The Tioga County agitator. (Wellsboro, Tioga County, Pa.) 1865-1871, January 26, 1870, Image 1

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AN GELDER & ithattitt.
P. O. Van Gelder.
Subscription s (per year)
, .
TEN Lynx or 3.12Ni0N on_ tEss, Etats oNg &MRS
,No,S4trs.... I 1 Ind Sine 141 as I ablos I fildoe I,lYr
I SIP i Pl*
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2 squares, I 2,0 0 1 8,001 4 , 00 1 8. 00 1 12 , 00 1
- 11 , 00
Hilf col 1 10,00 116.00 117 .40 1 30,00 150,00
0130001 115.00 1 28 . 00 1 80- . 00- 1 -45 , 0 11 WC -4
1 /00.00
az- Special Notices lb cerits por lino; Editorial or
Lccal al cents per line.
Trausicut adrcattelog Divas , bo PAN 'O,lO advance.
iilWJatitico Blanks, Constable; Menlo, Deeds, Juds
t. Notes, Id arriago Ot , rtificstea, &C., on band.
Tan Gelder &!Ache%
Book, Plain and Fancy Job Printer/I. All work
promptly and neatly executed.—Jan, 1, 1810.
W. 11. Smith,
Attorney and Counselor at Law, Insurance.
Bounty and Pension Agency, Main- Street,
Weltsboro, Pa., Jan. 1, 1870. •
Reo. W. -14errick,
Attorney and Contuse it Lir. :office with W.
11. Swith,Esq., Illaii . JE,treet, opposite Union
Block, Welleboto,.Pa.=—, Z, zqzo.
Jno. W. AdamB,
Attorney and Counselor at Law, Mans Geld, Tioga
county, Pa. Collections promptly attended
to. Jan. 1, 1870. ,
Jno. L hlitebelh . -
Attorney and Counselor at Law, Claim, and in
surance Agent. Office over Kress' Drug Store;
adjoining Agitator Otko, Wollsboro, Pa.
Wilson 8 Niles
Attorneys and Counselors at Law. Wlll attend
- promptly to htleiness entrusted to their care in
the counties of Tioga and Potter. Mice on
the Avenue. Jan. 1, 1870.
e. F.wmsosj ts. B. Mum.
John IV. Guernny,
Attorney and Counselor at Law. All business
ermuted to him will be promptly attended to.
Office 2d door south of Hazlett's Hotel, Tiogo,
Tioga County; Pa.—Jan. I, 1870.
• Wm. B. Smith,
Pension, Bounty and Insurance Agent. Com.
mantaations sent to the - above address will re
ceive prompt attention. ' Ternis moderate,
Knoxville, Pa.—Jan. I, 1870.
John C. Horton,
Attorney and Couneetor at. Law, Tioga, ,Pa.—
Office with C. IL Seywour\ F Esq. Business at
tended to with promptne6.—Jan. I. 1870.
W. D. Terbell it Co.,
Ifholeeale Druggists; and dealersin Wall Paper,
i)Kerosene Lamp , Window Glues, Perfumery,
Paiute, Oils, .tc., dc.—Corning, N. Y. Jnn. 1 '7O.
Dr. q. R. Thompson,
Icellsboro, Pa., will attend to Professional callb ,
in die village - oil Millsboro, and elsewhere,—
Office and Residence on State Si, 2d door Lo
right going east.—Jan. 1, 1570.
D. Bacon, M. D.,
Physician and Surgeon. Will iittend projuptly
to all calls. Mice on Crofton Street, in rear of
the Meat Market,—Jan. 1, 1870.
E. S. Perkins, M. D.,
Respectfully announces to the Citizens of East
Charleston and vicinity, that he would be grate
rut for their patronage.' Office at Cooper J.
Kohler's Store.--Jan. 10670.
M. Ingham, M. D.,
Ilumoeopatliist, Office et hie Residence :on the
Avenue.—'Jan. I, 187 U.
George Wagner,
Tailor. Shop first door north of Roberts , tt,
ey's Rat(ltvare Store. Cutting, Fitting and Re
p airing done promptly nod we/J.—.Tan.l,lSM
John Otter/
Tailor - and Cutter. whop opporite Dartee Car-
Main St., virhero he is prepared to
wr,rk lin:m - 11311y and neat_—Jan. 1, 1870.
ThouTx B. Bryden,
Surveyor attl Draftsman. Orders Left at
morn, Townsend House, Wellsboro, will meet
:rith prompt attention.—Jon. I, H7O.
At. E. Onler, SS
lie‘ler in Clocks au , / Jewelry, Silvtr, ;intl lilated
Ware. Spectacles, Violin Stiings, .4e. Watch
c. arnl Jewelry neatly repaired., Engraving
..lone in plain English and Qtrinnn.—Mansfield,
,Tan, 1, IS7O.
Petroleum Ilouge,
t..t6eld, Pa., GE°. CLos:, Propriet )r. A new
Hotel conducted on the principle of live and
le.( live, for the accommodation of the public.
l', ifi747
Haziett's IMO,
Tiega County, Pa. Good btablingattach
el, and an attentive 'hostler always in attend
:ls:T. Geo. W. 'Hazlett, Prop'r.—Jan. 1, 1870.
MIN Huti.4,
14 . Borough, Tiogn Co , 0. Hill,
Pr:Trietor.- A now and cointnodious building
with all the modern improvements. Within
ea:zy drive of the best hunting and fishing
Grounds in)North4n Penn'a. Conveyances
!urnished. Terms moderate.—Jan. I t 1370.
Smith's .Itotel,
Lap., Pa., E. Ili. Smith, Proprietor. House in
g , ,04 condition to accommodate the traveling
public in a cFperior trim - incr.—Jan. 1; 1570.
Keystone Hotel,
Tioga CO Pa., J. B. Jean, Pron'r.
G ~,t eutertaintnent for wan and beast. Con
renitit to tho best, fishing grounds. Parties
ceom °iodated with. conroyatiees.—Jan. 1,16.
.f oho .1 elntosh )
beater in Vermont and Italian Barbie, mann
laetarer of Monuments, Tomb • Stones, hc, car
ner Market and Cedar Sts.. Corning, N. Y. All
orders promptly and neatly executed. An
drew Van Nilson, A gent,—.lan. 1, 1370.
Union Hotel,
Miner Watkins, Proprietor. The traveling pub
will find this a. comfortable and convenient
Lome to tdop at. Good F tabling, and an at
tentive hostler. Jan. I, 1870.
k * 0- 1 06 , ►`
M. X SEARS, Pnornteron.
WRP.RE delicious Ice cream, French Con
fectionary, all kinds of (mita in their
s taieo, a nice dish of Tea, Coffoo, or Chocolate,
d.Oyet ers in their pennon—can ho bad at all
eerved i the bent eiylo. l'it%t door be.
I,‘ Roberts A Bailey's Baran-aro Store, Mail)
weiliboro; Jon. 4 , 1870.
.) , er(Vi/ann& V n { Ynfkenbury'a Store,itithe
roo m lately occtrpied by Peoij. Seely.
BOOTS. AND S lIOES of all kinds Wade to
urger and in tho hot% monnor.
KEI'AtItING of all kinds douepromptly and
0 , 1‘.1. Give ul a call.
Wel4boru, Jln. I, LSIO.--IY•
One , door above thelleat Market,
R E SPECTFULLY announces to the trading
Public that be has a desirable stock of Giro
;!ries, comprising, Tear, Coffees, Spicer, Sugars,
:tolartee, Syrups, and all that constitutes a BrEtu
-l a itock, Oysters in aver' style at all sea
totable boars. 41: •
We lleboroaan. 1, 1810:tte
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J Jno. 11.111uhell.
.g 2,00
52,501 SUN? Is 7, 1112.6)
GRO VER B 111,11'S
Points of Excellence
Beauty and Elasticity of Stitch.
_Berfectlon and Simplicity of Machinery.
tieing both threads directly flom the spools.
No fastening of seams by hand and no waste
of thread.
Wide range of application without change of
adjnet men t.
The seam retains it beauty and druineee of
ter wasbing and ironing.
Besides doing all kinds of work done by other
Sewing Machines, those Machines execute the
most beautiful and permanent Embroidery and
ornamental work.
,2)* "The highest Premiums at all the fairs
and exhibitions of the, United States and
'Hume, have been awarded the Grover dc Baker
Sewfug MaChines, and the work done by them,
wherever exhibited in Competition.
~'ltar-The very highest prize, TEE CROSS
OF TILE LEGION 01? IIONOR, wan conferred
ori the repreeentatire of the Groi•er S. Baker
Sewing Maohinee, at; the Exposition
Paris, 1887, thus attesting their great superior
ity over all other 6°V/in Alachinee
13 Baldwin Street,
• .;
OUR corrro
Of a ve . ry deicription, in all styles of Binding,
and as law, for quality of Stock, as any Bindery
,State., Volumes, of •
,-avory description
Bound in thio - best n:motor rilld in any style or-
.113ented in the best manner. Old nooks re
bound And made good Aa new.
SilAbkantai 114112.433t1ka
I am prepared to furnish back numbers of all
Reviews or Magazines palkliched in the UniteA
States or Groat Britain, at a low price,
Ot all sizes and,qualities,, 01 hand, ruled-or plain.
Of any quality or size, ou band and cut up ready .
for'printing. Also, BILL PAPER, and'-CARL.
BOARD of all colors and quality, in boards or
cat to any size.
Cap, Letter, Note Paper, .Enyeiopps,
Pens, Pencils, &c.
atn 6010 agent for
Which I wql warrant equal to Gold Pens. The
been in use and no mistake.
The above stock I will sell at the Lowestßatcs
at all times, at a small advance on ;New York
prices, and in quantities to suit purchasers. All
work and stock wqrranted nsrnpresentod.
'respectfully solicit a share of public patron
age. Orders by mail promptly attended to.—
? A ddress„).LOUlS HIES,
Advertiser Building,
lin. 1, 1870 -ly. Elmira, N.Y.'
tiEALF:itti IN
Carriage, and Harness Trimmings,
Coro*, N. Y., Jan. 2,1370-Iy. • '
New Tobacco Store_ l
II E subscriber has fitted up the Store first
j , duor east Thomas Ilarden's dry goods Fiore,
foi-' the manufacture arid solo of
`CIGARS, (all grades), Fancy a - nd Common
°SMOKING TORlCOO,Michigan Finetint
CHEWING, and all kinds of
PLUG TOBACCO, PIPES., and Me . cline"-
cost Brand of CIGARS
Call and seo for youreolvee.
WellAbore, Jan. 1, 1870—lf.
Are to Tannery.
PHI: undersigned bas fitted up the old Pows
dry building, near the Brewery, IVellsboro,
and is now prepared to turn out fine calf, hip,
cowhide. and harness leather in the best man
ner. Hides tanned on shares. Cash paid for
hides. ' - M. A. DIIRIF.
Wellsburg, Jan. I, 1870.
Great improvement in Densistry.
HAVING' purchased tbo
sir° right of Dr. Folsom's
a AIM proved patent Atmospheric Dental
Plates for Tiogn County. I now tfske pleabure
in offering it to: the public as the geatest Pis
ctirsits yet made hi
Mechanical Dentistry.
fly the use of which, we can overcome any any
and all difficulties which have heretofore battled
the skill of the most practical Dentist in the
world. Plates constructed upon this plan re
main perfectly fain under all circunstances or
condition of the mouth, as no air, o i 1 articles of
food can possiblyget under them. hose having
old styles, sold or Rubber Plates, scan, at half
the cost, have the Improvement applied to them
1%13 FWCOII4 , „ in every respect the, same purpose as
as a new set. Perfect satisfaction guaranteed
in every case. ---------- _C. N. DARTT, Dentist.
Well , ,boro, - Jan. 1, ISB9.
This k to certify that we are now niing the Impmc
i,d tk , titsl Plates with pericct satisfaction. Raying
iked the old et) le of plates for years with 101 the troubles
slot inconvt-nlencre known in the nee of such plates,
we cheerfully recommend the improved Plates as far
superior to Anything Set known. E. R. KIMBALL,
Pletiac:i-3Ei - artets3
Volt sale by I. G. ROVT. Haines Brotherfr,
Pianos, 011icke,rings, Stein ways, and Steek's.
Itinterwitter's Organs and Melodeons, and Ma
son & Horatio's Organ. These are all first.elais
Instruments.. Haying the experience of many
years in Mudeal Twin:mints, and taring the
game, I can otter grooter indneetnento to costa.
mere of Tiogn County. than env other dealer in
Northern Pa. Evorvinstrument is warranted
for flee ienre.. For full particulars see Illostrat.
ed Catalogue. I. 11. 'HOYT.
Mansfield,,Pa., Jan 1,, 1870-1 y
Planing Jf, Matching'.
+vial' rapidity and exactness, with our tow Ma
chines. Try it and see. B. T. VANBORN.
Welishoro, Jan. 1,1870.
k `..
3 .4-
, 1-."
WY. B. , tuarraoito. SAVUEL LINK.
fAnlifitFo*g. 8i flainn,
1104 k. )3411.0 •STORE I
BORDEN 'keeps constantly on
J r hand; Pure Drugs and Medicines,
- Chemicals, Paints and Oils, Lamps,
- Stationery, Yankee Notions &e.
Tip" Sun. 1.1870.-ly
• T. B. STONE,
(formerly B. C. Wick hares Nursery)
60,000 Apple Trees,
) 10,000 Pear Trees.
A good aupply of PL UM, PEACH, CHERRY
The Fruit trees are - eornpbsed" of thei choicest
varieties, good, healthy, some of them large and
iq hearing. Any one wishing to get a supply
will do well to call and see toy 'stock before pnr- -
chasing elsewhere.
_pin- Delivered at the depot,
Welleboro, Mansfiefa; Lawrenceville and floss
burg, free of obarge. All orders promptly tilled.
Address, T. B. STONE,
Tioga, Pa,
Tioga, Doe. S, 1569-0!"
, .
4. - - T - a• •
do,n't. neglect to. sticare
10/.ll:%isir • 11- -n first class -
. . . . .
• •
H. W. DARTT, has on band the latest styles
and will make to order andiwarrant to snit. All
kinds of REPAIRING done at the sflortist no
tioe. Also,
_ lon Wo k and Horse-Shoeing.
Please call and examine and be convinced
that better workmanship or material is not fur
nished elsewhene"at niera
Main Streel,MitiOlforo; )..
'Nov. 24, 11389.'-if, DARTT.
Get the , Rest:
Mrs. A, J. SOFIELD, is agent for that su
perior SEWING MACHINE, the
*bielieveeybody likes who tries it.. 'lt is a beau
tiful Machine, never gets out of oriTer with fair
usage, sews rapidly and strong stitch, and is
perfectly noteeles R. •
iSP•Machines rented by the week.
Nov. 17, 1869-t C I Mrs. AJ. SOFIELD.
_ .
ti,--:±- 4.? „,.., ANDREW FOLEY,
' . who has long been est.-th-
A .-- ;•:-:'f,_ `lished in the Jewelry busl
' /IP
s y
0 . 4 .1 1 : 1 .:;,, tress in .Welhburo, Lae al
it'o'.., . .:, ways on sale,
43 s. ‘ - _:- 42-9 ,--siii: : , :,,L.... . kinds and prices of
S:m„ Sth
With most other nrticics usually liept in such
e;tahli , htnent, which is rold low for
C A S Ml.
Repairing done nentit, and promplly, and on
short NOTICP. A. FOLE‘'.
January 5, 1840-Iy.
Tiogn, Psk.
All those wishing 4,
- i t• 1
. .
can :Are a good percentage, as WO must make
room for other
G ,C 1 0 D S.
• Jan. 5,1869-if.
Vial OU 8
PA -
gotto''; gortlfr•
THE nirtßl.
Whit. may we take into the vait-Porever ••
Thitairlde dOo l - „ • - • "
Admits no fruit of all our long-endeavor,
No feam4reath'ed'erown wo wore; , _
. •
No garnired lore] -
What can we bear beyond the unknown Portal ?
Nogold, no gains _
Of all one toiling : in the life immortal
No hoarded 'wealth remains,
No gilds, nor stains.
Naked from out that far abyss behind us ,
Wo entered here:
No word came with our coming, to remind us
What wondrous world was near,'
No chart, no fear. -
Into the silent, starless night before us,
Naked we glide; •
No hand has taapped . the constellations o'er us,
No comrade atom- side, •
'No chart, no guide.
Yet fearless toward that midnight, - black and
'hollow, , I I
Our footsteps fare; .
Tim beckoning of a rathor's band we Mlow—
Ilia love alone is there,
No curse, no care.
` l tiigictifatteattO .
(For the Agitator)" • •
'The 01d Grave Yard on the Hill.
frigCOND 6ilA/1.
There' is a ehange . _ot_,loeation_ande
ehangirteii; --- Of"the - em47tions of the
spirit.' lam in the new cemetery.—
The tinge or unhappiries.4 that seemed
to be a part of me,. while in the Old
Grave Yard on 'the 'hill, has' paSsed
:awaY• „ •.• . .
My friends in the other world found
my body in one of the'graves_ that re-.
mained unfilled after the occupant was
removed,'and into which I had fallen
on my way to read and meditate on
those who had passed away. They
havehuried me among the beautiful
shrubbery and evergreens of the new
grave yard.. I am among beautiful
marbles and ornamented graves. There
are springs of pure water here, and the
sweet scent of flowers is like the per
fume of oriental gardens. It is winter
now on earth,: but , to us there Is no
: winter here. The trees haVe on their
summer dreis and the flowers are in full
bloom.. The contrast
to our hap
piness, for while the luxuriance' and
beauty of summer regales the spiritual
sense, being ever present, we see also
What • the living see only, the. hare
branches, the decayed leaves, the fad
ed flowers, the cold sleet and snow and
The desolation of winter ; but though
we see all this, it makes no impres
sion upon - uS; it is no part of our para
As in thesold grave yard, so desolate;
negleeted and unsightly, so disgraceful
as we dead think, to the living, we see.
Winsicuit - JMUSSMIIM-40.171.113M , V1.• • •
wereonee , but now,no longer, a part of
us,. and-. above and near each grave,,
the immaterial, the - spiritual
of the dead,; not confined to that Imp%
tion, but with almost-infinite Anemi:lw
tion, if it be, indeed\ locomotion, the
thought of u place finds- us there.=
Where our thoughts are, there are we.
Here too are graves, in which are
decaying bodies over or near which we
See no spiri tuft] body corresponding, but
lying above the grave a dark murky
cloud into which none of us who are
dead eiin'look.' I do not comprehend
it now, and when the question has
risen in my mind there has been an
answer. There are many things which
we shall probably learn hereafter.
There are many in the new cemetery,
who were once in graves iu the old,and
though thr. , , - have been removed to the
new,: yet they hold a relation to the
old, different from the relationsheld by
those originally 'buried in the new. In
the empty graves we seem to see the
shadow of our material bodies, and
IrheJa we visit there as we often do, we
are depressed in spirit, as if partaking
of the feelings of those whe are deem
ed, by the neglect of the living, to re
main in that physical and moral deso
_ I have learned one thing since I died
which I often speeniated upon while liv
lug,•that is, that moral sublimity and
beauty of spirit milk have their incep
tion in the earthly life. There must at
least be a living germ of the true spirit
ual at death, for there is no, ayfakink to
the spiritual in the hereafter ; at least,
not till - the great day of spiritual res
toration, and it may be not then—of
that Imu not now permitted to know.
And so also in the physical world.
There are spots on earth, that have
neither beauty, sublimity, nor utility.
There, to the spirit of the dead appears
the material in all its hideousness with
no counterpart of the immaterial, the
spiritual. That possibly may be the
reason why, when we who are dead
visit the old grave yard on the bill,lind
wintery desolation shrouding all things,
the trees without leaves, the weeds, the
sorrel, and mullein all decayed, the un
sightly flowers of the brambles and
thistles all dead and scentless, and no
counterpart of spiritua \ l. beauty.
. The sleet and the snow lie there' to
day as chilly, and unsighly as they lie
on the northern side of an Artie moun
tain. The dead, however, do not feel
the chill of material cold, but they
miss the beauty of the green herbage
and the scent of the beautiful flowers
which partake in part of the spiritual
Their spirits are depressed when they
look over to, and sometimes are per
mitted to visit, the perpetual verdure
and beauty of the new cemetery, and
think how-a few emotions of friend
ship nand a few hours of labor by living
friends might lift the burden from
their spirits, and remove them to a
bright spot, Wheie angels would not
weep when they come.
In life I sometimes sneered at the
emotions of the lii•ing over the dead
And thought that it was only the weak
that Went to the graves •to weep over
their departed frisnds :.that it was a
foolish and wasteful expense to erect
costly monuments ; to plant evergreens
and sweet scented shrubs and flowers
around the departed; to build costly
-fences and hedges around their last
homes ; to make the cemetery a place
of beauty, where the aged, the reiti44
aged, the youth • and the children might
come in the pleasant cool of the, day
to deck the graves of their dead. But
I see it different now.
. Only an hour ago, I saw a little boy
with rosy cheeks but molsiened eyeT,
hastening to a new made grave, where
l only a few weeks ago they had laid his
mother. I.le had in his head one tittle
ho ll oliOPe which had just blossomed
and for which he had anxiously
that he might place It Opon,hisznotbers
tr,reve. ere are scenes among the
dead wh ' Thieh the living cannot compre
hend ; 'aud the joy of that 'mother as
shielasped In net spiritual . arms, her
child, and with a glow of spiritual il
lumination, that no mortal can
-by any
possibility, except through death con
ceive, attested a happiness that is be
yond all human expression. The gpirit
of tilt, dead is always with the living
Visitor that Domes either to weep or
deck the graves. '
The living little know how powerful
is the.intluence of the dead for good,
and that influence is much in propor
tion as the living makes the homes of
the dead , beautiful. and pleasant. I
know that when in the spring imy
friends come here to deck and beautify
1-Py grave r I shall infuse into their
spirits au influence that will lift their
thoughts into a higher and purer atmos
phere ; and every time they come to
weep over me and strew flowers' over
my last material home, they will return
to their homes-to one home so desolate
—better prepared to meet the remaining
responsibilities of life and to perform
all its duties.
One Thousand Niles over the Rooks
The Silurian Age.
• "A company of ages coming, ages gono."
- • The term Silurian was first given to
the rocks of this era by Sir. Roderick
'Murchison ; and is derived from an
ancient tribeof Britons, called Silures,
once inhabiting a portion of England
end Wales.' The system is represented
in nearly every country on the globe.
It abounds in Great Britain, Germany,
Russia, France and Spain ; and - in the
United States, it is developed on a
scale of great magnitude, being found
in different parts of the Eastern and
Middle States, and underlying all the
later formations in the Mississippi val
ley. It begins at the old Azoic rocks
in Canada, known as the Laurentian
Hills, and spreads out oven wide tracts
"of country. The general pitch of the
strata is to the south ; and each minor
droup has received its ,}game from
ome locality in the State of New York
where that particular group forms the
Surface-rock and is well developed ; so
that the Silurian system, besides being
called the Upper and Lower, has been
subdivided into the following periods :
first, the Pots'datu period ; second, the
Trenton ; third, the Hudson period ;
fourth, the Niagara period; fifth, the
Salina period ; and sixth the Lower
Helderberg period. The rocks which
e)nstitute these subdivisions are lime
stones, shales, sandstones and eonglo=
- .
is twenty-two thousand feet.
Some of my .readers may wonder how
Strata of 'rocks were piled up to a
thiakness of several , miles, and how
Ouch vast accumulations have ever been
measured. To explain this we must
,suppose that the surface was slowly
subsiding; during the times of these de
positions. The clay-slates and Other
fine sediments represent periods of
slow subsidence, the coaser sandstones
and conglomerates, period's of rapid
subsidence. When upheaved to
form a continent the rocks assumed the
form of great waves--Or what geologists
term anticlinal and synclinal axes—
and by their undulating position each
different group is brought to the surface
and all are measured, some
. in one
place, some in another. Since the con
tinents were elevated, many of our
deepest valleys have been scooped out
by erosion, and thus the wreck of the
ancient formations has been piled up
in More recent seas, -
The mineral productions of the Sil-
Orion system are of great importance.
Most of the native copper of Lake.. S
uperior occurs in the Potidam sandstone
It 'exists iu irregular veins, and was
cloubtjesa injectd from below while in
a melted condition. Masses of copper
have beeri uncovered forty feet long,
and weighing two hundred tons. I
have small spechnens which are, large
ly composed of native silver.
The fommis led() mines on the Upper
Mississippi exist in tbe.Trenton group;
while the salt springs of Syracuse be
long to the Salina pikied. About forty
gal ions of water limit these springs wilt
produce a bushel of salt ; while it re
quires three hundred and fifty gallons
of sea-water for a similar result.
All the gold of Australia, California
and the eastern United States, is found
in connection with metamorphic rocks
belonging to the Silurian system. The
reader will find the subject of gold
and its origin treated of at length in
Murchison's Siluria.
It was during the Silurian Age that
life, animal and vegetable, had. its
earliest beginnings. The three great
branches`of the animal kingdom Radia
tes, Mollurks, and Articulate were pro
duced at she same time, or nearly so ;
while that of Vertebrates seems to have
been created at a later period—probably
during the deposition of the Upper Sil
urian strata, though perhaps earlier.—
The remains of the first three orders are
extremely; abundant in the rocks of
this period ; while the last mentioned
order is represented only by fishes—no
mammals, birds or reptiles having been
Among Radiates the remarkable ant
malsherhaps, were Crinoids, Or stone
lilies, which were attached to the
bottom by a calcareous stem. The cup
like bodies whichihese stems supported
resembled the calyx of a lliy, and were
furnished with numerous flexible arms,
one thousand in'number, and the num
ber of little bones contained in them
was not less than one hundred thou
Articulates were represented by Tri
lobites—of which nearly Jive hundred
speeies have- been discovered. Their
eyes, which are often found in a fossil
state, were formed of innumerable small '
lenses, like the eye of the dragon fly
—which l l contains twenty-five thousand.
Mollusks were exceedingly abundant
and their remainsespecially character
ize the Silurian rocks. A species of one
shell, called Orthoceratite, was, fifteen
feet long, and one foot in din meter.
The plants which represented the'
vegetable kingdom of thatit.rdote era;
w.ere almost entirely marine. "Fit-)
colitis were abundant, and forests of
Alpe darkened the • rocks. But it is
only in the uppermost strata—that in
which the earliest fishes occur—that the
[For the Agitator.)
- of Tioga County.'
geologist meets with the remains of 'a
terrestrial vegetation"--Hugh Miller.
All the tomb, Animal and vegetable
which flourished in Silurian times, are
extinct now; and no reeordof their his
tory remains save that which is writep
so' indelibly in the , rocks. Tney are
the represenatives of a type that per
ished thousands of centuries ago, In
deed, we never shall be able to number
the millenniums which have rolled
away since the many - Jointed Trilob
ite darted through the waters, or the
graceful Coral reared its beautiful grove
in the transparent depths of the prim
eval oceans.
I trust my readers will look kindly
upon these dry preliminaries, and I will
promise them something . better shortly,
and something that pertains more to the
geology of the County.
From tho Toledo Blade.
Dr•corabor T 2.1569. j
I am perfectly and entirely happy;
for I hey formed a number. uv delitful
acquaintences in this trooly great city,
wich make my pathway pleasant and
cheerful. I hey added to the decorash
una uv my bar, portrates of Sammon P.
Chase, Ferifandy Wood, and Pendleton,
one of which-is sure to be our standard
bearer in the next contest, with colleck
shun I abel keep.addin to es I git the
means'. I hey a stiddy 'run uv trade,
and I am seldom alone, wick soots me
exactly. But few: , men like to be alone.
A man is bad company for hisself, for
ho alone is the only one who knows
precisely how cussed mean lie is. The
two Aldermen, with panterniies me
pay ez they drink, with paternage alone
is almost sutlishent to support me, ez
they are couseienshusly industrious
drinkers. They pay, not beeps they
hey any prejoodis in that direckshen,
but beeoz money costs em nothin, and
beeoz, likiii'my'face. they hey a desire
to keep me -among em. One uv em
wuz pleased to compliment me yester
day. "NaShy," sed he, TThat nose uv.
yoors indikates yoor po]itiks more eer
tenly,than wat you say. The heart is
deceetful and the tongue ofttirues speeks
wat the heart. doth not prompt; the
nose kin never lie. Its alluz safe to ap
proach deli a nose with a cash offer to
do Booty as a repeater. Two more hot
whiskeys and one foryerseif, while Soo
are at it!"
Isn't it a pleasure to mix drinks for
one who combines shrewd knowledge
uv human Becher, whisky and prompt
pay, in sich correct proportions? Uv
course it is. But my buzzum friend is
Terrence O'Sullivan, who is perhaps the
most reglar I hey. Mr. O'Sullivan is
one uv the oldest Dimocrats in ,Noo
York, in hevin bin three years since he
left Cork . It is not known wat he wuz
before leavin Ireland—there' is a mys
tery hangin over him. From, what I
h} i 72 . when.
he is convivyelly toosenen, tuere wuz
conspiracy organized agin him in his
native country, consistill uv a sheriff,
four witnesses, a judge and twelvejur,y
men ,:wieh resulted in his inearcerashen
in ab. steel. Ther wuz a -pocket book
and a ivateh mixed up in it, the partik
elars uv wich I never, got. On his re
leese, O'Sullivan preceeded to wunst
to Noo York, and commenst lifo ez . a
laborer on an excava.i-ben on Broadway.
Forchunitely,,six weeks after he lauded
an eleetiOn took place, and he immedi
ately got imployment ez a •repeeter.
Doorin the war he wuz engaged in en
listin hisself under various names for
the bounty' the monotony ur which
okktipashen he varied by occasional
burglarieS and operations on the streets
on intoxicated, western men. He hez
bin second and bottle , holder in many
piize lights, and hez an interest in two
urpretendin faro banks and one lottery
Uv course Mr. O'Sullivan holds office.
Hevin one hundred and sixty-three
votes at his control he is a skool direck.-
tor, inspecter of Boa Constrickters in
the menagery at Central Park, clerk to
three hoards, and in addishen hez , a
sub-contract for street cleanin. Ez
tlier aint no Boa Constrickters and no
boards, and ez, the street 4 are never
cleaned, why Mr. O'S. hez a tolerable
soft thing uc it, or wood hey were it
not that he hez'to divide his salaries up
among so many. But nevertheless, he
lives comfortably and happy.
Mr. O'Sullivan hes a brother who"is,
at this time, an inmate uv the State
Prizen at Sing Sing, for highway rob
bery, and last monday we went up to
Sing Sing to see him. We arrived jest
ez the convicts wuz a marebin in to
dinner, and took posishen where we
cood see em, so that Mr. O'S. coed point
out his unforchnit relative to me ez they
4 "lliere he is-J-good hevins:"
\Vatagitates you, my friend ?" red I.
"Look!" said he, "the fourth man in
the sixth file!"
I saw at once wat agitated him. His
brother was the fourth man in the sixth
tile, and side by side by that•brother i a
white man, Wuz—a NIGGER ! both
dressed exactly alike.
" Hevins l" ejaculated O'Sullivan,
is this thing permitted in the Democrat
ic Stuteny Noo York? Hey we fought
nigger ekality tit the polls so many
years to hey it practiced here, in a
Democratic State under Democratic
" And here, too,- where only DO:no
cults is degradid by it!" I put in.
We sought out the Warden ,and de
man did that this infamous practis be
changed. The Warden sympathized
with but sed it couldn't be. There
wuz no provision in the laws governin
the prisons uv the State for keepin
niggers s'epttrate. "You see," he re..
marked, "it's only now and then that
any uv the degraded race git here, and
there's no provision made for em. It
can't be helped."
Then," sed O'Sullivan, "do I un
derstand that the Democrisy uv Too
York city is to be continyooally- threat
ened with - nigger ekality ?"
" They are till the Legisiacher ehan
ges it," retorted the Warderif*
We left the prison shortly 'filler that,
Mr. O'Sullivan in a most melankolly
" Nqsby," sed he finally, after, a si
lence ur perhaps half an hour, doorin
with time he wuz plunged into the
deepest thought, "Nasby, it's all up
with me. I steel never break into. a
house, or pick a pocket, or go through
a drunken man agin. Wet I hey seen
to-day hez determined me. I shel nev
er again take a. chance uv goin to Sing
Sing. Why, it mite be my forchoon to
be put beside that nigger!"
And a sh)tdder nv 111-cloncealed an- '
gnash agitated his frame, - end the strong
man wept. bitter tears.
I comforted 'An es best I cool.
told him that shood he be arrested foi
any murder, be tried and convicted and
sent to the penetenshary, and be forced
to march side by side with a nigger,
"the disgrace," I sed, "won't be yoors„
'twill be the infammi retches who put
you there. If you shoed, of your own
free w ills put yoorself on a leVel with a
nigger—for instance of yoo shood by of
or sell to an Ethiopian, then the degre
dashen wood' be yoors, \ for yoo mite
mite have asserted yoor gooperiority.—
But in the case of States Prisons I reely
think yoo put too much stress onto it.
In ; that ease-a sooperidr rower compels
,yog. to this, and you ain't responsible.
Were I in yoor place—lied I sick prom
isin prospeeks ez yoorn—i_ don't think
I shoed permit this to stop me."
But Mr. O'Sullivan wuz
Heshood quit all practices.whieh plat
ed iu the dereeksun uv a penetenshary,
for it would kill him to be compelled
for a minit to eat, wOrk or walk' beside
a nigger, even if he ,wuz eompel i led to
do it.
Then an idea struck me! Brilliant
ideas'alluz do come to me at precisely
the rite time.
" Why, you cussed jackass!" sed I,
q -----
falling onto hi eck, "why do we talk
uv this. Now at she Democracy hey
the legislacher a d_will hey the con
trol uv the eta; in all its departments,
no DeMocrat who 'has a dozen votes
back uv him will god to the peniten
siary. But few uv em did afore when
the Ablishnests hed the . poleece, but
now we have Judges, poleece, and all-7-
why my deer sir, the chances is ez one
to a million. 04 on with your burglary
my. sweet Terence, go in and win with
no -gaunt fear stalking like a guant
spectre behind youJ" Mr. O'Sullivan
returned to the city with Pod comforte
that. iz to hisself. But be is- determi -
ed that the wrong shall be Wmedied.
He declares it his purpoie to petish
the Legislacher to pass au act maki
separate prizeus for niggers, that Demo
crats uv the city may not be perpetually
menaced with the poisibility that they
may be compelled to associate with em ;
or wat wood be still better, they. would
hey banging) made the only punish
ment for niggers, wich wood.finish the
cusses at once and end all anxiety on
their account. Sich a petition is now
hanging in my bar, and I read it to lall
who cum in, and in no case hez 4ny
one of em refoosed to make his mark
onto it. ' This will be the first refdtm
the new Tl.e i tihslaelicr will be called on
to make. '
(with wuz P. M.)
It was the 17th of November, 1852,.a
short time after ;the discovery of gold
in California. It was afternoon, and I
was sittingi in ni,i• office, when the'door
t 4
..... 1 „......,...*,-. - .;, - ,I__ ei t 7,,........,,,.......„ 4 . •••••• irel . ...nit
roommate, Cyril- Orme,' wl iminedi
ately began an 'exciting re ation of a
murderous street fight that iad taken
place in Sacramento the day previous,
in which NI old friend of ours, Charlie
Howard, had been shot dead by Bill
BroWn, a noted horse -thief from Ails
souri. Not content. with this, the Mis
sourian had dragged the corpse into a
saloon, and placing it on a billtard ta
ble, lead stood beside it • for nt.arly au
hour, dating the dead man's friends to
come and take the body?
Sbortly , afterwards he had mounted
his horse and ridden out of the city. -
" T, myself," Gyril continued, " was
not in town when it happened, and did
not hear of it niitil the murderer had
left, and it was too hile to do anything
but follow him, and b r i ng hi m i f pos4 _
ible to justice.'
Cyril's eyes were moist when h end
ed, for the dead man had been a entle
man, and a friend deir to us both, and
we telt that something must lie done to
avenge his untimely death. For this
purpose, Cyril, knowing that he cotlld
do not hingsingle handed, had hastened
to San Fransisco to tell me and raise a
party for . the pursuit. i knew, if we
acted at all, it must be immediately,
and we had nolime to waste in talking ;
so jumping out of my chair, I put on
my hat, buckling oh a belt containing
two Colt's revolvers and a long Spanish
knife, I followed Cyril,--who was sim
ilarly armed out upon tie square. .
In less than an ho , tris - e had recruited
three. of the bravest nen in town, Sam
Hendricks, Dave f_. hevely and Hall
Robinson, and wer all five grdlo . ping
towardA Sacramento
Our plan was tco apture the ruffian
aft e r he had stqpped for the night,
which we judged he would do at one of
the only, two taverns on the road he
had taken. Then we would eitheti
take him quietly whlle he slept, or by a
a Surprise=when he c/Inie out of his room
in the morning--AtAN o'clock in the
evening after a long and hard ride, we
came in sight of the first of the two pub
lic houses, , and sent Chevely, whom
Brown did not know, ahead to find out
if - he was there, and bring us word.
He rode on and entered the house, but
in a moment afterward came out and
beckoned us on. The landlord said
that a man answering Brown's deseripi
tion had staid there the nigr previous,
but had risen late that morning, and
after partaking of a hearty ' breakfast,
had saddled r his horse and rode on.
Here Ave fed our horses and rated until
Then we rode on, and arrived, about
ten o'clock, at the other house, which
we felt certain must contain the murder
er. We cautiously dismounted, and
peering in through the 'window, -saw
that the large room contained but one
person, the owner of the house. Seeing
the coast clear we walked 'in and in
quired in low tones for Brown. The
proprietor replied that the one he sup
posed to be the one we wanted had
stopped there early in the evening, had
takeq the hest room in the house, and
after partaking of a light supper, had
gone in and locked the cicior. Knowing
this to be the deeperado,:.'we immediate
' ly called a council of war relative to the
best Manner of capturing - Mtn.
Cyril advisedhursting, in the door, but
that, we all saw, would give him too
much advantage, as he would he cer
tain to shoot otte'or more of us before
we could get him. So we decided on
the whole to, wait until morning, and
secreting: - ourselves without the door,
capture him by surprise as•he came out.
Meanwhile we Were greatly in need of
sleep'', having ridden nearly tete whole
of the previous night, we agreed to bar
ricade the doors, so that no one &mid
get out without alarming us—the win
dows were small holes, at a great height
from the ground—and then to lie down.
and, take a Sew hours' sleep, lest we
should be overcome by drowsiness near
morning, and so let the villain escape.
It seemed as if but a• few momenta
had passed sines throwing myself down
to *p, but it must have been over an
bout when "woke with a strangefhad
feel gin every nerve—a feeling as If
some great hideous, slimy monster was
near me. A shuddering ' fear swept
through every fibre of my body, and in.
stincliVely I. grasped my pistol and
peered cautionsly around. The room
was as dark as pitch, and not the slight
est thing revealed itself to mystraining
eyes. But still the terrible ;feeling sat
upon me like a nightmare, and seemed
to point as with skeleton fingers to a eel's
tain side of the room—the side on which;
I kaew Hall Robinson was sleeping ;
and suddenly to my intense gaze, di
rected to that spot, there became visible
what appeared to be a ray of light,
which, as I looked, spread itself out
until it assumed the form of a cylinder
light, that shone with .vivid distinct
ness on 'the deck, chin, mouth, and
moustache of a sleeping man—Hall
Robinson—and then a great gaunt bo
ny, yellow hand, grasping a knife,
glided from the darkness into the flood
of light, hovered an instant, over its
prey, and then quick as a flash, deacen
sled 1 I. limnd a low, gUrgling cry.
Then all was dark and still as death,
There seemed something supernatural.
I felt the great veins on my forehead
swell almost to bursting, when Ina sec
ond the whole so lution burst upon me;
and my teeth until they al
most .crumbled beneath the pressure, I
silently cocked my pistol, held rny
breath, and-waited for that light to Cre
appear ; and then I saw it just as be
fore resting on another throat. In
stinctively the hand that held ray pis
tol sprang forivard. Again I saw the
fearful hand, that dreadful knife, and
then—two pistol shots rang out togeth
er, half a dozen wild cries and howls
were heard and, and again all was still.
The light shone on, but Instead of
gloating-over the uncovered throat of
Dave Chevelry, it fell upoi • the har
dened, brutal, beastly face of the Mis
sourian horse thief and murdered, Bill
Brown, as he lay upon the floor with a
,bullet through-his brain.
We never knew who killed him,
Cyril or I. We bad both been awaken
ed, and fired precisely at the same in
stant. One ball had struck the wall, s
the other gone crashing through Bill
Brown's skill,. Not being asleep when
we arrived, the cunning murderer
hid sena us through the k l ; k y-hole, rec
ognized hs; guessed (air i§sion, and
had come to the conclusion,that a bold,
secret and deadly attack, while we were
irta deep sleep of exhaustion, was his
only chance of escape. Favored by a
dark-lantern, he had 'made the attempt,
and poor Hall Robinson pa!id for it
with his life. Cheveiry was nearly
frightened to death, but otherwise sus
tained no injury, and Charlie Howard
h was avenged.—Ex.
BU TER FROG[ MILK.--Many persons
in making butter think they must not
churn anything but pure cream, and
would,rather lose some of the cream in
skimming than to have any milk get
in with it. I believe I can make : fifty
pounds of butter more from one cow
during the season by churning all the
milk, than I could by churning the
cream aloue. In the greater part of the
the milk will sower before half
the_cream is risen, the atmosphere be
ing warm and sultry, and the cream
will often sour and taste bitter beforeia
churning is gathered. In cold weather
it willnot rise, and if we, warm it {as
many do) we hurt the quality of the
Many persons, in setting milk-, put
about two quarts in one pan, thinking
the cream swill rise better. Think of
the cream that will adhere to the edges
of a pan in skiintning. and then the
number you would have in setting the
milk of a number of 'cows. Drachms
make ounces; ounces make pounds
In eburnitig the milk we do, away with
the labor ofset ting, skhamlug, washing
and scalding. The expense of crocks or
pans or a number of cows is cousiiler
I have cream crocks holding from .
four to six gallons, easily handled. I
strain one churning in two pr pore,
cool it, let,it stand until it commences
to get sulur and then put it in ay, up
right churn that holds sixteen to twen
ty- gallons ; test it with thermometer;
if too cold, put in \warm water; if too
warm, cold water, and churn it about
one hour at sixty-four degrees Fahren
heit. The butter is always the same
color, unless the etleitm has been frozen
or scalded. If the pasture, waterl4d
other things are the same, I get the i
same amount of butter each day, the
season through. '
- I use sheep power,•for turning. It is
simple, easily constructed, very durable;
the whole cost NV i I I . notexceed eight dol
lars in the last manner referred to,I have
made from two common cows, du
ring the past• two- years, and five
months of this year, 1,092 pounds of
"blitter, exclusive of milk and butter
used in family, and raised one calf each
year ot?i sweet milk. I have sold to the
amount of $325, and have over three
hundred pounds Tor sale now. I don't
claim my cows to be extra milkers, but
Ido think that a penny saved is .as
g 'od as a penny earned. If our friends
h ye a better way that they can -make
in re butter; and make it easier, I should
like to hear from therri through the
Bizral:—Rurat New Yorker.
MINE—The report of the. Director of
the*Mint gives the total coniage for the
last fiscal year as follows:
gold .$21,828,637
Silver ..8.40,746
Nickle, copper and br0nze...1,2.79,055
The 91d coined at Philadelphia,—
was • 3,178,637
At San Francisco d .. 18,6.50,000
Silver at Philadelphia .434,746
At San Franc _co • ...406,000
Nickle Coppel. and bronze at Phila
Total N 0. ., of, nieces struck. 34,66%168
/The total deceits of 'gold bullion at
the mint and branches was A31i563,249,
of which 516,794,196 was in uipasted
bars and 414,063,753 in refined bullion.
In San Francisco the total gold de-;
posits-were $17,711;393, of which $8',343,
151 was in nnpasted bars and $9,364,236
in refined bullion.
A Husband, I hope you have ncLobjec
t ion to my getting weighed !"Certain
ly not, my dear ; but why did ygu ask
me that question ?"Only to see, my
love, if you would allow me to have my
'weight' for once.'