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Message . from the President ylthe United State's,
to the two' ',louses of Congress, at the eon:-
meneenrent of the third. session of the 'twenty
Or TILE SENATE
AC , iD,HOUSE OF RENIF.,SEIiTATINT.H
I congratulate Yeu on the 'favorable eiroum.
stances' w the condition of our country, under
Which you reassemble fir the perform:l nee of
=your-o(liciraldilties., Though . . the_ anticiptworai
of ari'abundaut harvest - have , not every wheid
~been realized; yet, on the‘whole, the labors of
the husbandman arc rewarded with' a bountiful
return ; indtistry prospers_ in its various chan
nels of business and enterprise ; general health
again prevails through, our, vast, Aiversity of ,
mato; nothing_threatens_frem abroad, the ed . /7
tinuanco of exernaipeace; Mar has may thing
'at home impaired.the strength ; of, those frater:
•nal and dotneatie tics which constitute'the only
guaranty to the success and permanency --of our
• -happy Driipui andlthiebi formed-in the hour of
- peril; 'live hitherto been - honorably sustained
through every vicissitude in- our tuitional affairs,
' • These blessings, which evince the care and be..
nelicence'of Providence, calitbr our dcvout•and
fervent gratitude. • --;••••
• We have not less reason to be grateful for
• ..other bounties bestourl•bythe sameinunificent
hand, and - inOroutchisiVely our own. -
•• The present year closes tli&• first -halrcen
fury of our'Vederaf institutions; and - ', - our sys:
• tem—differing - froin all Others in tliVelthoW
ledged, practical,:and unlimited operatiltnwhielv
it hai for soThing d mina given to the save: .
iiiighty of the people = -4as•now been
• The Constitution 'devised.tip:our_forefathers
. . ,
as the framework and bond of-- thatrsysterni
.--- thenuntriedi has become -a settled form. of Pp-
Vernrrient;" not. only preservinz„and protecting
the great principles upon whielt'it was thunded,.
but wondcrfully'prornotimr ' individual happiness
and . - private interests. Though subject - to
• ebaege 'and entire revocation; Whenever deemed
inadequate to all theSe purposes, yet such
wildorn of its -construction, and so - stable - bus
.beeii the public sentiment, that it unal
_ tered, except in matters of tided, comparatively
unimportant It has proved. amply suflicien
for the • various. emergencies :incident to our
condition as a nation.- A famidablc fore ig n
Av a ; r!,;* tati ng colliSons between domestie . and,
in some respects, rival sovereignties, temptations
to interfere - in - the intestine commotions of
• neighboring countries; the dangerous influence
that arise in periods . bf excessive - prosperity; and .
tlrc anti-republican _tendencies of_ associated
Wealth—these, with other trials not -less
dable, all been encountered, and thus fir
- successfully resisted.
. It was reserved,for the American Union to
test the advantages of a Government entirely
dependent on the continual exercise of thepopu ,
tar will; and our experience has shown that ilia
as bencircent in practice as it is jnst in Theory.
:Each successive change made in our local/ins
.• tutions has contributed' to extend the right of
--- , - , -sulibag,e c has—increasetlic — direct -- influence - of
• the mass of community, given greater free
' ,_domto_hidikinatexertion, and restricted, more
•' and more the powers. of Government; yet the
intelligenee, prudence, :and patriotism of the
people have kept paceAvitli this augmented re
sponsibility: ' In'no Country has educaticin been,
so, widely diffused. - Domestic peace has no
--', 'Whero - so - largetyzeigned; , ;The - cloSc --bondS-'of
social-intercousse have in no instance prevailed
-• • with such harmony over Li space so yast. All.
forms of religion have united, for the' first time,
to diffuse charity and piety, bezatfse, tbr the first
timein - thelaistorY of nations, all have been to. -
tally untrammelled , and abso utely free. The
- deepest recesses - of . the :wild mess' have been
penetrated ; - -yet, - in.steadrofi tile rudeness in the.
' • social conditiOn consequent upon, iteli.„,ariVen.-
' tures -elsewhere,: numerous communities hive
• • sprung pp, already unrivalled in prosperity;
, general intelligence, internal tranquillity; and
- - the -wisdo
i; , k ement, the fruit of individual inter:
prise, fo's red by the protection of the, States,
-- - ;--has -- ndded - new:links — to -- the - confidenition, and
fresh rewards to provident indu . stry. Dont)
,domestic• policy have been
. quietly settled by, mudual.forboarance; and agri
culture, commerce, and manufactures, minister
to' each other, . Taxation and, public debt, the
' burdens ‘ellich 'boar so heavily upon all 'other
countries, have preSsed with comparative light;
nesi upon'us.: Withont one entangling alliance
our -iliendshiP is prized by every nation ; and
- 7 --L-tie -rights - of — our - oitizenvareeveryTWhere - ie
- by a united, sensitive; nd' watchful :pcople.-:-
• To this practical operation of our institutions,
so evident and stenesaftit, owelhaOncrCased
attachment to them which is 'amok" thntnn 2 t.
nliccrin: exhibitions of .o.ular sentiment c".•.
"''L'e•against foreign or domp , stie assault
.This review of this results-of our• institutions,'
' for half a • century, without excithsg,,a spirit of
vain exultation, should serve to impress upoiiMs
the great principles from which they: have
sprung constant arid direct supervision by the
people over; every public measure; strict for.,
bearance on the part of the• Government friit
• exeireising any ,doubtful or--;diaputeq. poste*
and .a cautious abstinence' from all iiitoFfrieil i Pti
with concern:, which properly,.belong;: 'are'
'IIERAtiDH AND:':-.: - .EXT,O:SiTO*.- --- :.'. ';--
best left to State regulations and - individual - en' ,
Full information of the -state of our, foreign
affairs having been ,recently, on , two different
oceasionksubmitted f.:l4"ongresth, I deem it ne
cessary now to hringstydnr notice only such',
events as.have-subscqueritly °catered, or aro of
such importance as tr`.roquixe-paitioular-atten ,
tion. . ' , -
The most arrlicablidispositions continue to be
xhibited by all tho nations with whom the Go-
Vernment_andsitizens of Alm United States have
an habitual iritcreourse. - - At the date of my last
annual message, Mexico - was -- theTonly nation
which e t ould not be, included in. so gratifying
.a reference to eutforeign relations::
I am happy, to be now.able to inform yOu that
an advance has been :made toward the adjust
ment of_onr_ dlfficultiei, with that Republie, and
the restoration of the - customary good • febling
between the two nations. This important change
has been effected by concilnitory, negetiatigns,
that havelesulted in the conclusion of. ai treaty
between the two governments"; Whicli,.when:rai-_
tified, - skill - refer to the arbitrament of - wfriendly !
power all the subjects - of Controversy between
us growing out - ofinjuries to-individuals.: There
is, at present also, reason tobelievetliatattequi
labltsettlement of all -dispnted-points will-be
attained without further difficulty or unnecessary
delay,. and thus authorise the free resumption
of .diplomatic intercourse with our sister Re
.•— . -
With:regpeetto:the nortlicalcrn boundary of
the-United.Staltes,_no_official_corresPond_crice_tie. ,- _.
tweet' this_Governmcnt and that-of Great Bri
tain has pasSed since that communicated to Coti
grasS towards' the ctosc of their last session.—
The offer to nekotiato - a convention tbr. the ap
pointment of-a . -joint commission. of_ survey and
e - xplorittitinT,llitici . , assured
by her Alniesty's G'overinnentin- a conciliatory
and:friendly spirit, and instructions to cnablethe
British .Iclinister,beroje :conclude, 'E:ncli.tity ar:
,transmitted to Win without
needless delay. •It is hoped and expected that
these instructions will be of a liberal character,
and that this neg,ociationiif sticce - ssrut, wilt pioVe
to be - an important step towardS the siitisfactpry
and final adjustment of the controversy. ,
I had hoped that the respect for WO hiws and re.-
kartl for the peace and honer ofthoir own, country
which-has-ever charactprisetlitic . siti . 4us, of tiq
United States, Would have prevented any per-
tion of them front using.tuirmeami to promote
insurrection in - the 'territoiy '6 — POWer with
which wo are at peace,—and--with which the
United states arc desirous of maintaining the
most friendly relations.: I regret deeply, how
ever, to-be_obligeclAci_inform.yon that dila :has
riot been the case. Information bas been given
to me, derived fry official and other sources,
that many citizens of the United States have
associated together. to -maite hostile incursions
from our territory into Canada; and to aid and*
abet insurrection there, in violation of the oblige
lions and laws of the United States, and in open
disregard' of their own duties as-citizens. ThiS
information has been in :part confirmed by a
hostile invasiont actually made by citizens of
ihrUnitat:Stlifei7i irienitureti o - All th - Calle
diens and others, and acconaptinied . by a forcible
application thereof to the prosecution of military
operations against the-authorities and people of
The results of these criminal assaults upon the
penile and order of a neighbouring country.have
_been,as _tole_expected, fitally:destructiye
to the misguided or deluded persons engaged in
them, and highly injurious to those in whose be
half they are profess d. to have been undertaken.
The suttinrities in Caaada r lrotn intelligence
cc iced of such intended moveinents.aniong our
citizens, have felt- themsekes 'obliged to take
precautionary. measures against them ; ; have ate
endiodied the militia, and assumed an atti
tude to repel the invasion to which they believed
the colonies wereexposed from - the United States
A. state-of feeling oh both sidei of the frontier, hag
thus been produced, which called for prompt and
vigorous interference. , If an insurrection existed
in Canada, the anirahle'dispositiovis of thellni.!
fed . S . tates towards Great Britain, es well na their_'
duty to thettiselires, would lead-them to maintain
n strianeutrlitY, and to restrain their citizens
front all.violations of the laws which have been
passed-cm...its enforcement. -'But this govern
ment recognises. a still higher obligation to re
press ell attempts on - the part of its citizens/ to
„disturb . the peace of a country where ottler.pre-
N ails, or halt been re-established. Depredations
by .our citizen's upon nations at'peade , with the
United State's, or combinations for committing
them, have at: all times been regarded by the
k line.rmAn Government - people with • the'
greatest abhorretee.. Military ocutsiona by our,
citizens' into countries-so situated,. and the corn,
mission of acts of violence sin the' members.
thereof, in7inkler - to - eflect - t(change - in iis govern.:
meat, or. _under _sii
,Pretext whatever, haire,
from- tho-conimencement of, our goverr.menti.
been held equhlly Criminal on the partif these
boga -; ged iii:them and as mush dwrrvin pun.
ishMent, as would be.the (Estoril:ince of le pall
- cites by the perpetration of similar acts
withini 3 urounlerritory;''
—By-no count ry-or-persona-liovo-thc,se
ble principles of international lis?.i-principlos,
the strict obSeiveifei of whiolisis*titgaipensable
:to the' preiservation oh sociiit :.orgltiiiotic world
—been more earnestly. cherished Or `sacredly -
'spected than by ,thOso great 'and good men who
first tleel tired andfinally establisliedthe indepei=
'denim br our own cOontry„ Theypioniulgated
and Maintained them at an early and ,criticad
riieetial in. Our history; 'they wero it tf icqbeotly
legisliinve.,enactmeMs, :is highly.
Tonal character, the,,lohliful etifo`reement,
xQhtah huS..hitherto, hecn, ond will, L'trust, , al.
S,vaya continue to Iq, regardedazioi, duty - insepa'
, CARLISLE, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 5;1838:
iably cssociated-with the inainten,once'of buena;
tional honour, That the • people of the.linitrdc,
Staters should feel an interestiu the.specad of po..'
litical institutions as free, as they regard, their
own to be,-is natural;, no - can a sincere sohc•
tulle for . thp success of all those whople at any
- time,-in good faith struggling for their 411111910°n,
be imputed to our 'citizens as a crime. With, the
entire freedom of opinion; antlnn unilisgaised ex.
pressio hereof, en theircarrtrthe-Government
hSs nether the tight, nor,-I trust, the disposito
to interfet c. Hut whether the interest dr the bor4
of the ,United Stites require that they
made a party to any such struggle; and, by ine
yitable consequence, to the:war- Which islvaged
units-supporios_ a Apteptiort Nthicll,_b_y . our Con,
stitution, is wisely left to Congress alen - e - to — de -,-
cide. It is, by the Inas, already matte criminal
in our citizens to embarrass or anticipate that desisfan,
by iinanthorized , inilitary operations on 'their ” part..
Offences of this character in addition to their crtini.
Milky as violations of the lake or our country,- have a
direct tendency to draw down upon our own citizens
at large - the' multiplied- evils of a foreign 'War, and
expose to injurious imputations the good faith and
honor of the country. As such they deserve:to be Out
down with promptitude and decision. I canna be
mistaken, I am coufidentp in counting mt the 'cor.lial
and general concurrence: of our fellowmitizens In this.
sentiment: "ft. copy of the proclamatton-which I have
felt it my duty,to issue,- is- herewith -communicated.. I
cannot but hope thht the good- sown and patriotism,
the regard for the honor amid reputation of 'their coun
try, the revect for the laWa which they have thou.
'solves enacted for their own -government „and the love
of order for which the moss of our people have been so
lone,::afid se justly distinguished, will -deter the cpm,
- paratively - Sew - winiare engaged-iii-them-fratit a further
prosecution of such desperate prnerprises. In the
-Mean time, the existing lairs taco been, and Will con ,
tin= to be, faithfully executed ; and every effort will
bh made to carry them out in their full extent.
Whether they aro sufficient or net, to meet the actual
state of things on .thy Canadian frontier, It is for Con
great to decide. . .
the Govereinent of Russia declines a
'renewal of the. fourth article of - . the conVentitin of
182-1 , betwomt tho United State% and Id% Imperial
ajesty, by the third article of
. which it is agreed that
-hereafter there shall not be formed zone of
the United Stilles t any establishment upsin the north.
west coast. of America, per hr toy of the islands atija
cent tothrtitorthof - 3.€dcgrees_2lo.minutes Senora'
latitude; and that in the same manner there shall be
tome fanned by Russian subjects, or under the ataltori.-
ty of.Russia,_south t the sure parallel ;" andliythe
fiturth article, "that; during a term orWyelirs, _
ing front the signature of the present .convention, the
ships of both powers or which- belong to their citizens
or • subjects respeciively, may, reciprocally frequent,.
without any !undrape') whatever, the interior seas,
gulfs, harbors, and-creeks upon the coastmentloned lit
the preceding article, for tile purpose of - fishing' nod
tradine with the natives of the country?' The-niasons
assigned for declining to renew the.previsions' of this
article, are, briefly, that the Only use made by our cid- i
ices ofthe privilege it seem- s to them, has- been to I
supply the Indians' with spirituous liquors; antiouni.;
lion,and fireshries ; that this train') has been 'ex
clued front the Russian trade; ,and as the rrupPlles
furnished from the United StateS rue injurious to the
-Russian cittablislunents cittlitr,nerthwest, mantis - Jetta:
calculited to produce complaints between the two
Governments, his Imperial Majesty thinks It for the
-interest-of both-CountriN -not - to accede-to the-proposi
tion made by the Atneelotot - Uoverninea for tho re
ofthe article last veleta-die.
The correspondence herewith communicated will
show the grounds upon which wo contend that tho-citi
zens of the United Suites have, Independent of the
provisions of the convention 0f1F24, a Unlit to trade
-with the natives upon the coast lu question, at unoccu..,
pied. places, liable, libwever, it is admitted, to be aC
any time extinguished by the creation of Rus,slari es
tablishments at such points. • This right is denied by
the Russian Government, which WATTS that, by the
operation of the-treaty- of -1524, etich..party,tigreed to.
waive the general right to land on the vacant coasts °ti
the respective sides of the degree of latitude referred to,
and accepted, in lieu thereof, Vie mutual privileges
tneutioned In the fourth article. Thu capital iindien- .
nage employed by our citizens in their trade with the
northwest coast of America, will perhapg, on adverting
to the official statements-Of the cmninerce end na'viga•
tion of the United States for the last; few. years, be
deemed too inconsiderable in amount, to attract much
attention; ,yet..-theAubject--teayrin-otherietipectsole ,
aerie the - careful consulemtion-ufGongress..
I regret to state that the blockade of that principal
ports en the eastern coast of Mexico, which; in copse
quenco'cif-differenctz--.between—that — Republic - and
Fnince, was - instituted in May lust, mfortunately still
continues,. enforced by a competent French naval
force and necessarily embarrassing to our own.trade
in the gulf, in. common with that of ether nations.
Every disposition, however, is believed to exist on the
part of the French Government, to tender this measure
as little onerous as practicable to the interestsof the
cltizens_of the Un ited State f c A nd to those of neutral
commeree ; and it ie to he hoped thit an easy settle;
mein Vf the difficulties between France and Mexico,
will soon re-establish the harmonious relations former.
h , subsisting between them, and acain open the.ports
of that Republic to the vessels of all friendly nations.
- A convention Wl:inking that part of the hottrla.
ry . bativelin -the- Unitral-States and the Republic of
'texas, which extends front the mouth'of the - Sabine
to the Red river; wag concluded' and signed tit this
city, On.the estb Apil It has since keen ratified
by bath Governments; and seasonable measures will
lie taken - to carry it effect on part ofthe
United States. , .
The application of that republic fit admission
into this Union; made in Alignut,lB37, and which .
was declined for menials olreody made known to
you, bail been, funnally withdrawn, an
pear from the accompanying copy of the note of
the minister plenipotentiary of Texas, whichrivas
presented to the Secretary of - State-on die twee-
Edon of the-exchange - of the ratifications - of the
convention above mentioned. . ".
Copies of the convention with Texas, of a Com-.
mere's! treaty - concluded With the King of
Greece. end 'of a' sitailor treaty with the. Peru=
Bolivian Confederation, the .ratifications which'
have boon recently . exchanged, accompanying
this metinsgefor the infinnuition of Congretsgiipe
for-such legislative enactments en may be found.
necessary er„expedient, in relation to either of
them. 1 ~ ,
. . _ • • •
' , watch over -and foster the interests of a
gradually increaning - ilad. witielyirentletf - ccnn , 1
coerce;. to • guard . the' rights' ef—Ameriezin • eV.
tizeptt,t*hum__busigetis, or .plettSlifiC br *her
rnotbreC:lnay. tempt , into: diident . climes, and
at AWltarne thrtp .to _ cultivate,' those'. semi
men4Antutifal respect - aid - geed ..will,irviticti
eXporied . .fi*has.provideo 'bene fi cial in intdrne
-none' r intercriu me,— thri Government, ef- the —lJni—
ted Stator - has -deemed it' expedient; . front 'tint
tolime, le, establish - diplomatic connections -with
different foteigif *.tttttt.,-titr. the_sentritttentnt, of re_
presentativea te,reaide within their Kespactive terra.
tories. I' am gratified- to be enable . *moaned
aqou ' that, since . the close of raft elirsersien:
Giese relations have been opened tuff* „, happiest
auspices with Austria end the Two SicilieS; that
new nominations have been made in the respsetive
'missions of Russia, Brent, Belgium, and Sweden
and' Norway, in this countrylund that a 3flnister
Extraordinary has been received ,accredited to this
Government front the Argentine Confederation, , :
:an exposition of the, fiscal , affairs 'of the Corer's
mentiand.of their condition thi the.past year, will be.
made to .you by the Secretary Mr the Trestuy., -, • ,:=
.The available balance in the Treasury, .on,tit 1
eljannary nextOs estimated at ',220.127.116.11. - The 're..
'Caput Of•the year, fronfeusteng and - lauds, will pro.
bably amount t0520,615,46.' These usual sources of
the revenue have been increased by an issue of Trea•
sury notes—of which -lees than eight millionser dot;
late, including interest and principal, will be ouistand
big at the end of the year—and by the sale of one of
the bonds - of the , Bauk of. the United States, 'fat
$3,505,871. The aggregate of mitant from these and.
other • sotirocs, with the - halinie on hand on the I.t. of
January last. has been applied to iha payment crap
-15_4. in-talons by :Congress. The • whole expenditure
or the year on their account, ineluding the em •
ion of more titan eight millions of TYiasurY . notes,
constitutes on aggregate of Ant forty millions of 010
tars. and will still leave in the Treasury the-balance
Nearly eight millions of dollars of Treasury notes
are to be PaidAtirieff . .ffie. coming, dition to
the ordinary appropriations for the support of govern
Tretisu ry will undoubtedly be sufficient, if the charge . s
upon. it. are not increased be and the annual .estt
inates. No excess, ho.vever, is likely - to exist, noncan
the postponed instalment of the surplus revenue be
deposited with the - States, nor any considerable ap. ,
propriations beyond- the estimates be made. without
.cansinga defielenc_y_ in the.TrearMry.l, 'llo.greistcom.
tints, advisable at all times, of liminng appropriations
to the wants of the publie 'service., is rendered neeea,.
sarYat present' by the ' prospective and roped /redur
tion of the. tariff ; while the vi.,,ilant jealousy,evi
dentlY excited among the, people by the- occureenses
of-the lost few yeast assorts us that they expect from
their representatives, and Will sustain them in the ex
v'erciie of the , most rlgureconomy. ef. -
reeled try postponine appropriations not iininethately
required• for the ordinary public service; er - for any
inesting - emergencyonid much by . reducing the ex.
pestiliturea where. the entire and immediate necom
plisliment of the objects in view is not indispensable.
When we call to mind the yecent and extreme c i i#
m ts t
by excessive limier - Cr, -
per, aggro% aced by the unforsgen withdrawal of ni
foreign capital and the inevitable' derangement stri
sing' from AIM distributliat of the surplus' revenue
among the Snags as required by, Congress; and con,
sitter the heavy expenses incurred by ihri removal of
Indian tribes; by the military operations lis - Florida;
Stud on account of the unually large oppropriations
--shade , stibe last-two atmitial - sesslenvof Congress for"
other °Wefts, we have striking evidence, in the present
efileient state of our finances, of the ablindaut re
tli.ui cm Of the esuntry to fulfil all Ito Obligations. Nor
is it less gratifying to find that the general business - of
the community..deeply, affected as it has been; is nevi:
- .yang with additional-vigor, chastened by the tessoni.
orthe past, and animated by the hopes of the future.
13y:the-curia iltirebt'of 'Fairer Issues; by. curbing - the'
sanguine and adventurous spirit of speculation; and
by the tionotable - applieation -of all available means •
_mike fulfilment of obligations, confidence has been
restored both at Mono and abroad, Stud ease.atft ill
iy 11•ClIrell 101111 the' operations of trade.--
Tlisrageney of the griVernMent: itc-proiliteing these
results 12113 beerr' as efficient as Its powers and terrine
permitted. By withholding fount the'States the depts.
site ot. the fourth instalnientsmrd leaving - several mil
lions at leag,credits with the banks, principally in one
section of the-country, rind muse - immediately benefi.
Mal to It; sari ,attlie some thee, aiding" banks and
- commercial communities its other sections, by postpon
•lng the payment -Of bonds for duties to the amount of
between four and live millions of dollars,
by on isiuti
of Treasury 110102 as a rite-aria to enable the' Govern
sent to -meet the consequences of their indulgence;
but nflirrd ing, at the same time, facilities for remittance
and e.telianguixmil-bysteadilydecliningtwemploY - ritt
general depositories of the public revenues; ar receive
the notes of all banks which refused to redeem them
with specie; by thine measures, aided - bYT.tho ffiverahle
action of some pf the bankb and by. the support stud
co-operation of a large portion of the community, See,
Have witnessed an early resumption lifopecle pay
ments iu our great commercial capital, promptly fol
lowed iu almost every part of the United States. This'
result has been alike salutary to the true interests - sit
agriculture,. commerce..andAnanufacturer -to 'public
morals, respect for the lows. and that confidence be
tweeits.nran and 1112111111121 is so essential in all our
The contrast between the suspension of 1814 and
thirdOf-037 i is most stiiking. :The short daration
of the Atter; the prompt- restorati n of business;
the - evident benefits resulting fro an adherence
by the government to the constit done! standard
liflialhe, instead of sanctioning -4 a suspension by
the rOceipt of ' irredeemable paper, and the advan
tages-derived from the large amount of specie in
troduced into,the country previous to 1837, afford
a valuable illustration of the true policy of-the Go.
fail to remove the impression that a national, bank
is, necessary in such emergencies. Not only were
speci,e payments - resumed without ita aid, 'but
fffelfaligeThVe also heen more rapidly reshW•r - Wi
than when it, existed; thereby showing that , private
capital, entdrprise and prudence are fully adequate
to thesoieniis..On all these points, experience seems
to have confirmed the views heretofore Submitted to
Congress. We have been saved the mortification-of
seeing the distresses of the community for the third
time seized on to fasten upon the country so danger
ous institution ;- and-we- may• also -hope =that ,
the •huaihess of individuals will hereafter be re
lieved from she injurious gifects Of a continued
agitation of that disturbing subject. The limited
influence of a national bank in averting . derango.
meat in the'exelianges of the country, fitr in corn,
polling the resumption• of specie payments, is
now not. less apparent' than its tendency to 'in
crease inordinate speculation by sudden expen
sing and .contractions; iti disposition to create
panic and et:Owasso:tent - for the promotion of Its
own designs; its interference.with politics; and
its far greater poweifor evil than for good, either
in regard to tho local ,institutiona or, the , opera=
tions of Government itself: = What was, he these
"woos, but apprehension or.opinion Isheri
time' bank was fiesteptahlished, now stands min- .
finned by humiliating - experience. The Scenes
through which •we haveptutsed combatively'
prove honf little otir commercic egrieulture, ma
nufactures or financeo requireauch an institutioo,
and what dangers are attendant on its povirer—a
power,. 1 ,trust, never , to, be .conferred hy,the
American, pXople neon. Government,-and
still ',leis .upon. individuals not responsible to,,
there for its unavoidable abuses. • • ' ' •'
My eqnvictiol of the neeessitjr.of further legis
lative' provisio69 for the safe.keeping and, die ?
bonen:tent of the public moneys, rind My ()Pinion
in regard to the measures best adapted to the no=
complishrnent of. those 'objects, have been tilted=
Alp:submitted I:Lyda—These have been strength=
mood by recebtovents; and in the hill conviction
that tireo..iind2expirience ..nist AUL further de-
Monstretestheir prepriety, I feel'it'myditly; with
respectful' deference to the conflicting views ; of
others, again to inviterytinr attention -
WI It the eiceptionof limited" sums ' Deposited
in the' 'few banks still employed under the ail Of
11467 The siiimiats.reCotved for:ifulies, and, with—
very ineoneiderable_exeeptioev, ;lose: seertilug
. f 4 1 131 rollo hON e,
Won of specie ptiyhtehts - by Abe, dotiosite:banks,
been kept and disbursed by the Tressuterimfidar
'bit general legal peWeirty subject to
tendenee;Of the Secretary of tho -The,
propriety of defining morcrspecififellk, of re
gulating bydlaw; the, exercise' due wide scrip!
of Executive discretieri, has been already submit.
ied to Coiigrees. • " ‘, •
A change ie N4O Ottioo of oollecior 'at - oncv of
r principal; ports, has brought to light edefelr
lion ef'the gravest character, tho particular& of
will ho laid 'before you in a special report
ironi - the Seieretarii Of_th'earoasury; - ' By ilia 're
port and the seeemptuaying documents(it will be
seenthat the weekly returns of the,defatilting
Seer apparently throughout, - tv faithful.
administration - of the affairs entrusted to• his rna
negenient: It, hoWever, now appears that he •
commenced abstracting the publie . moneys short- •
ly after his appointment, - and continued: to do so, -
progreesively, increasing the amount, for the term .
of more than seven ,years, embracing a portion - Of •
relseriotturing - whch-which - ei•e'
deposited in the Bank alba United States, the ,
whole of that of 'the Slate bank deposito system,
and -*concluding only on his retirement. from
;Am after that 'system;had substantially failed,,. '
- .Consequence of - WI suspension,rif specie pay,: •
-- Thirwayin - Whictrthiallefalcationnvas-to-long— , ~
'concealed, and the stepsitaken to indemnify the '
.United States, as far as practicable, against loss; • -
will also be, presented to- you The case is one -
which imperatively claims the attention of Cwt.-.
greets, and - furnishes the strengest motive for - the,
establieliment of a - more severe - mid - secure system -- .•
for the safe-keeping and disbursement of the pub-.
lie rhoneye titan any that has heretofore exist( d. „
`;(t seems proper,-at all events, that, -by on early
enactment, binder to that Of o ther countries, the .
application of public. menay-by . o ff ieerof Go
vernment to pnvate uses, hould be made a felony, --
and visited with severe and ignominious ; punish- • ,
- Merit. 'This is already, in effect; the law in re
-spect to the mint, and hair been productive elate.
most salutary results.. %Vhateversyeteneis ettopied, •
such an 'enacmtent, would be wise :As an
pendenrmeasure,. sined - tnuch - orilre — ublicrnr -
neys must ; in their collection and ultimate
bursement, pass twice - through - the hands of pub-•
lie-officers, in whatever ,manner they are inter
mediately kept. The Government, it mustbe ad
mitted, has, heed from its commencement chtnpa
ratively;_fortunate...in,this-iespect.'_But - the ap-.
pointing power cannot always be well atikised
its seleCtions, and the experionce of every country
has shown that public officers are not at alt times .
proof against temptation. - .lt iia dutY, therefore,
which the Government ewes; as well to the in
tefesis committed .toils care •as - to the Officers
-thetoselvek-to provide-every guard :against trans-;=
gressibus of this Character That is consistent with
reason:Jind [humanity,- Congresircannot: be -400--
'coleus ofthe_conductotthose who are entrusted,-
with the -public money; and I - shall.at all times
be disposed tocncourogo a watchful discharge of- -
..this duty; If a more direci co-operation on the
part of Congress; in the stipervistoriof the PM- .
duct of the officers entrusted : with the custody -
end ,application of the public money„ is deemed
desirable, it will give meplaasurrito assist in the ' •
establishment of any judicious and copiditutional .
plan by which that object may be accomplished:..,,.. ...
You will, In Your wisdom; determine uporithe °
propriety of adopting such a plan, and upon the _
measure 'necessary -to its effectual execution.
-Wheu. the-late Bank- of- the .United Statekwas in
corporated, and made the depository (tithe public '
meneys, Aright was reserved to Congress to in:
spect,- at its-. pleasure; by a - committee of that •
body, the books and _the proceedings of the bank.
. Ifr one of the Slates whosifikinking-institutions . -
are supposerta rank among the, first in point of
stability, they aro subjected to constant exturnina'.
- tion - by commissioners appointed lbr that purpose,
and - much of the success of its banking syati'in
is attributed to this watchful supervision. The
same course has also, In view Ofittbeneficial ope
ration, keen adopted by an adjoining State, la
-vembly known for the care it has always bestowed -
upon whatever relates to its financial concerns. •
submit tuyour consideration whether a committee
of Congress. might not be profitably employed in
inspecting, et such-inter.v . sls asmight he deemed
proper,the tiffiirs and accou nls ofoll ic era entrusted
with - the custody of the public moneyd.. The (is
obent R9 ll.6 .Mange...ohiti_dttly_ralght _be
ligatory the committee in respect tothese of- •
licers - who have large sums in their possession, and
lell discretionary in respect to others. They might
fhlruoihe_executive_such_d era lent ions_r fLwe re
found to exist, with a view - to a • prompt removal
from office, unless the default was satisfactorily ac
counted for;'and-report, also, to Congress, at the •
commencemiiirof each session, the'result of their
examinations and proceedings. It does appear to
me,that, with a subjection of thig class of public
officers to , the general supervision of the Emlitiris,
to examinations by a committee of Congress ' t.'"lfe..
Hods of-which th-y should -have-no-previous-not
and to prosecution and punishment as for felony,
"for every breach of trust, the safe keeping of the
public moneys, under the system proposed. might
be placed on. a surer ifininflation than it him cvar
occupied since tlie; establishment of the Govern
ment. • ..
The Secretary of Ike - Treasury will lay before
you additional information containing new details
on this interesting . subject.'. To these I ask'
.your early attention,. That it should have given
sine to great - diversity of opinion, cannot - be a sib ,- • -
ject'of surprise. After the collection and custody
of the public moneys bad been lei so Many years
connected with,- and made sitbsidinry to, the. ad
vencentent, of private interests, a return to the rim
,pie and selrdenying ordinances of the. constitutten
_couldmot .but be eitficult. - But -and free Ms•
mission eliciting the sentiments•of the.people, and
aided by that conciliatory spirit which bass"ver .h 111.•
ractorised their comae on great •emergenetes; were
-retied upon_ for •a. satisfactory settlement---of- the -
question. Alreadjelias this anticipation; on oiteint'. -
portant point at least—the impropriety of diverting
public-money to private, Mirposes—been , fully real.
teed. , There is oh reason to ',oppose that Maisie;
(ion "men- that iiritnelfrf thebubject would now
-he embarrassed by a diabrence of opinion,',..or fail . 10
receive the. cordial support, of. a large majority or
our constituents: The, connection which formerly
existed between. the. government. , and Wale,' wae
iu reality injurious to hub s as well-as to the gam , ,
val intercats of the community at large. It aggra•
vated the disasters of trade' anti 'the derangements
of emfintercial intercourse,- and administered new
excitement and additional means to 'wild and reek
lesi-speeniatinile, Alia disappointments of which
threw the coUhtry•into convulsions of, panic,
all hutiprodUced triolence_mig bloodshed. The
prudent exparisithiof hank 'arediti, which *an the
natural result ollAte command'or the revenues bf .
thit_State;:fUtbieffiid s the. reeources 'Cur untaninded
license in. everfspecies Of 'adventure, seduced , in.
dimity from its regular and salutary occupations by
theloße-of-abundancemitheut - laborrand - derenge d
Atte social state by tempting all trades and proles
siontt info the vortex . of speculation on remote con
' i‘he'srainfivlde spireeding, influenee impedi , tl •
alio the retcnirc'eebf the‘,Government, eurtailod
itsuiefuroperationS;Meharressed the fulfilment of
Its,ehligations, end seriously' interfered with the
nectitioli el the lava. '`. Large appropriations and
oppressive, qiea are the natural- cepseciecnccbnf
loch ttcertneetion, shicellitiy=dricroale she 'profits ,
those who ere allowed to use the: public funds
Mid. Make it thairititerest' that tneney,ahould be
'eneitinirlitted 'and 'expendlttires It is
;hUithat,n,coneetitrated money, power is toMpted • .
te:betierneanitctive tigentih political 'affairs', and