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rUBUSIIED EVERY WEDNESDAY AHD FRIDAY BT
THE CITIZEN rUMJBHINQ COMPANY.
Entered as second-class matter, at thepost
olllcc, Honcsdale, Pa.
SUBSCIUPTION: 11.50 a year, in advance
K. B. IIAIinKKBEKOH. - - PRESIDENT
W. W. WOOD. - - MANAGER AND SECY
o. ii, dorflinoer. m. b. allen,
henry wilson. e. b. iiardenbergii.
W. W. WOOD.
"The Marks of n Gentleman."
The discourse of Rev. Dr. Swift, Sun
day evening, on this topic, has drawn
attention to the conundrum. "What is
a Gentleman7 " whicli has so long
agitated those who nre given to con
structing definitions out of abstractions;
and some points in relation to it may be
found of interest.
In France and England, the word had
for centuries a fixed meaning. It was
applied to a well-defined class, and in
its use the line between the "well-born"
and the "base-born," terms denoting
merely condition in life, and not per
sonal qualities, was carefully drawn.
In England, after the Norman conquest,
the original French gentilhomme was in
time Anglicised into "gentleman," but
with no change in its meaning, or its
application only to persons of superior
birth. So long as French continued to
be the language of the upper classes, a
knowledge of this tongue was deemed a
necessary qualification ; and hence arose
a sarcastic saying "Jack would be a
gentleman , but he can speak no French."
The title had its place in law, ae in
legal proceedings each party was desig
nated with the addition of his estate or
degree. An amusing instance of this,
nnder the old rules of pleading, is thus
reported in one of the law books :
'1 he plaintitt declared with the addition
of gentleman ; the defendant pleaded in
abatement that the plaintiff was no
gentleman ; to this the plaintiff demurred,
and this was held ill ; for, said the court,
rince it admits the truth of the allega
tion, it amounts to a confession that the
plaintiff is no gentleman. He should
have replied that he is a gentleman.
The degree ot gentleman, however,
was not a high one. In the tables of
precedence, given by Blackstone, sixty
six degrees are enumerated. That of
gentleman is the sixty-second, and it is
preceded by tho.-e of esquire, doctor,
and serjeant-at-law, and followed only
by those of yeoman, tradesman, artificer,
and laborer. Sir Thomas Smith, in his
"Commonwealth of England," written
in the 10th century, says that "Gentle
men be those whom their blood and
race doth make noble and known,"
though no connection with a titled fami
ly seemed to be thought necessary. His
opinion of the degree, however, does
not appear to have been very high, for
he further says :
"Ordinarily the king doth only make
knights and create barons, or higher de
gree : as for gentlemen, they be made
good cheap in this kingdom ; for whoso
ever studietlithc laws oftlm realm, who
studith in the universities, who pro
fesseth the liberal sciences, and (to be
short) who can live idly, and without
manual labor, and will' bear the port,
charge and countenance of a gentleman,
he shall be called master, for that is the
title which men give to esquires and
other gentlemen, and shall be taken for
Besides those of strictly this degree,
all others of higher degree were also
gentlemen ; it being held that the greater
included the less.
In brief, a gentleman was one belong
ing 'to a well defined social class, and
not one possessing certain personal qual
ities and habits. So little place had
character in the prevailing standard,
that George IV, when Prince of Wales,
though his morals and habits were de
testable, was accounted "The First Gen
tleman of Europe." The well known
dictum of Lord Kenyon, Chief Justice
of the King's Bench in the latter part of
the 18th century, that "A gentleman,
sir, is a man whoso father was a gentle
man," only embodied a generally recog
Under the criminal law, a gentleman
had certain privileges. In France, cap
ital punishment could be inflicted on a
gentleman only by beheading with the
sword, while those of lower .degree were
hanged. In England the headsman's
ax was substituted for the sword, as the
privilege of the nobility, though ex
amples were rare except in cases of at
tainder. In England, also, a gentle
man could not be whipped at the cart's
tail, a penalty frequently inflicted on
the baser herd.
Illustrations of the established view .
on this subject are frequent in French
In one of the elder Dumas's novels of i
the Hegency, a gentleman is described ;
as standing in a public place in Paris, j
closely observing those who passed, nnd ,
thus, in substance, accosting .one of.
them : "Pardon me, sir, but permit me (
to ask if you are a gentleman." "I am,
sir," was the reply. The first speaker
then explained that he was a stranger
in the city, and having received a chal-!
lenge was looking for a second. Dueling
was a practice confined to gentlemen,
and only a gentleman could act as a
gentleman's second. Hence the inquiry
implied nothing offensive, as such a
question would in this country, at the
present day, but was entirely proper
Capt. .Marryat, in one of his novels of
British naval service, condemns the use
of profane and abusive language by com
missioned and warrant officers to their
subordinates, who cannot reply in kind.
On this point he refers specially to the
use of ench language by a master to ft j
midshipman j wherein the chief grievance j
appears to be that while the master (a
petty officer) was superior in rank to the
midshipman, who was usually a boy in
his teens, "the midshipman is a gentle
man by birth, and the master, generally
speaking, is not."
The English colonists in this country
brought with them the English view of
the gentleman, though practically it. be
came much relaxed. Several years ago,
a descendant of Franklin applied for
admission to the Society of Colonial
Dames. One of the requisites for mem
bership was that the applicant must be
descended from a person who had lived
in one of the States when it was a Brit
ish colony, and who was cither a gentle
man, or had rcQdered meritorious ser
vices to the public. The Society held
that Franklin was not a gentleman, but
had performed services that rendered
his descendants eligible. The denial
that he was a gentleman was probably
because his father followed the occupa
tion described by the school-boy as that
of a "tallow chandelier" andhe himself
had been for many years a printer ; both
being below the degree of gentleman.
The Americans have retained the
name of "gentleman'Vbuthavediscarded
its original significance, without having
as yet evolved a definite and uniform
standard by which it is defined. Wfiile
certain general characteristics are held
indispensable, its meaning and applica
tion on other points depend largely on
the individual view of those who use it,
and on the varied standards accepted in
different sections. of the country. Some
definitions are so finical as' to exclude
intelligent, cultured, upright and honor
able men who may be lacking in some
minor elements. During the civil war,
it was declared by a high fashionable
authority in New York that Lincoln
"could not be considered a gentleman;"
Gen. Grant, during his Presidency, fell
under the like condemnation ; and many
others could be named, whom the coun
try has honored, who would have no
The fact is, the word "gentleman,"
used as implying all desirable qualities
and habits, and excluding everything
short of this,' is something in the nature
of a trade name, and can have but a
limited application in the present stage
of human development and culture. It
is really misleading and unsatisfactory,
but thus far no satisfactory substitute
has been suggested.
The Two-Cent Fake for railroads is
here to stay. Some railway officials are
frank enough to acknowledge that in
public statements. The supremo court
of Virginia has upheld the order fixing
two cents a mile in that state. It is in
force in a number of states now without
serious protest from the railroads, and
the territory in which it is operative is
more likely to expand than contract.
Because of the foot and mouth dis
ease the federal government has prohib
ited the shipment of hay from certain
states. The result is a hay famine in
Pittsburg and some other centers where
the supply has been coming from Mich
igan and other places under the ban.
The railroads are refusing to accept
packages containing hay and straw, such
as bananas .in barrels or glassware and
crockery packed with such material.
Hay in the Pittsburg market has gone
up to $18 a ton.
THE POPULAR VOTE.
With the final popular vote before the
country, it is disclosed there was no such
apathy among voters as was asserted by
the newspapers and political leaders for
a couple of months before November 3d.
There were cast in the election of 1908 a
total of 14,852,239 votes, where the total
of 1994 was 13,510,708. The vote of 1900
was about 13,900,000, the vote of 1890
about 14,024,000, the vote of 1892 about
12,000,000, the vote of 1888 about 11,
400,000, the vote of 1884 about 10,000,000.
In one of the so-called dullest campaigns
of the generation the voters were more
fully recorded than ever before.
Mr. Bryan polled 1,315,211 more votes
than aid Mr. Parker in 1904, and Mr.
Taft 14,190 more than Mr. Roosevelt in
1904. In other words, Mr. Bryan's in
crease over the total Democratic vote of
four years ago is nearly equal to the total
increase in the whole nnmber of votes
cast over that of 1904.
Mr. Taft polls the record vote of any
presidential candidate. His total of 7,
V17,(S7G votes exceeds bv 14,000 Mr.
Roosevelt's lead of 1904? Mr. Brvan,
with 0,393,182 votes, is 1,244,494 behind '
Mr. Taft. i
There were five small parties in the j
field, and they polled 821,381 as against j
about 8110,000 four years ago. The small I
increase conies through the presence of
the new Independence party, which cast
83,180 votes. The Prohibitionists fell
from 258,53(1 to 241,252, the Populists
from 117,183 to 33,871, the Socialist-
Labor party from 31,249 to 15,421. In
stead of the round million which they
anticipated, the Socialists polled 447,051,
. as against 402,238, a gain of about 45,000.
The maximum sentence of two years
' in the penitentiary, $.'00 fine and the
' costs, whicli latter will mount into hun
dreds of dollars, was on Friday last, lin
! posed upon John H. Sanderson, con
tractor for furnishing the State Capitol ;
former Auditor General William P.
Snyder, former State Treasurer W. L.
Mathues, and former Superintendent
James M, Shumaker, by President Judge
George Kunkel, of the Dauphin county
courts, before whom they had been con
victed of conspiracy to defraud the State.
This was the close of the caso involving
an alleged fraud of $19,000 in a bill for
furniture. Immediately after sentence
had been imposed the four convicted
men were placed in charge of the Sheriff
to await the result of an application for
a supersedeas before the Superior Court
in Philadelphia. Attorney William I.
Schaeffer, in that city, was notified
by telephone of the sentence imposed
and at once proceeded to take the nec
essary steps to institute an appeal to the
Superior court. As the four men stood
up for sentence, Sanderson was notice
ably pale and nervous and Shumaker
also showed signs of nervousness. Sny
der and Mathues, however, were prac
tically calm. As was anticipated, with
in six hours after the application for a
supersedeas was made, it was granted,
and upon bondsmen qualifying in open
court to possesssion of more than $100,
000 the defendants were released from
custody in accordance with the order of
the higher court. With this sentence
hanging over them they must prosecute
their appeal with effect or surrender
themselves to the officers of justice.
Alexander C. Wjells died in Liberty,
N. Y., on Sunday, Dec. 6, 1908, aged 77
years and 8 months. He was a mill
wright and carpenter by trade, and erect
ed many mills in this county and Pike.
For many years he was a resident of
Mrs. Charles Seegner, of 179 Willow
Avenue, a blind lady, died at her home
on Saturday evening, Dec. 19th, after a
long illness, aged 82 years. She is sur
vived by three sons, Charles, of Hones
dale ; Henry, of Chicago, and John, of
Brooklyn ; and three daughters, Miss
Anna, at home; Mrs. Rheinhart Schwem
ly, of Honesdale, and Mrs. John Smith,
Mrs. Sara E. Arundell, daughter of
the late William Gale, and wife of J.
Frederick Arundell, died at the Hotel
Margaret, Brooklyn, N. Y., on Friday,
December 11, 1908. Besides her hus
band, Mrs. Arundell is survived by one
sister, Mrs. William F. Osborn, and two
brothers, George E. Gale, of Brooklyn,
and Loring R. Gale of New York city.
The funeral services were held at Grace
Presbyterian church, Stuyvesant and
Jefferson avenues, on Monday, Dec. 14th.
John Kirby, son of Richard Kirby,
of Cherry Ridge, for some time past a
Del. & Hud. employee, running on a
coal train between Carbondale and
Oneonta, but well-known to many of
our townspeople as a salesman in the
Hartung meat market, 7th street, was
killed at Oneonta on Saturday morning
last, at one o'clock. He was run down
by a train while switching, and lived only
a few hours after the accident. The re
mains were brought here on Sunday,
and taken to Cherry Ridge for interment.
Deceased was 33 years of age and leaves
Thomas Donlin died suddenly at his
home in Hawley, at two o'clock Tuesday
morning, Dec. 15, 190S. The day before
he worked as usual, and retired feeling
well, but during the night he was stricken
with apoplexy. Deceased was born at
Kimjbles, Aug. 17, 1852, and settled in
Hawley about two years ago, where he
secured a position with the Atkinson Box
and Lumber Co., in whose factory he
has since been employed. He was united
in marriage with Miss Mary Gerrity, of
Kimbles, two years ago, and is survived
by his wife and stepmother, Mrs. Mary
Donlin, and the following brothers and
sisters: William Donlin, of Port Jervis;
Frank, of Bellview, N. J.; Mrs. Mary
Sheridan, of Brooklyn, N. Y.; Mrs. Ellen
Verden, of Essex, N. J.,and Mrs. Eliza
beth O'Neill, of Philadelphia.
Mathew O'Brien, who had been suf
fering from an affection of the lungs for
a long time, was seized with an exhaust
ing hemorrhage on Friday last, and died
on Saturday morning at his residence on
North Main street. He was 39 years and
10 months old, and leaves a wife and
two daughters, Margaret and Lillian.
Mr. O'Brien came to Honcsdale as coach
man for John D. Weston, and discharged
the duties of that position, both in ap
pearance and manner, with traditional
fidelity. In his lingering illness every
kindness was shown him by his employer
and family, and he had the warm sym
pathy of all who knew him a sympathy
which is now extended to his bereaved
family. The funeral services were held
at St. John' Roman Catholic church, on
Monday morning last, where a high mass
of requiem was sung, after which inter
ment was made in St. John's cemetery,
Mrs, - Mary .1. Pen warden, wife of
Frederick Pen warden, of Carbondale,
died of pneumonia at her home in that
city, on Thursday last, December 17,
liKKS. Mrs. Pcnwarden, whoso maiden
name was Mary Mill, was born in Devon
shire, England, forty-one years ago, but
had long been n resident of this county.
She was a woman of many excellent
qualities and her kind and genial dis
position won for her the High respect
and esteem of a wide circle of Irityids
who extend to the bereaved family their
sincere and heartfelt sympathy. She
was a member of tho LadicB Auxiliary
of the Urotherhood of Railway Train-
men, and was prominently identified
with all its activities. Besides her hus
band she is survived by two daughters,
Florence and Hazel ; one son, Rexford ;
three brothers, John and George, of
Devonshire, England, and David, of
Prompton, this county ; also one sister
in England. The funeral sen-ices were
held on Sunday last, the remains being
brought to Keenc for interment.
Jacob Persbacker, an old and promi
nent resident of Callicoon Depot, SulK
van Co., N. Y., died at his home at that
place on Wednesday last, as the result of
a paralytic stroke. He was aged about
78 years. Mr. Persbacker was employed
on the Delaware Division of the Erie
Railroad, until a few years ago, as sec
tion mason foreman, and had charge of
the building of bridge abutments and all
heavy rock work on that division, and
served in this capacity for a period of
thirty-five years. Mr. Persbacker and
John Voight, of Shohola, helped dig the
trench in which were deposited tho re
mains of the victims of a terrible rail
road dieaster on the Eric, at King and
Fuller's Cut, on Friday, July 15, 1864,
which was caused by the carelessness of
a drunken operator at Lackawaxen, four
miles west of the disaster. The acoident
was the colliding of a coal train with the
passenger train which contained 833 Con
federate prisoners, and 150 Union guards.
There were 51 Confederates and 19 Union
soldiers killed, and the wounded num
bered 123, some of whom died later.
The trench dug for the remains was sev
enty feet long, eight feet wide and six
feet deep. It was the common grave of
both the blue and the gray.
We are a few steDs farther up town,
but the difference in the price of our
goods and those of our competitors
makes it worth your while.
O. G. Weaver, Jeweler.
VTOTICE OF ADMINISTRATION,
Xl ESTATE OK
JOHN T. BALL, late of Honcsdale. Pa.
All persons indebted to said estate are notl
ne d to make immediate payment to the un
dersigned ; and those having claims acainst
the said estate are notified to present them
duly attested, for settlement.
37 JOSEPH A. HODIE. Exe cutor
LYRIC THEATRE !
BENJ. H. DITTEICn, - - LESSEE AND MANAGER
B MATINEE AND NIGHT-
The Dashlns Little Comedienne
And her Superb Companv. in the Success"
ful Comedy Drama,
I I a fan
A Delightful Story of Dixieland.
e- During the notion of the play SPEC
IALTIES will be introduced by Miss
Calhoun nnd other members of the com-.
DDIPCO nAIN FLOOR. 35 and 50c
"nlUtO BALCONY. 25 and 35 cents
i- SEAT SALE at the box office, at 9
p. m., Thursday, uec. zttu. 5
Embroidery Scissors, plain
and fancy handles, 25c to
Manicure Scissors, 75 to 85c
Button-hole Scis., 65 to 75c
Pocket Scissors, 25 to 65c
Right and left hand Shears
25 to 90c.
Pocket Knives, a large as
sortment to select from,
10c to $4.00.
Carving Sets, with genuine -stag
handles, every set
guaranteed, $1.50 to $8.
Manicure Files, 10 and 20c.
Bath Thermometers 50c.
Thermometers, 25c to $2.
Buggy Heaters, $1.25 to
Roasters, both plain and
enameled, 90c to $1.75.
O. M. Spettigue,
Main Street, HONESDALE, PA.
The danger from escaping coal gas
which was mentioned in our last issue,
has a nearby illustration in the case of
Nelson C. Roberts and his wife, of
Montrose. A few nights since the
chimney of their residence "burned
out" and salt was thrown on the fire to
extinguish the blaze. It is supposed
that during the night the gas accumu
lated as a result, and Mr. and Mrs. Rob
erts were both nearly suffocated while
they slept. Mr. Roberts had been an
invalid for the past nine years and de
spite the efforts of physicians, did not
regain consciousness. While Mrs. Rob
erts' condition was serious, with some
effort she was revived and has entirely
Attractive OFFERING !
Ladies' Suit and Coat Department
Contrary to former usages, we are going to give buyers the
benefit of reduced prices BEFORE Christmas instead of waiting
until AFTER New Year.
Holiday Gift of Furs
Always a handsome and useful present.
Handkerchiefs For Christmas Gifts.
Ladies' Neckwear and Scarfs
The greatest favorite with everybody.
Exclusive creations, expressly made for Christmas gifts.
We have them in great .assortment for Ladies and Gents,
at attractive prices. They make handsome and useful gifts.
Give the Housekeeper Household Linens. Satin Damask Dinner Cloth
Nankins to match at low prices. Handsome Centre Pieces in many different
styles. Linen Scarfs in all sizes, to fit any bureau or stand. Large assortment
of Linen towels hem-6titched or fringed. Doylies large variety of prettv
For Christmas gifts. Dress-suit Cases, made of solid sole leather, at pop
ular prices. Bags, complete variety of all new styles.
Always a welcome and useful gift.
Shirts to lit all sizes. Neckwear in
of men's' half hose in town. Sweaters
me wooi sweaters maae uy tne American Knitting (Jo., Honesdale, in all sizes
and grades, to fit men, women and children.
Handsome Gowns, Fine Skirts, will always be appreciated as holiday gift.
Christmas Gifts in Japanese Wear.
Rcarskin Coats and Caps to match. Infants' Short Dresses. Infants'
Sacques. Infants' Drawn Leggins. Infants' Carriage Robes.
For both YOUNG
Razors every Razor car
ries a full guarantee,
SI to $4.
Safety Razors :
The Gillette, 85.
The Ever Ready, with
24 blades, $5.
The Ward, Si.
The Razac, $3.50.
The Gem, Jr., Si. 00.
Razor Strops, best qual
ity, 2oc to $1.50.
Shaving Brushes, 20c to
Razor Hones, 15c to Si.
Lamps to.suit every one,
at all prices.
Rides for tho boys, $1.50
Air Rifles, 75c and Si.
Ice Skates, 05c to $2.25.
Perfection Oil Heaters,
$4.50 to $5.
"My toOe Ctrl."
A nlav ftitaf nm1ji r all Mbm i f '
theatre-goers k the beautiful comedy
drama, Y,My Dixie Girl", which wUl bo1
the attraction at the Lyric on ChristiBM,
Friday, Dec. 25th, matinee and night.
Dixie, around whom the interest centers,
is a dashing hovdenish eirl, who gains
the sympathy of the audience from the
start. She makes everybody about her
father's plantation subservient to her
will, through kindness, and is continually
upsetting the dignity of her dear old
daddy. The company representing "My
Dixie Girl" comprises a number of well
known players and singers who, during
the performance, introduce endless musi
DR.C. It. BUADY, Dentist Honesdale. Pa.
OrriCE Hodrs-B a. m. to 6 p. m.
Any eveninp by appointment.
Citlrens'phone. 33. Residence. No. 86 X
all styles. Hosiery the finest assortment
make useful Christmas gifts. We carrvall
Nickel Pated Ware of the
Chafing Dishes, $4.50 to $7.
Chafing Dish Trays, $1.50.
Chafing Dish Forks and
Serving Dishes with enamel
insets, $2 to $5.
Coffee Pots, silver lined,
$1.25 to $1.85.
Tea Pots, silver lined, $1.25
Crumb Trays, 35c to $1.
Tea Kettles, 85c to $1.25.
Soup Ladles, $1.
Bread Trays, 90c.
Universal Bread Makers:
No. 2 $1.35
No. 4 $2.00
No. 8 $2.50