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telf"The annexed production is from the
pen or mr. Cfto. D. PRENTICE, editor of the
Louisville Journal. It is ono of those gems
which Mr. Prentice, in his increasing years,
occasionally gives to the world to the rejection
of political pasqinade •
THE ISLE AND THE STAR,
In the tropical seas,
There's a beautiful Isle,
Where storms never darken
The sunlight's soft smile.
There the hymn of the breeze
And the hymn of the stream
Are mingled in one,
Like sweet sounds in a dream.
There the song•hirds at morn,
Froth thick shadows start,
Like musical thoughts
From the poet's full heart.
There the song•birds at noon
Sit in silence unbroken,
Like an exquisite dream
In the bosom unspoken.
There the flowers hang the rainbows
On wildwood and lea—
Oh say, wilt thou dwell
In that sweeet Isle with me?
In the depths of the sky
There's a beautiful star,
Where no clouds cast shadow,
The bright scenes to mat.
There the rainbows 'der fade,
And the dews aro ne'or dry,
And a circlet of moons
Ever shines in the sky.
'There the songs of the blest
And the songs of the spheres
Arc unceasingly heard
Through the intiniM years.
:There the soft air floats (Iwo
Front the amaranth bowers,
All fresh with the perfume
ljf tlea's own flowers.
.There truth, love and beauty
Immortal will be—
Qh say, wilt thou dwell
In that sweet star with me?
By J. A. Hall,
Huntingdon county Teachers' Institute.
TIIVItspAy EVENING ,
Mr. Baker closed the discussion on Or
der and System. Ho said if we may
judge from the condition of a great nlany
schools we would think there was no im
portance attached to this subject. He de
scribed the way in which some schools
are conductisd; the manner of coming into
school and leaving it; also the scholars'
conduct during the day ; and thought it
impossible to study amid such confusion.
" I SEE NO STAR ABOVE THE HORIZON, PROMISING LIGHT TO GUIDE US, BUT THE INTELLIGENT, PATRIOTIC, UNITED WHIG PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES.".
almost impossible •to tell whether it was
recess or study,hours,—some talking, some
laughing, some going out ; and perhaps
a few trying to study. When the exer
cises of the day were over, the word dis
missed was given, and then there was a
general scramble among the scholars, each
trying to be first out of the house. A
school should be dismissed quietly, and
this could be done without much difficul
ty, by dismissing a class at a time; there
was time saved by doing so. There
must always be crowding and disorder
when the whole school is dismissed
Adjourned till Friday 9 o'clock A. M
FRIDAY MORNING SESSION.
Subject for discussion.—Best methods
of securing good recitations.
Mr. Tus'ey said this subject has fre
quently agitated the mind of every teacher
present. How shall we overcome a dislike
for study and beget a thirstfor knowledge ?
How break the habits of indolence and pro
mote industry ? How teach the scholar to
think, reason, and depend on himself? are
questions that must present themselves to
the mind of every faithful teacher. Ile
was not vain enough to suppose he had
anything new to advance, but lie was
happy to know there were others present
who had. The first thing necessary was
in his opinion, that the teacher thoroughly
understands the subjects he tries to teach.
Without this he cannot succeed. It would
be a rare thing to find a teacher interes
ting a class on any subject which lie did
not understand ; whilst even the most il
literate artisan could be interesting explain
ing the principles of the art which lie un
derstands. The teacher if compelled to
resort to the text book for the answers
will always be more or less perplexed,
his manner will be awkward, and his
countenance dull and spiritless. Schol
ars will be quick to notice his deficiency
and their confidence will be diminished.
If a teacher would be interesting he should
review every lessen and thns be enabled
to present thougfits that do not occur in
the order of recitation. A proper classifi
' cation was also of vital importance. In
every school were found scholars of diffe;!
ant capacities. Some would master their
lessons with little difficulty, and others
would not ; and to place two sueh scholars
in the same class was doing one injustice.
The teacher should be acquainted with
the ability of every scholar and make his
classification accordingly. The best ar
rangements would not, however, always
place all the scholars on an equality. If
the lessons assigned are too long the reci
tations would be imperfect and uninteres•
Ling, and the class discouraged. When a
class recites correctly they feel that
they have done something; but if un
successful they lose confidence in them
selves.—Here Mr. T. referred to an inci
dent related by Mr. Page in his "Theory
and Practice of Teaching," setting
forth the evils of what he calls the
drawing out process. This he said might
be an extreme case; but the practice of
helping scholars through prevailed to
some extent, and should be discouraged.
Ifthe scholar knows that the teacher will
help him, ho will not be likely to prepare
himself ; and a child educated in this way
would never make an independent thinker
and sound scholar. The object of educa
tion was not to make the scholar acquain
ted with any amount of facts, but to teach
him to think. The child that has been
taught to think, is educated already ; if
his mind has been properly awakened he
will perform the rest himself. In learn
ing geography he conceived it possible for
a child to be able to answer all the ques
tion in order and yet have a very poor,
idea of the science. Ile believed the ques
tions should be varied and asked promis
cuously. Sketching o n the black-board,
drawing from memory &c., he considered
very useful in fixing the boundaries and
localities of places in the mind. In read
ing lessons he was in the habit of calling
on one of the class to read and allowed the
rest to correct errors. He had also pur
sued the same course in grammar and had
always found scholars interested in cor
recting each others' errors and mistakes.
He was not in favor of the prize system,
believing that its evils more than connter
balanced any good effects attending it; it
gave an undue prominence to an inferior
object; it was not for the prize but for
the sake of acquiring an education that
the child should study. He had, however,
no objection to a system that would re
ward every scholar according to his efforts
and not according to his qualifications.—
' Ile did not believe in rewarding talent ir
respective of effort.
Mr. Eldridge said he thought the law of
HUNTINGDON, PA., WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 31, 1855
--that prizes were generally falling into
Mr. McDivitt was opposed to the prize
system in all its forms; it appeals to the
lower faculties of the mind, awakens a
vain ambition and creates envy. He in
sisted that scholars should be taught to love
learning for its own sake, to study because
it is their dnty and interest to learn; and
be made to feel that these higher and no
bler motives are the only proper incentives
Mr. Baker said that in order to secure
good recitations we must impress the mind
of the scholar with the importance of
knowledge—its advantages in after life.
He reommended conversing with parents
and gaining their good will and co•oppe
ration. When children find the teacher
and parents united and interested, they
generally study well, and as a matter of
course, recite well. Ele had made use of
prizes in some cases to good effect. He
was not so much in favor of them as some,
nor was he altogether opposed to them.
Mr. Brigham said he kept a weekly
account of each scholar's studies, progress,
deportment &c. He had often prevailed
on parents to visit the school, and in this
way had secured good recitations whentO
would otherwise have failed. He had al
so, in extreme cases, called in "Dr. Birch"
for assistance, and to good purpose.
Mr Brown said the most difficult part of
his labor was to. get parents to appreciate
the value of good recitations. When he
could not get the co-operation of parents
he generally dispensed with evening les
sons. He had also tried the plan of keep
ing in scholars after school hours when
they failed in their recitations, but he did
not much approve of this in country
schools. He had used prizes and also the
rod, and found each effectual in some
Mr. Brumbaugh said he had found it ve
ry difficult to secure the co-operation of
parents. He had given up the idea of as
signing night lessons on that account, and
confined the time of study entirely to the
school room and to school hours. Mr. B.
spoke at some length, but unfortunately
his remarks were not reported.
Adjourned till 2 o'clock P. VI.
Prayer by Prof. Tomlin.
Subject of securing good recitations con•
Mr. Benedict said he was not a practical
teacher in the ordinary sense of the term.
He would therefore merely philosophize
on what might be useful. He held that
there is wisdom in a multitude of counsel
lors. In regard to what plan should be
adopted to secure perfect recitations, it
was not for any oue to say. What might
be efficient in some instances would be val.
uless in others It was important he
thought, for the teacher to impress the
child with the idea that he was himself in•
terested in the stndy. There was a hind
of contagion, some sort of mesmeric influ
ence by wnich the minds of teacher and
pupil were drawn together and made to act
in concert. When a teacher thus prevails
on his scholars to think they have the
same desire and intention, then those scho
lars become plastic in his hands, and al
most anything may be effected ; and with.
out this intimate union of mind between
the teacher and the taught, all expedients
must fail to produce the highest results.
[TO DE CONTINUED.]
for tt larnicr.
He that by the plough would thrive,
Himself' must either hold or drive.
From the Progressive Farmer.
TARTAR OR SHANGHAI MEER
DEAR Sut:---Your object being the dis
tribution of the newest information con
nected with the various branches of Ag
riculture; I wish to place at your dispo.
sal a few remarks relative to a new kind
of Sheep recently introduced into this
countrS, which from peculiar habits are
specially adapted to supply the exigencies
frequently offered by the human family.
I refer to the Tarter, or Broad Tailed
Sheep, which from having been brought
directly front Shanghai, have also received
the name of Shanghai Sheep. They
are of good size, with ears drooping for
ward, prominent nose, agreeably expres
sive faces, covered with a short and very,
fine silken hair. The fleece is light, and
best adapted to blankets, and similar wol
len textures. The value of this breed
does not, therefore, consist in the fleece,
but must be sought for in the remarkable
facility it offers to increase the supply
of this kind of animal food almost at pleas
ure, for the ewes have lambs twice a year,
not unfrequently five at a time. .1 have
a ewe which brought three lambs last
February, all of which were raised to ma
turity. About the middle of November
one had two more, and a'. the same time
her two February ewe lambs each brought
a lamb, making her progeny in nine
months no less than seven, all living and
thriving save the Febuary buck, a fine
fellow whose head was cracked in the
sixth month of his age, by the patriarch of
a flock into which he had rashly intruded.
The quality of the mutton is of the
highest order, as every one can attest who
has eaten of it. When in China several
years ago, I was not a little surprised to
find the eagerness exhibited by every one
for mutton, and never did I see a leg
brought upon the table of which any thing
was left but the bone. I attributed this
partiality in a great degree to the high
price of the meat, the cost of which to for
eigners was something like 50 cents per
pound. But I have since been convinced
that whist rarity contributed something
to the flavor, there was still more due the
intrinsic qualities of the meat which is
entirely free from any woolly, or other dis
agreeale taste, and has a delicacy resem
bling Venison. This characteristic of the
mutton of the Tarter Sheep, with the ca
pacity they afford of furnishing lambs at
any time of the year, must make them of
great value to those whose chief objects
is to breed for the shambles.
I have crossed the brced with a good
stock of country sheep, and have about
twenty-five half bloods, pronounced re
markably fine sheep, by alt who have
seen them, being rather larger than the
full bloods, with much better fleeces.—
How they are to turn out in the excellence
of their mutton and prolificqualities remains
to be tasted. Probably they will exceed
common sheep iu the average nurnder of
their lambs, but not equal the full bloods
in their astonishing prolific qualities, and
this to many persons may constitute an
A buck and ewe of 4.. 1 .,e5e half bloods
may be seen at any time through the win
ter and spring at the establishment of Mr,
Aaron Clements, Sauth Street above oth.
A pair of the full bloods was exhibited
at the late State Agricultural Society's
exhibition, and had a premium of $2O a
warded to them. They occupied a stall
very near to the Angola Goats, which at
tracted so much admiration.
Very respectfully Yours, &c.
38 Girard Street Phila.
MY SHIRT BUTTONS.
Flesh and blood cnn stand it no longer !
Driven to the verge of insanity, I will con
fide my case to the public, as from the pub
lic feeling alone I can hope' redress of my
grievance. Tailored man, seedy, and out
at elbows , can get his outer garments
brushed up, or fine drawn, until fortune
presents him with a new suit ; but a semp
stressed man cannot get a button put on
his shirt in these days : No ! no if he
were to crack his heartstrings in the ask.
ing, and were to give his "woman kind"
work boxes of California gold in guerdon,
Driven, as I before remarked, to the very
verge of distraction by my wife's negli
gence, in particular, I feel compelled to
turn social reformer, and prove the truth
of the great poet's aphorism:
"All partial ill is universal good."
Like most other reformers,' my mind
has been led to a consideration of the mag
nitude of the general evil, by having had
a bitter taste of is in my individual lot.
I do not say that my wife is not a good
wife in most respects : She is an excel
lent little woman—a woman of superior
sense and judgement ; and as such is very
much attached to me, and thoroughly ap
preciates my character. She is a very
attentive listener whenever I talk upon
common subjects or read aloud any remar
kable leader from the newspapers. As I
tun a politician she takes an interest in
politics; and enters into all my vi ews
and it is cherming to see the passion
she will get into whenever my speeches
in the vestry are badly reported. Be
sides this, she manages the house very
well, and does look as black as a thun
der cloud, if I happen to bring half a
dozen friends unexpectedly to dinner
when there is nothing but a leg of
mutton. Then she deserved great credit
for her method of bringing up children,
who are decidedy the best behaved I ever
saw in my life. Yes, I do not deny that
in many respects my wife does her duty
thoroughly ; but she does not sew on my
shirt buttons. I can neither coax nor
scold her into remetnbering the matter at
Oh f I'm sorry, I quite forgot it ;" or
Well I never heard of a man who pulls
his buttons off at the rate you do. It must
be done on purpose."
It was only last month that I really lost
a capital stroke of business by the want of
these confounded, beggarly buttons. I
went down upon an important affair to
town to meet a man at nine o'clock the
next morning, and was to decide upon a
purchase, which if made in time would
secure inn a neat hundred. I was called
at eight. Everything I wanted at my
hand, for my wife had packed my carpet
bag with. her usual care—razors, brushes,
my own peculiar soap, clean linen, and
all old minutia' were there. ' , Good crea
ture she is," thought I. "She is really
worth her weight in gold ;" and I was far
gone in the meditation on the economy
and convenience of matrimony, when I
came to a halt suddenly, a change had
come over the spirit of my dream. My
right hand held between my thumb and
four-finger the buttonless wristband of the
left sleeve. Dismayed, I seized the oth
er wristband ; there was a button indeed,
but in the last stage of antamony—one
that would not survive a thrust through
its destined hole. I made a desperate
dash at my throat, and crowning point of
misery ! my finger grasped a wretched
button that hung by a thread, which they
actually lost the power to snap. You
might have knocked me down with that
button. As I threw myself on a chair,
my eye fell on the watch. Five minutes
to nine ! 1 rang the bell furiously. I de
manded of the chambermaid needle, cot.
ton and buttons immediately.
Yes sir; did I not want some break
.No ! no ! no ! Buttons and x being
that can sew them on."
Whole centuries passed, it seemed to
me, and when she was operating upon
my luckless shirt with her clumsy fingers
I sat . like a marty. Solemnly do t pro.
teat that I do not know wheather that
young women was pretty or not; though
in sewing the last button on my collar,
her face was close enough for me to see
(near sighted as I am) that there was a
lurking devil of fun in her eye. Once
she gave me a slight prick with her nee
dle, and when I started she begged my
pardon, adding that it was an " 11l conve
fleecy to have the buttons sewed after a
gentleman had put on his shirt." I gron.
ed ; it was ten minuets past nine. In
vain I hurried through the rest of my toi
let; in vain I rushed like the• north wind
to my rendezvous; I was tpo late, a more
punctual fellow got my bargain. Since
then my wife has not been allowed to for
get that hundred lost ; she does seem not
a little ashamed.
As the only source of discord between
my wife and myself is the one of shirt
bnttons, I am determined to try and revolt
it. Private remonstrance is unwilling;
the thing occurred again this tnorning, and
now I am resolved to effect a radical
cure all over the country. My present
object is to form an Anti-Buttonless Shirt
League, and to agiato a question in every
legal way. We merely ask, at first a fair
account of shirt buttons for a day shirt.—
Afterwards we will assert our rights to
a due number of nightly wearing." In
fuct, this is a question that ought to be
come national since it comes home to every
man's bosom. lam so convinced of the
great prevalence of this evil, and the
strong feeling of discontent it has produced
that I entertain no doubt that these
few words, feeble as they are to "reach the
height of this great argument," will be
like the little -match that tired a train of
RULES FOR THE YEAR.
The following rules arc intended, main
ly for the guidance of young men and coo.
Get married—if you can; but look be.
fore you leap. Love matches are roman
tic—nice things to read about—but they
have brimstone in them, now and then;
so says Ike Marvell,
Go to church regularly if posible, and
under any circutnstaaces at least once a
Circulate no scandal.
Avoid all kinds of spirits— : particularly
Never notice the clothingof persons atten
ding divine worship, nor stand in front of
the house of God after the services.
Never ask another man what his busi
ness is—where he is going to--where he
came from--when ho left—when he in
tends to go back, or the number of his
dollars. You may inquire as to the state
of his health, and that of his parei;ts, sis•
tors and brother=—but venture IN fur.
Defend the innocent, help the poor, and
cultivate a spirit of friendship among your
Never speak disparagingly of women, and
endeavour to conquor all your prejudices.
Belive all persons to be sincere in the roll.
gion which they profess.
Be economical, but not parsimonious nor
niggardly. Make good use'ofour dollars,
but not idols. Live within your means
and never borrow money is anticipation of
The nucleus of our planet in a state of
This, if not an established certainty,
seems to be an opinion so well founded
that it is allowed to pass for one of the
facts in physics. Then, what might have
been the causes, of this state ? 'l'he only
answer which I have seen is that which
may be gathered from such as follows
"Although at the surface the tempera
ture of the earth is solely dependent upon
the radiating power of the sun, yet it is
found that it contains within itself a source
of heat which, in ages excessively remote,
must have retained the general mass of all
the constituents of the mineral globe in ig
neous liquifaction." (American Edition
of Kane's Elements of Chemistry, page
And, . 4 1st. The original and general
fluidity of the mass of our planet appears
to be demonstrated by its form as a spite
roid of rotation. 2d. The increasing tem
perature at increasing depths below the
earth's surface indicates igneous fusion as
the probable cause of this original fluidity
of our nucleus, and infers its continuance
even to the present day. We consider the
lowest granitic rocks of Scandinavia and
Canada as the cooled down masses of the
universal igneous bases. Throghout the
whole process, and at every stage, the un,
dulations of the fused nucleus continued
to shatter the growing crust which vibra
ted on surface; and, as the incumbent
masses shrunk under gradual refrigera
Lion, the pressure thus occasioned must
have operated as an additional force to pro
trude streams and dykes of eruptive gran
itoid lava from the greatcentral reservoir."
(“Geology of Russia," in the London
Quarterly Review for March, 1840.)
Now, granting it to be according to a
predetermined law of nature that a ball of
fire, of the dimensions indicated, all at
once starts whirling in its orbit, and ques
tioning not at all the legitimacy of the
agents which are to bring about the cool
ing, what is going to be the result of the
matter? refrigeration that was then
going on is going on still, and will contin
ue to go on towards the centre, till our
poor planet shall have frozen completely
up, sealed as solid as the Book of Fate.
And, afterward, how is coining to pass
that event in expectation of which the
whole world is waiting—the conflagration
spoken of in 'Scripture ? To be sure, it
is in the power of Him who has created
the universe to call into existence means
sufficient for this end, means which shall
be expressly for the accomplishment of it.
It is possible for him so to order things—
rather, so to break up the order of things--
that the ,4 fiery overthrow" shall come
through the instrumentality of electricity,
[Dick,] or through that of a comet, placed
in ambush upon the path of the unweary
Earth, to rob her of her nitrogen [Poe.]
But the Creator has nut to resort to expe
dients for the carrying out of his plans.
He works by a rule. There has not been,
and there will not be, a movement in the
machinery of the universe that had not its
spring set in the beginning.
My hypothesis: The Sun is a burning
body, front which has sprung the matter
which composes the Earth, as well as that
composing the other bodies of the solar
system. This matter was originally in
the gaseous form. 13y an action among
its particles—an action brought with it
from its source, and which may be liken
ed to that now employed in producing
r ain, snow, aerolites, and such---a nucleus
collected, which nucleus continued to ga-.
titer to itself matter from the gaseous mass,
till it became the Earth, with form and
not void--•the Earth, a spheroid of rota
tion, with its diversified surface and its
The rotation had its beginning at the
union of the two first molechles in the fas
hioning of the nucleus.
The increase of the body commenced and
continued particularly in the direction of
the motion out of which grew this rotation
—that is, front the centre towards the
equator, rather than towards the poles ;
hence a spheroid instead of a-ephere.
As the process of formation went on,
new actions and combinations of actions
came about, which gave different arrange-
VOL. 20. NO. 5.
ing the diversity in form, color, and quali
ty of the materials composing the Earth.
By further combinations and modifica
tions of motion vegetable and animal orga-
nisms became at length developed—vege.
tables with their power of growth and lia
bility to decay, and animals with their
springs of life and their seeds of death.
Again the Sun is the source of all these.
Ire has acted in the up-building of the
majestic Earth, has brought to her life and
beauty and gladness: The same Sun will
be the agent for the Earth's overthrow.
His heat, falling upon the surface, is
transmitted inward in virtue of theconduc
ting power of the ground ; and thus, each
summuter, a thin layer of elevated temper
ature moves inward," (Kane's Chemistry
page 106;) which heal, accumulating at
the centre, has resulted in the igneous
liquefaction of our nucleus, and which
will result ultimately in the melting of
this elements and in the passing away of
the earth as a scroll.
CI, W. EVELETIT
SPEECH OF SACRARIA SPICER,
Chi the question, " Which enjoys thu
greatest umount of happiness, the bache
lor br the married man 1"
Mr. President and Gentlemen—l rise
to advocate the cause of the married man.
And why should I not? I claim to khow
something about the institution, I do.—
Will any gentleman pretend to say that I
do not ? Let hint accompany me home.
Let me confront hint with my wife and
seventeen children, and decide,
High as the Rocky Mouniaina tower
above the Mississippi Valley, does the
character of the =tried man tower about
that of the bachelor? What was Adant
before he got acquainted with Eve
What but a poor,, shiftless, helpless, in
significant creature ? No more to be com
pared with his after-self, titan a mill-dam
to the great roaring cataract of Niagara.
Gentlemen, there was a time, I blush to
say it, when I too was a bachelor; and a
mote miserable creature you would hard.
ly expect to find. Every day I toiled
hard, and at night I cnme home to my
comfortless garret—ca carpet, no tire, no
nothing. Everything was
and in the words of r.!:e poet
in a clutter.
Confusion wns monarch of all he surveyed.
Here lay a pair of pants, there a dirty gait
of boots, there a play-bill, and here a pile
of dirty clothes. IVhat wonder that I
took, refuge at the gaming -table and bar-
roan. I found it would never do, gentle.
men, and in a lucky moment I vowed to
reform. Scarcely had the promise passed
my lips, when a knock was heard at tho
door, and in caste Susan Simpkins after
my dirty clothes.
Mr. Spicer," says site, I've washed
fur you six months, and I haven't seen the
first red cent in the way of payment.—
Now I'd like to know what you are going
to do about it ?"
I felt in my pocket-book. There was
nothing in it, and I knew it well enough.
Miss Simpkins," said I, "it's no use
denying it. I haven't got the pewter.—
I wish for your sake I had."
"There," said she promptly, " I don't
wash another rag for you."
" Stop," said I, " Susan ; I will do what
I can for you. Silver and gold have I
none; but if my heart and hand will do,
they are at your service."
" Are you in earnest I" says she look-
ing a little suspicious.
"Never more so," says I.
" hen," says she, "as there seems tp
be no prospect of getting my pay any
other way, I guess, I'll take up with your
Enough said. We were married in a
week; and what's more, we haven't repen
ted it. No more antics for me, gentle.
men. I live in a good house, * and have
somebody to mend my clothes. When I
was a poor miserable bachelor, gentlemen,
I used to be as thin as a weasel, Now I
am as plump as a porker.
In conclusion, gentlemen, if you want
to be a poor ragged devil, without a coat
to your back, or a shoe to your foot; if
you want to grow old before your time,
and as uncomfortable, generally, as a
g' hedge- hog rolled up the wrong way,"
I advise you to remain a bachelor; but if
you want to live decently and respectably,
get married. I've got ten daughters, gen.
denten, [overpowering applause,] and you
may have your pick.
Mr. Spicer sat down amid long contin
ued plaudits. The generous proposal
which he concluded secured him five sons
M if you doubt whether you should
kiss a girl, give her tho beuefit of thedoubt,
and ••go ''