lands within the users' States of our
,llnicie, with the exception of a.few small reServations, is
'IOW extinguished, and a vast region opened for settle
ment and cultivation. '
'erhe accompanying report of the Secretary of the 01 7
Ores a-satisfactory exhibit of the operations and con&
non of that branch of the public service.
A number of small vessels suitable for 'entering ,the 1
mouths of rivers were judiciously purchased. during the
wir,,and gave great efficiency to the sqoadnin in the
Of of Mexico. 0 a the return of peace, when no:longer'
valuable for naval parprises, - and liable to cOostant date-
ribratiou, they ware sold, and the money placed In the
The number of men in the naval service authorized
•by law during the war. has been reduced by discharges
below the maximum fixed for the peace establishment.
Adequate sqiiadrons are maintained in the several quar
ters of the globe where experience bas shown their Ger-
vines may he most usefully employed ; and the naval' .
@device was Defer in a condition of higher discipline-or
'greater efficiency.
.R-t 1 invite attention to the recommendition of the See•
, z l itery of the navy on the subject of the marine corps.—
' Tbe reduction of the corps at the bud of the war required
that tent officers of each of the three lower grades should
be dropped fmni die roll*. A hoard of officers made the
selection; and those designated were necessarily dis-1
missed: but without tiny &fledged fault. I concur in
opinion with the Secretary, that the service would be
improved by reducing-the number of landsmen. and in
creasing the marines. Stich a measure would justify an
increase of the number officers to the extent of the re.
ductierp by dismissal, and still the corps would have few
er. ulik i t rs than a corresponding number of men in the
army. • -
The Sientracts for the transpo)'tatioq of the migin!
steamships tinnvert,ble into war steamers. promise to ree
ailze all the.henelifs to our commerce and to the navy,
which were anticipated. The first steamer the," Smear.
eh to the government was launched in January," 1847.
There are now seven ; and in another year there will,
probatay,'.he not I.mts than seventeen afloat. while this
. greateatioual advantage is secured, our social anti corn
ptiircial idtercourso is increased and promoted with Ger
many, Great Britian, and other parts of Berope, with all
tne countries on the west coast of our cuutinent, wipe- 1
.ciedy with Oregon and California, and between the
northern and gaucho - 1z sections of the United States.—
, Cie:widened., revenue may be expected from postage :
1 hnt the connected line from New York to Ch.gres, and
l thence across the isthmus to Oregon, cannot fail to exert
a beneficial influence. not now to be estimated, on the
, interests of the ma.oufactures, commerce, navigation and
' carrenr.y of the United States. _ As an important part of 1
the system. I recommend ti your favorable consideration
the establishment.of the promised line of steamers be- i
_tweets Nett , Orleans and Vera ,Cruz. It promises the :
most happy results in cementing friendship between the
two repabbcs, and in extending reciprocal benefits to ,
the trade end manufactures of both. • 1
The rep?rt of the Poet 'Master General s will make
known to you the 6peration of that •departmont for the
past "ear.
It is gratifying to find th6-revenne of the department.
under the rates of postage', unw established by law, in
rapidly iner' elsaing.l . The girosis amrmnta of postage du
ring the fait fiscal year amounted to $1,371 677; exceed.
ing the amihal average received (or the nine years irit
mediately aree.rding the passvge ,d - the act of the third
of March, !').845, by the sum of 86.453. and exceeding
amounti received for the year ending the thirtieth of
3e, 1847,10 y the sum of 6425,184.
• The-ezpilltditur v a of the year, excluding the sum of
694 672. allOvred by Cosigaiess at it last session to indi.
vtdbal claintints. and in4tldlog the sum of $lOO 500 paid
for the services of - theitiifof iteamers between Brea*
and New I'krls, amod4.ll - to 64,196 815 which' r ia
thaw the aqua.] averasisanr the rime 3 ears previous to
theoter of 1845, by 63748.
Th.; mitilltuates. vfithe 30th day of Jane last., wore !
163 208 mthis in extent—being an increase daring the
lest y Aar siransporrenl
/war them, durfitg the 'a ' kma time. 41,012.579 miles; ma- I
king &nit:n:744mb of transportation fur 'the year of 2,124.
680:miles, *Mist the •etuense was less than that of the
previous year by 64 235
The increase in the mail transportation within the last
throe yearalbas hi-eu 5 378 310 miles, whilst the expert-'
Sea were railaceo $456 735 - -making an in: reuse of set
vice at the rate of IS per cent, and .1 redaction in the
expenses of more than 15 percebt. .
;During the past year there have been employed, on
der contracts with the Post Office Department, two
ocean steamer' in conveying the mails monthly between
1 4.;Yr York and 13 , enten. and one since October last, per
futhaing semi monthly service between Charleston and
Havanna: and a enutraet 'has been made for the, trent
peitation of the Pacific maths across the isthmus Froth
Chagres to Panama
ruder the authority given to the Secretary of t ie nit
ryi three ocean steamers have been conserantid and
lent to the Paci6c. - and are expected to toter upon the
mail service between Panama and Oregon, and the in
termerliate ports, on the first of January next, land a
fourth has been engaged by him for the service between
Havana and Coker., ; - "ao that a. regular. month) Y mai
line will he kept up af•er that time between the United
dreces and OUT territories on the pacific.
Tiotwahntending Wm great increase in the mall!servi
era, should the revenue continue to increase the Present
year as it did in the last, there will be received bear
$450,000 more than the expenaitar.s.
Thew ..naidernialhs ha4e• ssthified. the Pnst.master
i General that. with eertsin inorli6catians of the act of
1.0 , 15. the revenue may he still Locher tnereased, and a
reduction of postagel made to a uniform rate Of live
icents, without at. 11.4 , r'enn,ce with the principtt, which
hal been Constantly and properly enforced, -of making
that departmental:Watt) itself.
A. well digested chap postage system is the best
means'ef diffusing ' teldgetice among the people, and is
lolio much important. io a country so extensive as that
of the United Staten, th recoatrneni to‘your fa , orat.te
conaidriation the suggest'. sof the Postmaster General
holiti iinprovement.
/frothing can retard the onward progreas of our cono
trib and prevent ns from am:ening and maintaining the
first retail. &Moue nations, butat disregard of the experi•
i c
epee of 'die past, and a recurrence to an unwise public
policy. We have Jost closed a foreign war by an honor
able pe 'e—a war rendered necessary and unavoidable
lie *indication-of- the national rights and honor. The
L present condition of the country is similar In some re
IsPecti in that which existed immediately after the close
of the war with Great Britain in 1815. and the occasion
'is deemed to be a proper-ono to take a retrospect of the
measures of public policy which followed chat war. There
Watt at that period of our history a departure from nor ,
earlier policy. The enlargement of the Towers of the
federal government by - 07kalrutiton wnich obtained was
nOtwarranted by any jaitinterpretation of the constito.
troth. A few 'years after the close of that war, a series of
rueisures was adopted which. united and combined, con
scit'itted whit Wail termed by their authors and advocates
thB;"4 American ay ttmtii." ..
:"Alte introduction of the new policy was (or a time fa.
vtiniei by the condition of tbe Country ; by the heavy debt
Which bad been contracted during the war; by the de
wearier: of the public credit: by the deranged state of
shelling:ices and the currencf and by the commercial
anal,peCooiary etnharratsrne which extensively pre
- veiled. . These were not the .only calms 'which led tti
flits festabliahment The' events , of the war with Great',
Britain, and the 'embarrassments which' bad attended Its
proiecution, had left on thAmilids of many of Our states
men tire impression that-oar government was not Strong
s ta
enough, and that to wield its resources sum
great emergencies , and especially to war. m power
shotild. be', concentrated in its bands. This Deemed
poster they did not seek to obtain by the legi mate and
mode-an ' amendment of the con itutiosi
toM .essittitietioa. They law government the old
based : upon diNereot order of owlet".ul';d SO cow
ithaitad al to throw-the whole power of nation into the
:.Sands of a few ; who tiged'and controlled the many with.
tat ie!poosibility or raitraiiit. In thidarring , zent they.
,• .. , Sewed th e atnengta 'of nations in war co dated:..
Vherewis also something fasielnitingiothe ,luxary,
Mid display of the highbr order, who 'drew their Wealth
front Os tailor the ' g „million'. The 'autbaim of
tem eystem drew their, idea Of. political 'economy. from
.theylitd,wi in Same; tad co
in '
i'itritain. They. Id - viewed thissordeme wealth
AI few ti ' ei and led seen the 'spier/dor of
the eigriown'establii , Ments of so aristocracy which
Mimitipbeld by: the - restrictive '. policy... Ter", forgot to
Meld 401111 Spero the poreret classes of the loglish pope.
I • : a ' . ~ ,whosio daily and yearly labor the great es.
• . , ~ . they so retch 'admired Were outained and
' ' • • r. ' They fai to perciive th
; that e amiably
• . • heildad,ope viewer* not :Only In abject pow.,
• ' .
.Mittir borind ' chains of 0 90 0 0" lierfitude 1
for ~ .11,1eitot favored iiiiimei r arbo 7 were Om auk. I
*4_ . c(sbacarst(tbirmimanlealt- -
IC es tiMmmailiile tiiiie_i pittal.pittal.t midetylia the 1701
tad • alittititibelCuroppittal.Nam there was a
:' ..eimmiketigl47 , bt which .ordcrs and. #.dea .raret
Pfit. . - . .1 ' ' ilillicritted. A ayataai ciailasaraa -was
- ..-ievied• - 2 ead, - .11 - nottataoded: I. with
dteid •::: err .
~.end silently: fipskille Slogs aad
Mi..111;0:$0/ 4 -kw 1 I**,te_ANSlO
.to swerses.-aisielef
. .
•' • as arlatuorne7 of Wilailb f l e , th at 4 * !'i.' sod ti*
Seed., - '.'• , - -•'' - ..- ' •,;- •',-• ~ • .
V arela reirecthlk epee thesdirldimthirity of our a testi ,
tutiOni, and of, the :oondititin' _of oar people add those of
goi.;i,.. they conceived the vain idea of banning up t o
the I,Nnned States a system- similar to that erbith they
winked ationed. Great 11 - titian had 'a national bank of
tart capital, in whose hands was concentrated the con
teelling monetary and financial- power of the nation t, an
imeidttion wielding almost kingly potter. and atoning
issibifitience upon all the .operations Of trade add upon
theiK tt of government itself. Great Within had an
e _ public debt, and it bad ' become ill part of her
policy to regard-this as a "public blessing." Great
UUntie had also a restrictive policy. which placed fetters '
a nd•,bardens on - trade. and trammelledthe productive in.
diary ofthe mass of-the nation. By her combined sys
tenigTiolicy, the landlords, and - other propertyholders '
wet* protected and enriched by the enormous taxes which
welevied upon the labor Of th e country for their ad
l d ialog ing this foreign policy . the first step in eatats. -
lishing the -new sYstem ler the United States wad the
creitlion of a national bank. Not foreseeing the danger- 1
ous dower and countless evil which such an institution
mirtht entail on the country, nor perceiving the connex
ion *hid' it was designed to ferns between the bank' and
thenther branches of the misaidied "American -system,"
but keeling the embaresaments of the treasury, and of the
badness of the country, consequent upon the war, some
ofont statesman who had held different and sounder
view* were induced toyield their scruples, and, indeed,
settled eonviations of its unconstitutionality, and to give
it chair sanction, is an expedient whiCh they vainly hoped
mirdrt produce relief.
klieg a mat unfortunate error, as the subsequent
histdy and finalcatastrophe Of that dangerous and cor
rupt:lnstitution hive abundantly proved. The bank with
its numerous branches ramified into the States, soon
broupht many of the active political and commercialmen
in different sections of the country into the relation of
debtors to it, end dependents upon it for pecuniary fa.
votes) thus diffusing throughout the mus of society a
great number of individuals of power and influence to
gengtone to public opinion. and to 'act in cases , nl ewer.
gen 4. The corrupt power of sucha political engine'',
no lifter a matter of speculation, having been displayed
in nflmerotis instances, but most signally in-the political
strudgles of of 1832-'3-'4, in opposition to the public will
represented by a fearless and patriotic President.
i 3 dt the bank was but one branch of the new system.
A piblie debt of more than one hundred and twenty mil.
lion J ot dollars existed ; audit is not to be disguised th at
many of the authors of the new system did not reeard its
speedy payment ss essential to the public prosperity,
but r ked upon its conntinuance as no national itVil.—
Wis e the debt existed, it furnished aliment to the na.
Om bank, and rendered increased taxation necessary
tottit amount of the interest, exceeding seven millions of
dolls a annually. -
This operated in harmony with the nett branch of the
newlsystem, whist' was a high protective tariff. This
was 30 afford bounties to favored classes and particntar
purshits, at the expense of all others. A preposition to
tax the whole people for the purpose of enriching i few,
was too monstrous to be openly made. TiM scheme was,
therifure t veiled under the plausible but delusive. pretext
of a measure to protect " home industry ;" and many of
our People were. for a time, led to believe that a tax ,
whit!' in-the main fell upon labor. was for the benefit of '
,bus ilthorer who paid it. This branch of the system in
volvdd a partnership between the- government and the
favoidd elegies—the former receiving the proceeds of the
tax ipthoeed on articles imported, and the latter the in.
created price of similar articles produced at home, cans
ed bi t . such tax.
' It is obvious that the portion to be received by the
favo+d classes would, as a general rule, be increased in ,
proportion to the increase of the rates of tax imposed,
and diminished as those rates were reduced to the reve
nue Standard required by the wants of the goverment. i
The fives required to produce a sufficient revenue for the
ordihtry expenditures et government, fornecessary pur 1
pose 4 were not likely to give to the private partners in
this ipheme profits sufficient to satisfy their cupidity ;
and h'nce a variety °fax pedients and pretexts were re
to for the pure- se of enlarging the expenditures. I
andtereby creating a necessity for keeping up a high i
prote tive tariff. The effect of ties policy was to inter ;
pose artificial restriction upon the natural course of the
busitsi and trade of the country, and to advance the
inter sts of large capitalists and monopolists, at the ex
twined of the-great mass of tho people, who were taxed
to indiums their wealth:
.Aniither branch °lois system was a comprehensive
schittre of internal improvements, capable of Indefinite
enlargement. and sufficient to swallow op as many mil
lions )tonully as could be.exacted from tho foreign COM,
mere eof the country. This was a conveuient and nec
essas adjunct to the protective tariff. It was to be the
grae*absorbent of any surplus which might at any time
accuthulate in the treasury, and of the taxes levied on the
peopij., not for necessary revenue purposes, but for the
avowhd object of affaditig protection to the favored
AZaflame to the same end, if it was not an essential
part fif the system itself was the mcheme which at ala
ter p, obtained for distnbutiog the proceeds of the
IVales the public lands among the States . Other ex •
pedi is were devised to take money oat erase treasury,
and pgevent its coming , in from any other source than the
e pc'd
protective tariff. The authors and supporter' of til
l r m e 11 . 4 a
item ere
_the advocates of the east
ipe tar or not bermes°
the Lehrer the expenditures the greater was the pretext
for tug', taxes in the form of protective duties .
Those several measures were sustained by popular
names} and plausible arguments, by which thousends
were lieladed The bank was represented to be en in
dispefisable fiscal agent fur the government was to
equate exchanges. and to regulate and furnish a sound
curredey. 'awaken and everywhere of uniform value. The
prowtee tariff was to employment to •
} labo r'4 at advanced prices; was to protect'home Indus
try hiad furnish 'a steady market for the farmer. Inter
nal uniprovements were to bring trade into every neif,b
borhood and enhance the oralme of every man's pr party
The distribution of the land money was ni curve tee
&Ansi, finish their public works, plant sch meg throughout
their borders. and relieve them from taxation Bat the
feet ttat for egery dollar taken out of the treasury for
these Objects a much larger sum was transferred from
the pockets of the people to the favored masses, was
, ceref@ly concealed . as was also the tendency if not the
ultimh . te design of the system to build up an aristocracy
of wahlth, to control the masses of society, and nionupo
iHee the political power of the country .
j Thrt several branches of this system wen© so Intimate
1 ly Melded together, that in their operation each sus 1
iron il n e illas and ui st a r d e d ng n t e h w en b e o d rd th e e ns o f
e ta rs za , tl T on hc a tu t iiiit v r t p . er i ii .
1 age largely increased and wasteful expenditures of
publics money. It was the interest of the bank that the
rerentte collected and the disbursments mule by the
I goverment should be large, because, being the depoai
, tory at the public money, the larger Use amount, the
g•eatir would be r tha bank profits by its us. It was
the in crest of the favored classes, who were enriched
by thr4 protective Mita to have the rates of that protec
non als high as possible ; for the higher those rates the
greats their advantage. It was the interest of the peo
I pie ofkil those sections and localities who expected to
be beiefited by expenditures for internal improvements ,
that t e amount collected should be as large ma possible
'to th end that the sum disbursed might also he the tar
ger. he States being the beneficiaries in the diatribe
nee money , had an interest in having the
1 rates of tax imposed by toe protective tariff large enough
I to yielda 'efficient revenue from that source to meet
the wants of the government, without disturbing nr to
' king from them the land found , so that each of the
branchrs constituting the system bad a c =mon interest
in swill ling the public expenditures They had a direct
interudd in maintaining vie public debt unpaid, and in
s ereuitig its amount because this would produce an an
I neat increased drain upon the treasury, to the amount of
, the incerest, and render augmented taxes necessary.—
I The 4:lteration and necessary effect of the whole system
were encourage large and extravagant expenditures,-
and thereby to increase the public patronage, and main
tain a ch and splendid government at the expense of a
taxed,land Impoverished people.
t e
Ittajmanifest that this scheme of enlarged taxation
and eipecditeres, had it continued to prevail, mast loon
have converted the government, intended by its framers
to be i plain, cheap kind simple confederation of dtates,
nniteihtogether tot common protection, and charged with
1 a few ilpeeific dunes, relating chiefly to our foreign affairs
into afionsolidated empire, deprivtog the States of their
juster and control in the administration of their goy
ernme t In this manner the whole form and character
of the Tennant would be changed. not by as amend
merit tit the constitution, but by resorting to an anaPalTan•
Kr a
table *rid unauthorized constructeth of that instrument.
Theilindirectmode of levying the taxes by a duty rah
fin poria, prevents the mass of the people from readily per
eeinn4 the amount they pay, and has enabled the few
who arc thus enriched, and who seek to wield the politi-
cal porer of the country, to deceive and delude them
Wine the tithes *looted by a direct levy upon the peo .
1 411 .1 lallaAha case lathe States, this could not occur.
"uo *hole sYnteto was resisted from its inception by
many Of °ln' ablest atetesinen, some of whom doubted its
constitationality add its expediency, while others believ.
it was, in all its branches, a flagrant and dangerous
infradijni of the constitution.
Tha national hank, a pretestive tariff, levied not to
raise e revenue needed, bat ,r f protection aseredy, in
terest provements, and the distribution of the proceeds
of die
of the pubNe buds, are asensures without the
warren* of the coomitutips, woald. upon dun matures'
mield don, seem to be dear. It is remarkable that
not ot these measures, involving such momentous
ocessu4earms, fe authorized by awry nurser !fraud Pow'
oe in sonstination. No coed Ann la ".incident td, as
befog( niscawary and proper for the esecadon of. the spa
dile pdisers"canted by the cousidtation. Thanatbotity
angerich alas been attempted to; *airy sack of
them. derived from inferences and conatructions of the
cooed don which ihe letter sad its wbolitohjett and r ilw
t r
sign do4Dot warrant. Is it tube ommeival as& Sucblatj
menu* Swore south have hose /IN by the Rumen' of
the, innostitatlne to mere fnferenees andlioubtfal dia.
staled */ k Rad It been latended to roofer tietti on the
AderalWerslatioti it is tat reasonable to onnoteile that
it woei hit, been dense hy plain Euel unequivocal enuits
Th a tZnot &met Bat the whole structure of whielithe
.. system" oonsisted. was rested on iso bitter .
Coundi than famed imolkittions sod infersaoss (of
power VW* its authors assumed might be didecid by
from the mmetleadm - , 1 - /
, set me beep anted that the maimed ilt, width
eneaseatiala totaacketlidikistedsiyetnin.
tit will iiitiveir firowari UM fa sio•
- , ,
stituticruality had been preview/et eitectieeed i becaule 0, one or both boasel of Congeess.ille i s 11 - ..., -.. • 1 , '..i - iii iii
bank had been . chartered in 171:01i and h• race
bred the and leconolderain i laft, b e Ine.reeninstiq . chsieltt
official signature of President Weshlngto ttd o. A- few facts : butif at. lawn .
time Cengreineshalteftet - ap •I • ' • • r a p
deliberation: role on meiteniee . ,Which..lhe d nit sub.'
Will show the just weight to Which this erec„edent sho_ald
etwat i ta t ion . versive of the eon titutione or the :vital interes ,I - of the .
be entitled ifs bearing upon thO'llatottell i ) f
silty. _ i
' Great division of:Opinion upon a subject e x i sted i n i resist the*. . _ „ , ... ,
Congress. It is Well known,that,P
esident Winhington I The Preindent . 5 betindla app rove aridilaPfraFft-er
io an ery bill which pi es Congress, aid is pfesentedlte hhg
entertained serious doubte both as tat the COo tot nEY.. .. •er.j.._ TM co this his d
.. .
and expeelieney , o( the measuret . and while th e , bilLWas for the alg,oetere, c 0 . . . , 1 47,
aid he cannot e pe it Kith would.' Helitoracieleetion:i
before him far his efficialapprovid of disapproval„ so great
were these docibei, thathe regeirec e th q ppi n ion in wri- I deeldintlP upon y bill Presented tit him, hiii!triust eir..
his itern com bee 'ad nt. If he cannot:Tye, the
tine of the members of his cabinet to aidhim in anteing
j do hi to retina the bill to rillotase
at a decision. His cabinet gave their opinion, and Were constitethrei
divided upon the subject,—barter Hamilton being in in
d this iivithin.ten day ',
(Sendata iiitiePterfOlt Ithalli
laver of and fir.*Jefferson and Mt Rendelph being op. to. a _ .
~ _ . _
wised to the constitutionality and pedieecy of the bank.
be over. led bt vote of tWothitdil of eater it is well knew?). also, that Preside t Watthineton ratan- he may
ed the bill from Monday the tonne tit , when it Was pre House; oti ,
0 In th t even the bill becomeei law - With- 1
seated to him , until Friday, the tor ty:fifth of February 1
nein kb itorigie ted, wi his objections ; litre fail
hecome a law without hilt migmatite. Bight or errozool
oat his santnion. • f his objections be not thug over.rulect,
—being the last moment permi him by the tionstita- the subjectis only stpo . tied. midis referred to Ole State.
tion ta.deliberate, when be Snail yielded to it his re • tad the petiple fo th . eirtioesideration and decision. The
!octant assent, and gave - it his sighatard, It is certain IFre a ride lfe nt•C pow i s
The only effect, jherefore,
that as late as the twenty-third of I ,Febriary— being the I . is no na li ettt;t 3 merely:end nOt-affirma.,
ninth day after the bill was presebted ha hire"lia bad 1 five .
h . . itl e th an oldin his approval of IC bill passeti by Con
arrived at no satisfactory conclusioe; fur be that day he 1 o grear, i s w to
e existing laws to remain unchanged,
addressed a note to General Hamilton, ih which he in- and the delay occ stoned is only that required to enable 1
forms him that " this bill was prtenterl to nae,by the, , thrtStates mad th , people to consider end act ;upon the
jeint coalmine of Congress at 12 o clock on Monday , the subject, l in the el tion - O (public agents who twill carry
their Wishes dins ctioni. Arty attenipt to co.
fourteenth instant:" and be reque, ted
what precise period, by legal interpretaTio s n o o p f hl th io e n co " ?- i oat their
the Presides yield his sanction to meanie's. Which
dilution, cart the President retain! it in his-possession; he Cannot aeprov . Would' : be a violation of the spirit of
the conadnition, p foible end flagrant; and if seccessfil.
before it becomed a law by the lap' e of the days."
'lf the proper construction was. t at the day on which would breik door the independenci of the exireutivetie
the bill was presented to the Presiy ent, and the 'day 'on partment, and ma e the President, elected byithe peo
which his action was had it, ere W it h to b e em i t ,• pie, and clethei b the constitution . with powerto defend
ted conclusive, then the time allow d hini within which i their right!, the m re
on insteren art t
. of a
of Coo
to the House grew'. A "iourreu ct er,
.. ii
in t! of po err with
it would be competent for him to r tuna it
in .which it originated with his objections ; would expire I which the iginstit e l i;ted his office wield effect
oh Thnwiday. the twenty fourth of IFebrnbry. General I a practical biter* nof sop to
t- '
I Y ' - sliMment, withoht resort.
Hamilton on the same day returned an answer , in which ing to the prescrl ed p roces s of amendment.
he states: - I give it as my- opinitim that you -live ten With the motiv Sor cons i derations mi s b y induce
days exclusive of that on which thd bill Was delivered to Congress tepas4
ri y bill, the President can bade nothing
you, and Bnndays ; hence, In the pthseht ease, if it is re- to do. Ete l mustlp snme them to be as pure 'O his own,
turned on Edday. it will be in timd." Be this ctiestnie • anddook only to the practical
effect of their measures
nog, whic e President adopted. he gained another when compared With the eonstitutio ho n or thepubtie, good.
for deliberation and it was not Otil the twenty-efth 1 But it has beep rged byl those w o ject to i ehe pier.
' do
ofFebruary that he signed the bil n thus affording con. cise of this an ta coes."tntional pciaree-tbse it ass a ils
• elusive proof that he had at last obt ided hisown consent tbo repretentatie mincip e and the capacityof the !mo
th sign it not without great and alinnit insuperable did- . pie to govern the selves .
that there is greair safety
salty. Additional light has bend recently shed upon lin a numerous represents ve body than In e single
the aerinas doubts which he had ordthe subject,' amount- Executive: create ff by the' constitution, and th t the ex
, ing at nom time to a conviction that. it was his duty to I ecutive veto is a"I one - ma n power,' despotic *nether
' withhold his approval from the hill" This is found seeing . . ac
ter. -To expose( the fatuity - of this objectioe,iit is only
Ithe man u s c ript pap ers at air. Madison. authorized to be 1 necessary to conei er the frameend true charaeter (dour
Purchased for the use of the goverment by an act of I system. Ours it of a consolidated empire, bet confed
the, last ses sio n o f Co ng rese end n w for the first time 1 crated Union. T e States, before the adoption of ; the
l accessible to the public. From these papers, it appears I
constitution, were coordinate, coequal. and separate iiiithat Preseat Washington, while he vet held the bank dependentiovereignties. itnd by its adoption they did doPresid ent bill in his hands, actually requested Mr. Madison, at that I
lose that character. They, clothed the federal gieristrir,
, t
time a member of the House of Representatives._ to nr e.l mein with certain powers* and reserved all others34* , ,
'pore the draught of a veto rilessteh for him. Mr Medi ' ding their own theereianty, to themselves. Te:sty guariff
I win. at his request, did prepare thh draught of such a : ed their own rights as States and the rights of the peotile;.
Unessaeo. and sent it to him on thetwenty first of Feb- ' by tlr - verY, Ilia 4 arimal which that inaarPate-t0 into the
1 .
nary, 1791. A copy of this original draught., in Mr
own handwriting, was carefully preserveMadison' lately purchased by Con, , federal constitutio; whereby the different . thipirfthersine
of the eeneial gay romentwere checks upon eichetheir.
him, and is among the paper
1 That the rosjarity ,should hovers, is a general printiplm
prelim. It is preceded by a nnte. 'written on the . same l cnntrovArted by ratrie ;that they must govern hoarding.
sheet which is also in 'Mr liadiso 's handwriting, and to the coristitution, and not according to an enthralled
is as follows: .
, and unrestrained liscretion, whereby they may Oppress
, •
'• February 21st, 1791.1 Copy a paper made. out' the minority. '' t'' • . ;
and sent to the President at his re nest, to be ready in I The periple ofi e United Mates ant not blihd to the
case his judgment should finally d .ide against the bill I fact that they mayb e temporarily mieriikend /bet Sheri
for Incorporating a national bank, t 0 bill being then be I representatives, legislatiwyrne executiliS , mak,be min , .
fore him. "
Arniang the objections assigned i this paper to th e bill, I taken or influenced.rn their action by impriper mo.
and which were submitted for the consid e rati on of th e I lives. They have tberefere interposed hetwebn them-
President, are the fell ow i ng : 1 I selves and r
which .
, .the laws may be passed by theirpah
o I object to th e bill, because it is lan eaaential principle! lic agents, aerial repr:esiintations, such as aspemblies,
of the government that powers not delegated by the cop i senates and govercatkin (heir several-States :In House
l 'is titution cannot, be rightfully exercised; because the
proposed by the bill to hell exercised it not ex. lof Representatives a • SerOte, and a President of the
I prosily ultCe delegated, and because I cannot sati s fy myse lf , tinned States. The people can by theit; men direct
I that It results from any express power by fair and safe lagency make nizt law : non can the 'Heine or Repre
; rules of interpretation." sentauves imrnedi t tely eleeted by theta t net . ll can the
I' The weight of the preca ,
ent of the hank of 1791 and . Senate : nor can th together. withoutibeconcurrence
the sanction of the great name oft Washington. which . e President ,
nivote'!,! . -dr 't b' h Douses:
' t in the r a fw,o-thrr a.o id
ilia& been so often invoked in ite 'support, are greatly . ,
I weakened by the developement of these tae ' s. The ex I Happilelfor themselves. tbe_peoplem
framing our
I eeriment of thatbank satisfied the
'Fr th a t it ou g ht I admirable System f govet6ment;;everecianscions of the
not to be continued; and at the end pf twenty veers Con I infirmatie.cof thei repreihntritiverr,eid. in -delegating
gress refused to re-charter it. It weuld have been forte I to them the power of legisfation:ilMilieve ferried them
nate for the country. and saved thousands from bank i '
around with cheeks to 1 .uard - rigainst the effects of
'ruptcy and ruin, had our public me t of 1816 resisted the I ' ' b
temporary pressure of the times neon our lini,Licial and I 1,6 !Y Fiction, of' e or, of combination , and o f possible
pecuniary Interests, anal refused o charter this second 1 corfuptioni Erre „selfishness and faction hive often,
bank. Of this the country became buridamtly satisfied. I sought to rend as nder thee web of checks, and subject
sod at the close o f it s twenty yeafs duration. as in the j the govern Men I "the-control of fanatic and sinister
case of the first bank, it also eeeserl to exist. Under the , influences • :i ese diens have only sattfied- the
repeated blows of Preaident Jackinin. it reeled rend felt. l ' . .
m of 'the checks which t ey have
and a subsequent attempt to charter a similar,thatitution I p eo p le of the '0 , •
was arrested by the veto of Presiddid Ty ler. ,; imposed, and oA e neCecsity, of preserving th em un
Mr Madison."in yielding his ai,inatere to the - charter -4 , impaired. ' '. I
A' ...
of 1816, did so upon the ground of the respect due to pre 1 'Fria true theorti °rout" s ystem Is not to goyena by
cedents; and, as he subsequently declared. "the B"k°' . the acts or idecr of I,' tree eat of tePra B ePtatises•
the United States._ though on the original (location
-held to be unconstitutional , received the Executive sig• , ' '
' The coni.titution i tetiel heekelponi all breeches of,
nature." ! the government ( i order ',lto give time for eirciricr be 1
• "It is probable that neither the Bank of 1721-,.cor that , corrected, end the delusion to pass away—hut if the
Of 1816, would have been charterell, but for iioi either I people settle downj into a Aim conviclinti difieftnt from
easement of the government in its finances_ the derail.._ t that of tnOr reprtlnentatiyes: they give eif to their
meat oi the currency and the pecurilary prettier's% wheal I'
opinions liei changing their -public tie rvante. he
.......—..—ine first tee eousequen e e ' o f tb..., war of the rev
elution, and the second the consequience of the' war ol resorted to in die delusive hope that czi
we '
1812. Both re ecks which,* people *Revd on th eir pbblic ser
vants iti thiftitdOphon.of the-constitution, are l -the best
they would restore pulnie credit, and afford relief to the evidence otthelictditacityrror self-government. They
government, and to theAlisinesa of the country. know that`{ wficittihey elect to public. stations
Those of our public men who opposed the whole 1
, " American ay•teni" at its cainmen e merit, Rad through.
' put its progress. foresaw and pr dieted thist it was
are of likcitma 2 " - iies and passions With -themselves,.
li ed by'
and not fo` tr sted without being rest et cre :
' fraught with incalculable tnischieiti, and midst result in ordinate antluir ti a antreonstitotionaHimit4ions.—
I serious iejory to the b. et interestaj of the nounty. For l Who that has wit .ssed the legislation of Cori:tress for
I a series of years their wise counsels wet% unheeded.; the last thirty yea will Say that he knows 4r no in.!
and the system was established. was soon apparent I Stance in w hich
m aeureif.not demanded by the public)
thstits practical operation was nue all and unjust upon , I havt.been ca v i e d .1 l i Who will deny thet in the
, rtifferebt pursuit,. All were,equaily entitled to the favor g ° ` ' ' 'i • • -
and protection of the governnietd. lit foster e d a n d el e .. State governments, by combinations of individhals and
' eared the money power, see enriched the favored few sections, in•derogat on of ,the general interesht, banks
r by taxing labor, and at the expenae of the many. Its i have been liartet_. systents of internal imprierement
I effect was to "make the rich richeeraud the poor poorer." ! .
dopted, arid debts ntailedlupon the people. repressing
I its tendency was to create diatincti ns in society based i• a l • and • i._
l lett growth , impairing their ever ea forlyeare to
;on wealth . and to give to the (wroth classes undue Coo
-1 '
trot and sway in our government . t was an organized 'Come •
I, _
I money power, which resisted trit popular will, a u ) ' Alter RO much e'Aperienr, it cannot be saidlthat ob-
I sought to ahape and Control the pub c policy. solute unch'ecked power, is. sere in the hands ofainy one j
' Under the peruieiteis workingsm this combined aye
;set of repreientativer, or thait the capacity of the people'.
ternCC of measures, the country Witn seed a'ternaeo sea f ur r , ,, -. 0
x g ii•rnmentl whiCil lis admitted in its broadest ,
isons of temporary apparent prosperity ; ..of sudden and I i- ~ •.i
e argue - tent to prove the ptudence,
disalitnee• commercialmercial revulsion, of unprecedented extent, is a eonclusre
fl ni, and integrii
fluctuation id priers'. and deprenabia of the great inter 1 8, "" y of thOtr representatives. 1
eats of agriculture . navigation and a u5n ,,,,,,,, o r gunortu i The people, by tie Conetitution, have commanded;
pecuniary suffering. and of final bank ruptry of thousandn.l the President, as mu ch • tie they have cum:needed the ,
I - Alter a severe struggle of more time a quarter of a CCI3- . legislat i ve biacieb the. goVerome ri t, to execute their
tury, the system was overthrown. - . 1 ; . 1 • •
I will, Thy:have 5 dto hire in the conatitutten, which
1 The bank has been succeeded by a practical ryetem
they require , of finance. conducted and controlled palely by the govern he shal take a solemn oath to supphrt, that
' meat. Tho constitutional currency has been reinot,•al ,: if Congress pass 1113 bill which he cannot app(ove, 'he
' the public credit maintained unimpaired. even in R peni. shall retureit to th , house in which it originated, with
!.id of foreign war; lied the whole c entry has become , his objections. 11l witt.hdaing -from it his tipproval
' satisfied that banks. national or Stet . are not neceissary
'and siomatuie he i executing the will of tire people
r .,1
!as fiscal agents of the government Revenue dutiei , ~,,,,`•,,,,;,'„,; ~.' ,;
i have taken the piece of the protect ive tariff. The dm. —, — * -- " ° ""Y es P essad •• as much as t h e "'Pilgrims
et the
....), derived
from the
sale 4,, pub . trial passed it.
~..f4o ill is „presumed to be in actor. 1
) lic lands has been abandoned, and th 6 corrupting system : dance with ihe pop ar will ;wail it shall travel passed
o f interned improvements, it is hope,4 has been eGetual..! thiough,.all the branthes of, government required by]
ly checked.
I . the
' I the constitution to oinks it.allaw. Ala which passes
, It is not doubted, that if this who( i l •
designed to take wealth from the t the House of Repretientatives mpy lie rejected! by the
upon the few, were to prevail, th ee: Senate, and no a bill ,assets by. the Senate r4,ir be - re.
chance the entire character of the got jetted by tho House. In, each case the rptpective
ly danger remains. It is the seduce houses exerdise the veto - •
of the system, which consists in irate
holding out, RS it does. inducements
ticalar sections iLtd lucalities to °tub'
In - them without itcppink to calcullit
sequences. This branch of the cyst
combined and finked with others, t
effect is produced by an adequate c
toted and revived, and firmly establi
sagacity to foresee that it will notes'
draw alter it the re-eikabliehment of
rival of a protective tuff, the distr.!
money, and not only the poatponeme
taro of the payment of the present e
anneal increase.
I entertain the solemn conviction, at if the internal
improvement branch of the •• Amer man system" be.not
firmly resisted At this lime, the who! series of measures
composing it wilt be speedily tee tablished , and the
country be thrown bank from its pr sent high stash of
prosperity. which the existing policy has pranced, and
be destined again to witness all th evils, commercial
revulsion., depression of pricey. end pecuniary ember
meats,' through which we have used during the
last twentpfive years.
• To guard against consequences en flirona.,is an object
of high national importance, involvi in my judgM
the continued prosperity of the count .
I ha've felt it to be an imperative obligation to with II
bold my constitutional sanction from wo bills which hadil
passed the two houses of Congress, nvolving the prin. 1 1
ciple of the internal improvement br ch of the •''Arneri•
can system; and conflicting in their rravisions with the
views here expressed.
The power conferred; upon the Pre dent by the coesti
ration, I have on three occasions, dur ng my admlaiskra•
tine of the executive department the - governinent,
deemed it my duty to ezerciee; and this Jut occaalon
Of mating to Conran au annual cam urination " of th e
state Of the Ursicru, it is hot deemed nappropriate W re..
viewthe principles and. euttaidara a which ;have or;
armed my action I deem this ( the re accusal , . be
'cause; after the 1ap5e...0.4160y mixt yearirsincei the
adoption of the acustitotkei. th e prop sty of the exercise
othisundoubted ooestitutiorialpow by the President
has far the flief time bees drawn sly in question.
by eportion of My felloiw.eldseme.l -
. •I'lle,constitittion provides that ~ Gm
harepassed the Hesse of Reptilian
ate shell, before it become a law,
Presidefitof the. United Suites I if he
Ara it,'bet irnot, be shall return It '
to'shat heare-to.which itiball have
rioter those °Woes= it huge oft the
teed le recoesiderit." 1 1
The PreeeteetiOn Or 04 conafitatioe
the President's laikbastiiaty.
that Ahoy; et 'whatever hazard '
argot those *he may differ with Mat
kola to discharge it, as ky
people *be hare dashed' Mai with' his
try:lo4 SU! which be Way
tektite otohirethfitt at theltealLeet fit
apit,by yreeldelee direreet
train of measures!
any, and bestow tt i ;
!effect would be t 4"
eminent. Qhu on
ona of that branch'
nal improvements,
othe people of par
• rk the governmeut
h the inevitable con-
in is so intimately
at as surely as an
use, If it be menisci
bed, it requires•no •
grily'and spondly
k national bank the
bbtion of the trod
t to the distant fu- !
t ational debt..but its ,
power on the other.
Congress end csOt lioustS of Congress. 1100
I f v....
the constituirm jeck unnn the Pre s ident, nd be
by the powe of the upbfildr, veto, a checit. u
, . .
cress. When the Iresidekt recommends meaSures to
Cone Ass, lie avows,
in the. Most eolemn form,bp opin
ione, gips hie voice k iheir-favor, and pledgea!:himself
in advance tO approve them of passed by Conelees.—
If be acts without due coneilderation, or has been in
fluenced by improper or corront motiver
..., 1 0pt ._ 48—or if from
_ . .
any other cause-con room, or either house of Congress
shall differ with him in opirtipn; they exercise their ye
te upon his. recornm odations, and reject thelp—and
there is no appeal fm their decision, but to the people
at the hallot,box. T ese - Oilproper checks upon the
Executive, wisely i erpoled by the Constitupon.—
None will be found t object :to them, or to wish them
removed. It is equal . y irniatant that the constitution..
al check of the Exec die 9 'on the legislativeibrartch
1 .
should be piesenred. . I ' i
If it be said that the repteeentativis in the popular
branch of Cengreis a e Malan directly by the 'people,'
it is answered, thti pe pie elect the President. jf both
-houses represent the totes and the people, to (Mee the
President. ' , The Pre ident ;represents in the executive
department:4le orliot people of the United attites, as
each member of the egislitiae department represents'
portions of them. I -. 'f . 7 . . I' -- : = : 1 -
.. • ,
The doctrine oflrest restri ction 011 teghdatieir and.el-,
'motive pow*, while' ..well .Battled public opiition I.
enabled within are ' able tittle 10 womplishils end.,
has 'made our toultry bat itr, mud bee opened to us ,
a careet of glory end a pp ' be:ettlidt all other, pi.,
'lions hese bean Oran; re. ' ''' • ''
-I ' •
tiesi 4f II ico l t r I - Iti — tP •
In - the !le t Wil, , 0 the vt,l o, e t nist-,
'dent is reiponsible not ottlyt itt"-elliglitenidithbliel
a li i
opinion, but. to the ' phttif the- whoictlniori, who
elected. him,fae the t present tivit'in. Ibis. kigelatire
,brancbes, wht,differ jilt bint,in
l i
:gible, to thr
eil ,
~.449 ople,lot i
the Preeideo( the eier
repel 0% 1 4 Pli,ovision of
It upon him. i To ohei
trot, the,legielstiviltri
1 - bill which phall
;three and the Sea-
II Preiteatei ..the
aPPreivaiite I
his object!
gloated, who
;Joann' lind;
tation iiseiti i f , ~.._...;„',- ~• IL -
If, kha,tr. paid' it vei4ibil Meoiefl 0 1 4),04
ihe grow:4ll,i* it a eckikijOhyst4 4 00 - -
lio will,lipon th if o pritigiple, th cequAllii:4
re P r e a e l l tat kn , iit ii . .'Stlifi J!i , ,i ) d. 1 8 024
4 10 41, be stkiAtin.p igittioSoPitii**ioik
00:0 -4. ,5.01 1 44 r• . ( 40,1110::'//111114*4
I from InftictiOttl
ndto died,* i
, Ertho , dttsple
• *Pillion., •E it
;Bligittiotio to.
- diOtte
troll 111110-owtv
n Con-
itiiii;XBttitoo. or 4ist 64, - T , hO.
if OOpituiiiiiii. Ict'itetty: Ici
in' of thin paws, allot
li tso to'
tictioqiaitatioie'whFoli ' rains;
alit its lototetot.- oodoly coo
k if :itrtmtalPfkitt:Ortiti *RAU,.
i I s .
..iin 74 . s'
.; - 3 v, i L i ' y
t, jlll o vote u ne p rren. o rs4is o n eti f ptenß ll ar a t
eitahr. ;
inanetßaso constitutionalt e o s tau
f i s
; a
oti ' he_
less ii l4 6i3idieldin' ll .
' y or iil. , ao - 4, - the r emi t it, e ,
tatumg,•-iieording to the 'ettisting'a-mterfos.
m pteo:6o e mpd ni i : o o .ol : : : mio e n: P ilf, i t l h.. e tee n hm ta octat t lihs i
resentittivek but one thirty-fourth part
t iotn b i a o t i ßflii ,
ti cue-fourthtetwilnntsnteidnvtoe-fso.f thirty t it
e h e s I
simembersxrteespll peoble t
a e t
i f yi
east ,
110Rfdertht.he Union.
Therh are thirty States ; all o t l
there are
States are represented
fifty menthers; and yet t in hetlatoollZ by but -
StateS constitute a majority ofthi rs Se t i mn these '
that the Ptesident may rec
'eenta tm in ni in e it Selia .tee ;
latndCa°oll P grrolasiitafnli m i o t re m th al an r t 'e r e ee iv - e fo th tre e ib taz"nae f at r iti b etn e e
House of Representatives, a . d of alit: °
tors from; the large States',
the th R 1 lib
United ree - furt
States;hs of
and n t d h y e eYtIl I t o t i e r e lmeasure o l s ' tf :
nt a h : oet :
be defeated by the votes of Ithe Seriatora finroll
the mallet States. None;-;t is presumed, can
be found ready to change the organized'
the Senate - on this aceoun :
body practically out of exis ihue, by-ie • •
that itsimihni shall - be eonf rived to the sill
1 .4.
the titmv:,
„ • 7.1, i t i n i
props branch. .
uporitti*,,*e principle t the veto of the
Presid_MtiOipil. dbe practiCalli a b o u sbd, the
poweit4WiTlCOresidentito give the
be abelislked i4l,*.i,.7.•:;,The.._Vie.Preiident exer
I drieill?" ,- '4 0 0.00 4 .-qr°" l nbtl' - ..
•-,tr n ...4.i fi rt,..., , ,,,* ~. t _ , , .
iri i -#10„_,, ,,. 1ca,-thelaioat portant of trbieh
1 , 047,6**1. • 1431 4 . ,cf".*ii II
lut .:,
re:charier the
Thii - owforAite*Ottite •i 1811. It miY
lkiV. 4--- 5#*„.., .0.4 1 41.1 1 4f. 13 ,1 i assNl by a large
4 1 45 15 ''",-,:lPflo**tase of .ttepresentativ'es and
~ .iney?.] ''',„faitulytid - .14, the ISenatini from the
rlitrgeitYateki"and the - Vice president may re.
jeOtllto Vying his vote withithe Senators f rom
tlie.sinalloVStates; and yet Mine, kpresurnis e d
s ~ ... t
are prepared to deny to lom the ezercise of
this power under the Cons4tutiott
Hut it is, - in- point of faetj untrue :that an
act passedhiy Congress is Conclnititte evide nce
that it,einanatioit of the poptilar will. A
thejority of-the'Whole numher!Seleeted to each
house of aimgress..constitutes i a quorum, ands
majority of that quorum is, &impotent to pass
laws. It Might happen tbat a quorum'', of the
House . of Itepreseittatives, o,orisistling'of sin
gle member more than half Ode whole num
ber elected to that House, might pass a,hill by
a majoriti-of a single vote,' f atid in that case a
fraction more than one-futlillt of the people of
the United States welt* . he represented -by
those who',voted fer:it. .7lt might happen that
the same hill might be passed by a majority of
.one, of a quorum "of the Senate, composed of
senators from ,the fifteen smaller States, and a
single stonier from a_ sixteenth State, and if
the senators , viding for it happened to be front
the eight iof the 4. imallest of, these States, it
would he r pas,Sed by the v4es of senators
from ,Statos - having. but fooilteen representa
tives liz thle•House of Represe tatives, And.ton
taining.lais- than one-sixteen , ; of the popnla
' tiep' itf:tbd United States. `i his extreme Case
is stated to illustrate the - feet ; that the...mere
pasooke of a bill by CongrOs is no "conclusive
evidence that' those who iiiii,sed it represent
the majority ef.the'people _of - the U. States, or
.truly reffqt their will. . an extreme
case is not likely to happe , lfl eli
eases that Bp
proximate% are of constant,i cenrrence. It is
, believed that not a single latv bas_been passed
since the !adoption of the !constitution, upon
Iswhich' all the members elected to both houses
have.been present . and 'voted.l- - -31inj , of the
!most imp an acts which ave. passed Con
, - ' tt t t- - 'li -
I gress liii:o, - beerl.earrietl bY a =close vote- in '
thin house's. , Many iestancers: of this might
be giVen.,;,lndeed, our expeOeime provcsthat
many of the most, important nets of • Congress
are postpened to the-last days, andoften the
last hours of a eession,:yrben they - are disposed ;
of in ,haste, and lty lenses tint little exceed-,
tine= the nuniber neeeisary to rorni a quorum.
[ - Besitie-sou,inost'of the States the members
, of the',H646 - or Representatives are chosen byi
pluralities„and not, by majorities of all the vo-.
,tern in their rtspeetive distriets; and it may.
;happeit that a majority of that House limy be
,returned by it less aggregate tote of the peo
ple thiin that-received by theOnioority.
If the . ptinciple insisted cm-` s l7e-winirelf then
the constitotion should be so hanged that no
bill shill become a law unlesi it is voted for by
members representing in each tause a ''major
ity of the_vihole people of the '. United gates.
We mitst 4 iemodel our whole system, :strike
down andtibidish not only thh.salutary.checks.
lodged in Om executive branch, but must strike.
out and abigisli these ledgeiliin the Senatle a"
so, and thuds practically invest4he whole w
er of the gevernment in a lia'aitirit l y of a s [ gle
assembly-1a majority unconqolled muta t so
lute, mid which may becomel deSpotie. ,Ta
conform to:this doctrine of thelright of major- -
hies trevulei . independent of tbelehecks and lim
itations; of the constitution . , wq Must revolu
tionize bur WhOleszstem. 1170 Oust destroy
the conStltittienal compact by !thiell the sever- ,
al States,a4reedito. forma Federal Union, nod
rush into consolidation, which must end in
... •
, monarCh7 or 'despotism. ''N'otd on advocates
euch a 'troliasition ; and yet this it doctrine main
taint:oof carried out must 140 to this repolt.,
One 'fieit-object of the constitution Mcon
f i eitini'apen tbe President a qintlified negative ,
upon the' legislation of Congte4s,•:was al-pro
teet minorities froth injustice
~iand . oppression
by inajniitiiii.' . Theequality ef ‘ their represent
ation inithelSenate, and - the veto power er r the
. P wh re ie s h id t l e t, - It'' i i e l ' l ; 9r th s e ta c t n e n t s . ti a t v n e t , i t iti s a t l
all thiciti ,mieresti Would be 1 the me it of
- will be - reitMoted. ' Without th' se t z • gh nit eularr ra l'ign :i tie e t s l . l':
majoritiee. hi gonireso represe i n *ng the 1 ~ger
i f
1,: . ' , .- ' t ' • 1,
Toth'e antaPer and weaker States, therefore,
the iiiisOntion`US the pearer,'!, and its exei#B*-
uPoP.pmert, ocoseion denjoidoz lt, IS Of e,ifel
unportaulei..l They maid ' the
p ,
grid` ertaied iito,thi:l4.6t,s4ng ta t em"
solveizi4lat,,"representition with Ofilaiger
'Stiteeiti ebi':SeTtt -.,i-,anglillei agreed t ? be
'boiihdli Utlfalua' , o 464 by Onreee:uP°Rt he
i t
iipties i i anditiee' it 11 - mine 41300 1 :1 11 1 ,1.,°Y
should 4 aiti9yeit y the President, Or P!es
et,bll.o4‘atieliti to`"' he coidrad notwithstand
ing, hit! vote .: of,. tW . lblida pt fatti horei.-- ,
,thtekbditiOn .
.:.ey.hayela,right to iriais‘
AP tkpaoAlili n o io plot' to iTtwel l 64Y Lava
thole:, ilt - j ''''• 1; : :: -I=
' , =- - I - • !',..
L. -. A.blit lit)it*.paist,4: ' . .itY'Ct. Heirfalki-ar, nit
Ate Jigllftf::._4liiifivbstlo people! cit 1.„ p RO!ifb)r
. 44.414 v. •-•' iio: - ,4o:_ixopit - 0 th'iSiD'Or s •
••a* radAZY..w,..-,twelielkffP7
' .. ii: ' .i., - ',..40k,. — late* , of siiekswe ,
iiiiii" fgilitibtjix*.sp s , Art*
i fil
' '``. -:,•.----)-- s . --
. - 1 _ „.•,., . ~ .