Huntingdon journal. (Huntingdon, Pa.) 1843-1859, January 31, 1844, Image 1

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    111J - \TINGDO)
Othotcli to general Intelligente, abint•ttotitg, VoLitt co, litteriltitxr, raoratito, 3rto, Zcit afgr trulturc, 3lnamonettt, szr„ szr.
N.V"cmLl. ZIN;M o 45'clz , . eSa.
ta.,,Estrz , ucta,sts.
The ...lorritTrAL" will be published every Wed
ttesday morning, at $2 00 a year, if paid in advance,
and if not paid within six months, $2 50.
No subscription received for a shorter period than
six months, nor any paper discontinued till all ar
rearages arc paid.
Advertisements not exceeding one square, will be
inserted three times for $1 00, and for every subse
quent insertion 25 cents. If no definite orders are
given as to the time an advertisement is to be continu
ed, it will be kept in till ordered out, and charged ac
Rates of Diacount in Philadelphia.
ranks in Philadelphia.
Bank of North America
Bank of the Northern Liberties - p a r
Bank of Penn Township - par
Commercial Bank of l'enn'a. - par
Farmers' & Mechanics' bank - - par
Kensington bank - - - par
Schuylkill bank - - - par
Mechanics' bank - - - par
Philadelphia bank - - - par
Southwark bank - - par
Western back - - - par
Moyamensing bank - - - par
Manufacturers' and Mechanics bank par
Bank of Pennsylvania - - - par
Girard bank - - - - 10
Bank of the United States - 22
Country Banks.
Bank of Chester co. Westchester par
Bank of Delaware co. Chester par
Bank of Germantown Germantown par
Bank of Montg'ry co. Norristown par
Doylestown bank Doylestown par
Easton Bank Easton par
Farmers' bk of Bucks co. Bristol par
Bank of Northumberl'd Northumberland par
Honesdale hank Honesdale 1*
Farmers' bk of Lanc. Lancaster 1*
Lancaster bank Lancaster 4
Lancaster county bank' Lancaster 4
Bank of Pittsburg Pittsburg 1*
Merelets' & Manuf. bk. Pittsburg *
Exchange hank Pittsburg f t
Do. do. branch of Hollidaysburg
Col'a bk & bridge co. Columbia 4
Franklin batik Washington li
Monongahela bk of B. Brownsville 1*
Farmers' bk of Reading Reading 4
Lebanon bank Lebanon 24
Bank of Middletown Middletown 14
Carlisle bank Carlisle 1 i
...I% Dank Yak l
Harrisburg bank ,
Harrisburg li
Miners' bk of Pottsville Pottsville li
Bank of Susquehanna co. Montrose 35
Farmers' & Drovers' bk Waynesborough 3
Bank of Lewistown Lewistown 2
Wyoming bank Wilkesbarre 2
Northampton bank Allentown no sale
Berks county bank Reading no sale
West Branch bank Williamsport 10
Towanda bank Towanda 90
Rates of Relief Notes.
Northern Liberties, Delaware County, Far
mers' Bank of Bucks, Germantown par
All others - - - - - 1a 11
Huntingdon, Pennsylvania,
vOULD most respectfully inform the
citizens of this county, the public
generally, and his old friends and customers
in particular, that he has leased for a term
of years, that large and commodious building
on the West end of the Diamond, in the bo
rough of Huntingdon, formerly kept by An
drew H. Hirst, which he has opened and
furnished as a Public House, where every
attention that will minister to the comfort
and convenience of guests will always be
will at all times be abundantly supplied with
the best to be had in the country.
lgasm =3Gaze
'will be furnished with the best of Liquors,
HIS 5T1341E1.711;
is the very best in the borough, and will
always be attended by the most trusty, at
tentive and experienced ostlers.
Mr. Couts pledges himself to make every
exertion to render the " Franklin House" a
home to all who may favor bun with a call.
Thankful to his old customers for past favors,
he respectfully solicits a continuance of their
Boarders, by the year, month, or week,
will be taken on reasonable terms.
Huntingdon, Nov. 8. 1843.
The subscriber is now prepared to furnish
every description of CHAIRS, from the
plain kitchen to the Most splendid and fash
ionable one for the parlor. Also the
n which the feeble and afflicted invalid,
though unable to .walk even with the aid of
crutches, may with ease move himself from
room to room, through the garden and in
the street, with great rapidity.
Those who are about going to housekeep
ing, will find it to their advantage to give
him a call, whilst the Student and Gentle
man of leisure are sure to find in his newly
invented Revolving Chair, that comfort
which no other article of the kind is capable
of affording. Country merchants and ship
pers can be supplied with any quantity at
short notice.
No. 113 South Second street, two doors
below Dock, Philadelphia.
May 311, 1843.-1 yr.
ucr:srszmfialcaariDcz)zg e EMU * C1E8341410
Late of Cromwell township, Huntingdon
county, deceased.
Notice is hereby given that letters of ad
ministration upon the said estate have been
grar.ted to the undersigned. All persons
having claims or demands against the same
are requested to make them known without
delay, and all persons Indebted to make im
mediate payment to
JOHN R. HUNTER, .4dm'r.
Nov. 15, 1843.-6 t. Cromwell tp.
Estate of Margaret Clayton,
Late of West township Huntingdon
county deceased.
Notice is hei eby given, that letters testa
mentary upon the will of said dec'd have been
granted to the undersigned. All persons
indebted to said estate are requested to make
immediate payment, and those having claims
or demands against the same are requested
to present them duly authenticated for set
clement, to
Nov. 29, 1843.
To Farmers and Capitalists.
The tract of land near Brewster's Tannery,
in Shirley township, called the "Roberts
Farm," containing two hundred and eighty
acres more or less, seventy or eighty of
which are cleared, with a house, a barn,
Grist Mill with two run of Stones,
and a saw mill thereon, about three miles
from the town of Shirleysburg, is offered
for sale. Farmers who wish to purchase a
farm for themselvesor their sons are invited
to examine the "Roberts Farm." If not
sold at private sale, this farm will be offered
at public outcry at the court house, in Hunt
ingdon, on Thursday the 27th day of Janu
ary, 1844.
For further particulars inquire of the sub
scriber at Huntingdon.
ISAAC FISHER, Attorney and
agent of Martha Pennock, the owner.
Dec. 20,1843.
Ibr Sale or Rent.
The undersigned will either sell or lease
on tavorable terms, that tract of fand situ
ate in West township, Huntingdon county,
near the mouth of Murrays Run, adjoining
lands of John Stewart, Nathan Gorsuch and
others containing about
of which about 50 are cleared, with a small
hewed log house and barn thereon, the same
being about two miles distant from the. Warm
ling or leasing the same. Possession will be
given on the Ist of April next.
Dec. 27, 1838.
Thomas M'Namara and Samuel Royer,
lately trading under the firm of M'Namara
& Royer, at Portage Iron Works, and
George W. M'Bride, Samuel Royer and
Thomas M'Namara, lately trading under
the firm of M'Bride, Royer &co, at said
Works, having by deed of assignmf at bear •
ing date the 10th day of May, 1842, record
ed in the same month in the Recorder's
office in and for Huntingdon county in record
book C No. 2, pages 492 &c.,
assigned and
transferred to the undersigned all debts and
claims due and owing to the said late firms,
at or on account of said Portage Iron Works
in trust for payment of creditors of said late
firms; all petsons are hereby required to
make immediate settlement with and pay
ment to the undersigned, of any and all
debts and claims due and owing to either of
the said late firms at said works; and all
persons are hereby notified and warned not
to flay any debts or claims due and owing to
either of the said late firms at said Works,
to any person or persons whatever, but to
the undersigned or one of them or their duly
authorized attorney.
Portage Iron Works, Deo 20, 1843.
w i t E rm su tn b e sc c r i i t t i o z e e r ns w or
i p tii r g e d c o t n fu a l n ly in
adjoining counties, that lie still continues to
carry on business at the Rockdale Foundry,
on Clover Creek, two miles from Williams
burg, where he is prepared to execute all
orders in his line, of the best materials and
workmanship, and with promptness and de
He will keep constantly on hand stoves of
every description, such as
COettina, Ern Watt,
Parlor, Coal, Rotary, Cooking and
Wood Simms:
Livingston Ploughs,
Anvils, Hammers, Hollow Ware
and every kind of castings necessary for for
ges. mills or machinery of any description ;
wagon boxes of all descriptions, ect., which
can be had on as good terms as they can be
had at any other foundry in the county or
state. Remember the Rockdale Foundry.
Jan. 11th 1843.
'?LE'® Uacs•tt.
The Washington Hotel, In the borough of
Bellefonte, now in the tenure tf George
Armstrong, will be let for a term of years,
from the first day of April next, It is the
old stand kept by the late Evan Miles, in
his life time, for upwards of twenty-five
years, and is one of the best in the interior
of Pennsylvania. Apply to the subscriber in
Bellefonte, Centre county.
Dec. 27, 1843.
I ,
The following song was written (by request)
for the West Cheater Clay Club, by Towwaosn
Our country spreads out far and wide,
From mountain top to ocean's tide,
And mighty states lie side by side,
In peaceful happy union ;
O'er all our border. wide and free,
All our borders,
All our bonier.,
O'er all our borders wide and free,
In brotherly communion ;
O'er all our borders wide and free
A noble, patriot band agree
To guard their chartered liberty,—
Our glorious Constitution.
Our fathers gave the sacred scroll;
Wrenched from the despot's stern control,
With bloody hands, but noble soul,
In dreadful revolution;
And cherished be its spotless page,
And cherished be,
And cherished be,
And cherished be its spotless page,
Whilst rivers run to ocean,
And cherished be its spotless page,
From Vandal hands and faction's rage,
As time rolls on from age to age,
Our glorious Constitution.
Let demagogues exert their force,
To sway it from its destined course,
Its choicest social rights coerce,
And spread around confusion;
The gallant Whigs in firm array,
The gallant Whigs,
The gallant Whigs,
The gallant Whigs in firm array,
With noble resolution;
The gallant Whigs in firm array,
With fearless, generous Hetliy Clay,
Will right its wrongs—direct its way,—
Our glorious Constitution.
What though the storms of strife arise,
And thunders roll along the skies,
And loud, and fierce ascend the cries,
Of treason and disunion ;
With old Kentucky's statesman true,
Old Kentucky,
Old Kentucky,
With old Kentucky's statesman true,
We fear no dissolution;
vv". 1 12 I Lrettgyzift6ateelosativadbr
Though Loco Focos rule the hour,
Like demons with malignant power,
And change a nation's richest dower,
To haggard destitution;
We'll raise our banner broad and high,—
Raise our banner,
Raise our banner,
We'll raise our banner broad and high,
. .
Inscribed with retribution;
We'll raise our banner broad and high,
And spread its stars along the sky,
And " sink or swim"—and " live or die,"
By our glorious Constitution.
From the Democratic Review.
Mos•r books of travels in foreign countries abound
in details about kings and palaces, lords and ladies,
but say nothing of the condition of the peasantry;
that class of mankind by whose humble labors the
rest are fed. Nor can just information be had from
citizens casually met in public vehicles, taverns, or
steamers. To understand the subject, I was, there
fore, compelled to enter their cottages and examine
for myself, in all the states of Europe through which
I passed, especially in England, where I resided, at
intervals, more than twenty months.
When I first saw that beautiful England, its
roads, bridges, hedges, hill and valley, field and for
est; the green earth sprinkled with cottages, to
which the still greenering clung: hero, thought I,
happiness has fixed her earthly home. Yet an oc
casional glance at the interior of their houses on
the nearer approach of the vehicle, and the aspect
of the ragged children about the doors, filled me
with distrust.
Being told that the peasantry, here called labor
ers, lived in great abundance and content in Somer.
setshire, thither I set wit from London in Novem
ber, in 1842, by the Southampton railway to Win
chester, where I took a seat, about sunset, in a
coach for Wincanton.
The interior of an English coach is a prison
house, where a man of ordinary stature cannot
stretch his limbs nor look out upon the country
through its narrow, ill-contrived window. The
French Diligence is greatly to be preferred; though
uncouth and clumsy, they are more comfortable and
safe, and move with equal speed. The seats are
all under cover; whereas the English are perched
on the outside upon naked wooden benches,—flan
ked with small iron rods that chafe and cut the
flesh, exposed to the unceasing ruins and chilly
winds of their remorseless climate. Their exac
tions upon tmvellen; are, moreover so enormous, that
the third classes, as they are called, are glad to com
pound for mere transportation, like the cattle in their
steamers and rail cars, with whom they aro often
seen in close alliance.
Our progress was suddenly arrested by a wagon
aunk to the axle in the soft, chalk• earth of a new'
ly-made road, through which we waded on foot more
than half a mile, leaving the empty vehicle to be
dragged by the horses. One of the ladies, a pretty,
fragile, creature, was so overcome by exposure to the
weather, that the guard, touched with compassion,
transferred her to the inside, where a kind gentleman
and myself restored her to speech by rubbing her
hands and throwing our cloaks about her half fro
zen limbs.
We arrived at Wincanton at six o'clock in the
morning, when the guard presented himself for his
usual bonus. I followed the example of my neigh
bor and gave hint a half-crown, and two shillings
more to the driver, making altogether one dollar and
five cents tax upon each traveller, independently of
the fare, which Is fifty per cent. higher than in any
other country of Europe.
At ten o'clock, I hired a carriage, and, accompa
nied by two gentlemen, went three miles to Stoney
Stoke and Shepton Montagu, two villages in which
the laborers are clustered in considerable numbers.
I addressed myself to an elderly woman, one of the
principal persons among them, who, for eight-pence
—which shs said was a day's wages—undertook to
be my guide. She was regarded with much con
sideration wherever she appeared, for she was rich,
having a better furnished house than her neighbors,
more cups and saucers and plates of crockery, five
or six chairs, a good deal table, two beds of dust,
that is oat chaff, a cat and a pig. She was the
mother of three children, whose labor brought some
thing to the common stock; her husband received
nine shillings a week, and she tasted meat three
days out of sewn.
In the second cottage we visited, there were six
in family, scantily fed upon potatoes and'salt, with
an occasional loaf of white bread. Tho mother's
time being bestowed mostly upon her infant children
that multiplied rapidly about her, they were main
tained by the husband alone, whose infirmities pre
vented him from earning more than six shillings
per week.
The floor was of broad ill-assorted stone; the
roof of straw; the interior whitewashed and the
exterior of a yellowish hue ; the walls as are those
of most English cottages, being built of rough
stone, having ono room below, twelve or fifteen
feet square, and another above stairs of the same
dimensions, but low and inconvenient from the de
pression of the roof. The earth round about look
,' rrrpon and imilina in Nosamluir.. ana t tpe.coof
it was, within, the abode of poverty and destitution.
The children were huddled together in a corner of
the chimney striving to kindle a fire with sticks
picked up under the hedges, to boil a dinner of tur
nips, the entire plant being cut up root and top,—
and seasoned with lard. The mother spoke with
some emotion when she alluded to the scants of her
children, which she could not relieve. I asked per
mission to go up stairs; she hesitated; my guide
shook her head, and I desisted. She afterwards told
me that the filth and stench were insupportably of
fensive; hut on explaining my motive, she made no
opposition to a similar request.
Here, as everywhere else, I purchased a welcome
by distributing a few pence among the children and
occasionally putting a piece of silver into the hands
of the mothers.
I entered a third cabin. Here the green eart h
smiled again, as did the modest furze and glossy
holly, that felt not the approach of winter. The
floor was much like the first. Near the middle sat
the mother peeling:potatoes, which she threw into a
pot at her side half filled with water. I introduced
myself on every occasion by saying, that I came
from beyond the seas, and wished to inform my
countrymen how the laborers lived in England.—
Sixpence brought forth willing answers to interrog
atories which I put without stint.
'How many children have you?' Eight,'—
What did they feed upon this morning I' Pota
toes.' What will you give them for dinner
These potatoes you see me peeling.' 'Nothing
else ?' 'No; nothing else. Have you no meat,
no milk, no butter for them?' She made no reply,
fixed her eyes upon them and sobbed aloud. But
her countenance suddenly brightened into a smile,
and she said with a clear voice, Thank God, salt
is cheap.' But her joy was a transient beam, for
her eyes again overflowed as she showed me her
eldest daughter fourteen years of age, whom she
made rise to her feet. Her tattered garments scarce
ly concealed her sex ; it left her bare to the knees
behind,—while it dangled to the ground in front.—
She blushed deeply, for want had not extinguished
the modesty of nature, as her mother drew aside the
rags that covered her snowy skin. These,' said
she, are all the clothes my child has ; she cannot
go to school in them; besides, she is obliged to stay
at home to take care of the children. "Phis was
palpably true, for her wasted form tottered under a
burden that would soon add another inmate to this
abode of misery.
The other children were grouped near the elder
sister, sitting on the naked hearth. Their little
hands and feet were red with cold: their features
were set in melancholy : they were not playful, as
become their innocent years: no, it has been truly
said, that the children of the English poor know no
childhood Sorrow begins with life; they are dis
ciplined to privation from the cradle. From the
cradle did I any 1--I saw no cradle, and I verily be
lieve that such a luxury was never known by the
child of an English laborer.
In the corner of the chimney was an old man,
sitting on his haunches, putting faggots to a fire in
tended to boil the potatoes. Who is that?' 'lt
is old Mr. -, he has no home, and we lets him
stay with us.' He was eighty-three years of age,
and partook with the children his portion of potatoes
and salt.
I asked one of the little girls, where was the cat?
The mother answered, they had none, . for a cat
must cat.' . Have you a dog ?' 'No, we cannot
keep a dog; besides he disturbs the game.' 'But
you have a cock to crow for day 1' . No, we have
I felt a sort of horror come over me at the absence
of these animals, sacred to every [household—the
cat, the companion 'and pastime of little children;
the dog, the well tried, trusty friend of man; the
cock whose joyous song hails the coming day—yet
poverty, that bitter blighting curse, has expelled
even these from the cottage of the English peasant.
< Can your husband read V <I es, he can read
the easy parts of the Bible.' < Can you read V—
< No, I never went to school.'
'How many apartments are there in your housel'
' Two, one below and another above.' May Igo
up Maim?' She was evidently unwilling: my
guide gave me a discouraging look I persevered,
and ascended a dirty, rickety flight of steps to a
chamber, where the whole family slept: near a
narrow broken window, stood a wooden frame on
four legs, on which were laid transverse laths that
supported a bed of oat-chaff, sewed up in a dirty
tattered sack, over which was spread a coarse well
en sheet almost black ; upon this lay two pillows of
straw, and a thick striped coverlet worn into holes.
Another sack of chaff lay on the floor in a corner,
over which was stretched a sort of blanket torn to
rags. Here slept all the children, except the two
youngest, who lay with their parents. The fate of
the old man at night was not made known to Inc.
nor did I inquire.
The furniture of the apartment below consisted
of a stool, on which the mother sat; a box occupied
as a seat by the eldest daughter; two broken chairs,
unsafe for either my guide or myself; fourteen or
fifteen articles of crockery of fractured plates, sau
cers and cups; a tea-pot; two or three small iron
vessels for cooking, and a board table, sustained by
diagonal bars fastened with nails. On the wall, un
der a broken piece of plate glass, hung a white nap
kin, fringed at bottom, the only testimonial of neat
ness that poverty could afford. The whole chattel
"VrtrYinif tOtrigtriff
lives, i§ allotted to the English laborer. In Ameri
ca, other houses of some sort appertain to the hum
blest dwelling of man. The horse, mule, donkey
or cow, has its stable, whose loft is well stored with
provender . . Hard by is a meat-house, where hangs
unprotected by bolt or bar, many a brood side of
bacon, ham, or shoulder, in r'serve for a rainy day
or the arrival of a friend, with other eatables of ev
ery name and nature, in pot, jar and pan. Here
the good housewife, enters on proper occasions by a
door not much larger than herself, and forth comes
an abundance that would feed an entire village of
English laborers. The fowls too have their house,
from whose broad beam the cock flings his joyous
notes to the distant hills. Nor is the dog forgotten:
being fed to repletion. he doses all day in his kennel,
vigorous and refreshed for the vigils of the night.
There is also a contrivance unknown to architec
ture, called a crib, whence the native maze may be
takers without stint: next the modest milk-house,
whose floor is dug out of the earth, watered by a
fountain and strewed with a basin and crock of
milk and butter, sheltered and amply secured by a
covering of hoards, which 1 nger never drives men
to break through and steal. ast and least may be
seen, just above the ground, a p mmid of straw and
clay, beneath which is conceale a winter's store of
that delicious plans, never tasted by our English
friend, the sweet potatce.
The dwelling house, for so the proprietor calls
the cabin in the West that shelters his family, is
often built of logs, between which the winds whis
tle, raising clouds of ashes'lhat sometimes expel
the inmates, yet the walls are well garnished with
wearing and bed apparel; the table is loaded with
plenty,•anikin his right, hand is a vote that tells in
Congress. He is thdowner of the land he culti
vates,—down to the centre of the earth, and when
he grows rich, as he certainly will, ho may build
his castle ad coeltan, as lawyers say, for ho is mas
ter also of all above the surface. Ho sows Isis
fields to eat the fruit thereof, and with the overplus
ho would gladly feed his hungry relations in En
gland, if their oppressors would permit him. He is
a political economist, not according to M'Cullough
or Say, but practically ; for he knows when Isis in
dustry yields more than he spends, and by applying
the same rule to his neighbors and the nation, he
ascertains with arithmentical certainly on which side
the balances incline. His private interest being link
ed with the public good, he takes the same part in
elections and the enactment of laws, that he does in
the administration of his own household. lie lives
under institutions for which there is no precedent its
history; a social partnership, not of money, but of
equal rights, in which every one has share and
share alike. It is a contrivance altogether new in
politics, and as truly American as is the navigation
of the seas by fire and steam.
In England, there are five millions that cultivate
the earth, and six that labor in the mauufatories,
who have no Aare in the government, or a hut to
shelter them from the winds. Goaded almost to
madness by privation and want, they are always
reedy to overturn that government to which they
tir. - Vaaca)licip
can owe no allagiance. Every movement is to
wards revolution ; whereas in America, the discon
tent of the people can never proceed to dangerous
excesses ; men will not lay waste their own pos
sessions, or put violent hands on institutions which
they con amend or abrogate at will.
I visited eleven cottages whose condition differed
only in the degree of wretchedness. Their wants
seemed, in every instance, to be aggravated by the
number of children. The last I entered bore an
impression of comfort and neatness. The couple
had not been long married ; the wife was at the
wash-tub near the fire, on which was a pet contain
ing flesh. She wore a white cap, stood slip-shed
without stockings, though the weather was humid
and cold. The walls were whitewashed, and the
jagged, uneven floor bore marks of good housewife
ry. The cups and saucers. pots, chairs and table,
were sufficient for an humble family of only two.—
There bed was of chaff, but clean, turd presented
the only white sheet I saw. The fruits of their
joint labor were spent upon themselves, yet they
' could feed on meat but four days in the week. They
had a pig, the second I saw in the village; but neith
er eat nor dog. Her husband, she said, could rend ;
L and as I held out the prayer-book taken from the
L , shelf, she said she read it often.
The wages of the laborer in England are higher
in the north, decreasing towards the south until
they fall to seven shillings per week. Their writers
on statistics fix the average amount throughout the
realm, at eight-and-sixpence, of which one-end-six
pence is weekly paid for cottage-rent, leaving only a
shilling a day for the maintenance, clothing, fuel
and education of the entire family. Their destitu
tion is, therefore, no matter of surprise, for. with
that sum, it is impossible they should subsist without
the charities provided by the care and bounty of the
The appearance of a stranger and the nature of
his visit brought me to the acquaintance of the far
mers who rent the lands of the proprietors end em
ploy laborers to cultivate them. They hold the
middle state, between the lordly great and humbly
poor. They received me with great kindness in
their houses, which are better supplied with con
veniences, but not as many of the luxuries of life,
as are found in a log-cabin in Kentucky.
On their table was usually a joint of mutton or
swine's flesh, sometimes a fowl, potatoes or cabbage,
ktilinte4i.vhca4 axiikalme@mficisimiiiol.449.Y.o:
to the history of their own kings, and the reading of
newspapers, which they obtain at second hand.
At the return of the season, the struggle is so
great among the farmers to obtain lands, that the
price of rent is enhanced beyond their ability to pay.
One of them told me there were forty-two competi
tors for those he cultivated ; that the proprietors op
pressed the farmers, who, in turn,drove the laborers to
the verge of starvation, and that half the population
would emigrate to America if they could pay their
passage across the seas.
A candidate for parliament stated that all the
arable lands in England were owned by thirty
three thousand proprietors. I called on the officers
of the Statistical Society, in St. Martin's Lane, in
London, to ascertain the truth of this statement.—
At their request I committed certain interrogatories
to writing, which they said should be answered
when the result of the census, then in the press,
were known. Three months thereafter they told me
that the statistics of Erighuid did not afford the in
formation required. A similar statement was after
wards made by a member of parliament; as it was
never contradicted, it may be regarded as true, that
the cultivable lands front which the English are fed
belong mainly to thirty-three thousand persons.—
The chief among them are the members of parlia
ment and the hereditary nobility, born to power as
well as to riches. They have established a code of
laws for their own benefit, the moat inhuman known
in the annals of legislation. Not only aro there
own estates exempt front general taxation, but the
cultivation of them is forced upon the people by
prohibiting the importation of every article of food
from abroad. The poor laborer is at their mercy;
from them he receives his bread ; his wife and chil
dren must be fed on such terms as they prescribe.
There is no escape; ignorant and destitute, he cul
-1 not take refuge in foreign countries where his proud
oppressor cannot pursue. He is starved to
the lowest point of endurance; yet life is spared.—
Sufficient strength to till the earth is kept up by
gruel and potatoes, provided by the poor laws or the
landlords themselves, as oats are given to ,horses
that they may bear the burthens heaped upon their
backs. There is policy in oppression ; if the cords
were drawn too tight the poor peasant would die,
and the greediness of the rich would consume
All communications from lord to tenant are re
ceived with the moat degrading servility. The
poor man is half annihilated; with cap in hand,
body bent, down-cast eyes, he articulates uncea
singly, my lord ; yes. my lord ; no, my lord; your
lordship—with an awe due to divinity rather than
The slave in the Carolinas is not so humble in
the presence of his ruasier. Ito simply replies, yes,
air; no, sir; often indulges in the treo expression oi
opinion; and, in many families, his commuications
are on terms of equality. He is, indeed, the prop
erty of a master, but is well fed; and even his dogs.
Joler and Towner, often devour snore flesh in a day
titan an English laborer eats in a week.
He cultivate. a patch of sweet potatoes and other