Newspaper Page Text
AT LOWEST PRICES
AT THE NEW STORE OF
D. E. JACKSON.
We are new comers, but have come
to Ftay. VI e boy our goods at lowest
cafh prices and as we sell for cash
only. We are enabled to sell goods
at the smallest possible margins. We
could quote prices on clean, new
goods, no trash, from all parts of our
store, especially on the following
goods. Dress Goods, White Goods,
Prints, Ginghams, Shirtings, Mus
lins, Lace Curtains and Curtain
Poles, Corsets and Corset Waists,
Ladiea', Children's and Gents' Under
wear, Hosiery, Gloves and Mita, Kid
Gloves, Ribbons, Silk and Velvet,
Black and Colored Silks, Cloth Capes,
Bead Wraps, Jerseys and Jersey
Jackets, Table Liuens, Napkins.
Towels, kc., <fec , but as new goods
are arriving all the time, we would
not likely have the goods now
quoted, but possibly have them at
still lower prices as the season ad
vances. We are proud to say that
in this city and county our goods
and prices have met with approval
and coD'meDdation, although subject
ed to CIOFC scrutiny and comparison
with the goods offered by others.
We solicit your patronage, and will
do all in our power to make our busi
ness transactions pleasant and profit
D. E. JACKSON, Butler, Pa.
Next door to lleineman's.
C. & D.
Have the largest stock ot
liats and outfittings for men,
boys and children in the
Are especially strong in un
derwear for Fall and Win
ter. Besides many stand
ard makes in all grades; we
are exclusive sellers in this
ccunty of the celebrated
Stoneman handmade under
Deal directly with the man
ufactures and our goods are
fresh, strictly reliable and
prices the lowest as we save
the consumer the middle
Mark all goods in plain fig
ures and have one price for
COLBERT & DALE,
242 S. Main street,
We mean our wall paper de
partment, full and overflowing
with our immense and choice
stock of paper hangings. You
must help us out, we haven't
room for half our goods, until
you relieve us of some of them.
We have the choieest selec
tion of patterns in every grade
from Brown Blanks at 10 cts
to Gilts at from 20 cts to $1
per double bolt.
Examine our Stock.
- J. H. Douglass,
Near PostotFice, Butler Pa.
Robes and Blankets
As cold weather approaches
horse owners will save money
by buying their horse blank
ents, knee robes, etc., now.
A good warm blanket on a
horse in cold weather saves
more for the owner than any
The largest and most com
plete line of robes,blankets,har
ness,whips,trunks, valises, etc.,
in the county,and at the lowest
prices, will always be found at
124 N. Main St.,
Exit HtirdiDary B.itgains ure offer
ed ht rt» in
Everything in furnishings for ladies,
children end men.
Compare >»ur prices with what you
have been paying and see if you
can't save money by dealing with
John M. Arthurs.
333 SOCTII AIAIX SCKEET. 333
E. E. ABR AMS & CO
Fire and Life
•*- Insurance Co. of North America, inoor
, porated lift*, capita! S3,WHi,(XK) and other
/ atroiitj couuisnien represented. New York
/ Life Insurance Co. assets $00,000,000. Office
) >ew ilubeitou building near Court HOUM.
THE BUTLER CITIZEN.
Is now permanently located at 130 South Main
Street. Butler. Pa., in rooms formerly occupied
by Dr. Waldron.
L. M. REINSEL, M. D,
PHYSICIAN AND SI ROEON.
Office—sic South Main Street, In Boos build
PHYSICIAN AND SCKGEOX,
New Troutman Building. Butler. Pa.
Dr. A. A. Kelty,
Office at Hose Point. Lawrence county. Pa.
E. N. LEAKK. M. D. J. E. MANN. M. D.
Gyna-cology and Sur- Eye, Ear. Nose and
DRS. LEAKE & MANN,
G. M. ZIMMERMAN.
PHYSICIAN AND BCRQBON,
Office at No. 45. S. Main street, over Flunk &
Co's Diug Store. Butler, Pa,
SAMUEL M. BIPPUS.
Physician and Surgeon.
t\o. 22 Esst Jefl'trstin St., Butler, Pa.
W. R. TITZEL.
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON.
S. W. Corner Main and North Sts., Butler, Pa.
J. J. DONALDSON, Dentist.
Artificial Teeth inserted on the latest im
proved plan. Hold Filling a specialty. Office—
over Schaul's Clothing Store.
DR. S. A. JOHNSTON.
DENTIST, - - BUTLER, PA.
All work pertaining to the profession. execut
ed in the neatest manner.
Specialties Gold Fillings, and Painless Ex
traction of Teeth, Vitalized Air administered.
Office om JeVtrni Street, one door Cut ofl.owrj
Home, L'p Stain.
Office open daily, except Wednesdays and
Thursdays. Communications by mail receive
5. B.— The only Dentist in Butler uslngfthe
best makes of teeth.
J. W. MILLER,
Architect, C. E. and Surveyor.
Contractor, Carpenter and Builder.
Maps, plans, specifications and esti
mates; all kinds of architectural and en
gineering work. No charge for drawing if
I contract the work. Consult your best in
terests; plan before you build. Informa
tion cheerfully jfiven. A share of public
patronage is solicited.
P. O. Box 1007. Office S. W. of Court
House, Butler, I'a.
C. F. L. McQUISTION,
ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR,
Omci NF.AII DIAMOND, BCTI.KB, PA.
A. M. CHRISTLEY,
ATIOBNEY AT LAW.
Office second floor, Anderson Block, Main St,
near Coiut House, Butler, Pa.
J. w. HUTCHISON,
ATTOBNEY AT LAW.
office on second floor of the H uselton block.
Diamond, Butler, Pa., Boom No. 1.
A. T. BCOTT. J. P. WIIJSON.
SCOTT & WILSON,
Collections a specialty. Office at No. 8, South
Diamond, Butler, Pa.
JAMES N. MOORE,
ATTOBMIV-AT-LAW AND NOTARY PUBLIC.
Ofllce In Room No. 1, second Door ol liuselton
Block, entrance on Diamond.
A. E. RUSSELL,
ATTORNEY AT LAW.
Office on second floor of New Anderson Block
Main St.. —near Diamond.
Attorney at I.aw. Office at No. 17, East Jeffer
son St., Butler, Fa.
W. C. FINDLEY,
Attorney at Law and Keal Estate Agent. Of
flee rear of L. Mitchell's office on nortli side
of Diamond, Butler, Pa.
H. H. GOUCHER.
Attorney-at-law. Office on second floor of
Anderson building, near Court House, Butler.
Att'y at Law—office at s. E. Cor. Main St, and
Diamond, Butler, Fa.
Att'y at Law—Office on South side of Diamond
ipilK BUTLER COUNTY
CAPITAL Paid I'p, - - - £100.000.00.
Jos. Hartman. Fres't. I). Osborne, Cashier,
J. V. Rltts.Vice Fres't, C. A. Bailey,Ass't Cash'r
Jos. Ilartinan, C. F. Collins. O. M. Itussell,
11. McDweeney, C. I). (ireenlee, J. V. Rllts,
E. E. Alirains. Leslie Ha/.lett. I. <i. Smith,
W. S. Waldron. 1). Osborne.
A general banking bnsiness transacted. In
terest paid on time deposits. Money loaned on
Foreign exchange bought and sold.
L. S. McJUNKIN,
Insurance and Keal Estate Ag't
17 EAST JEFFERSON ST.
BUTLER, - PA.
Mutual Fire insurance Co.
Office Cor. Main & Cunningham Sts.
•3. C. ROESSING, PRBSIDENT.
H. C. IIKINEMAN, SECBKTAKY.
(}. C. Roesslnc, Ilendersou Oliver,
L Purvis, James Stephenson,
A. Troutman, H. C. Helneman,
Alfred Wick, N. Weitzel,
Dr. W. Irvlii, Dr Rlrkenbach.
J. W. Burkhart, I). T. Norris.
LOYAL M'JUNKIN, Gen. As't
' TMIAMTQAND. * *
.. ■ .
' ' ; w,
f 30 S. MAIN ST.
We are Leaders in our Line.
We are now prepared to show you the finest line of
Ever frl.twn in Butler county.
Do you want CHEAP GOODS Come and seeuuss s
Do you want MEDIUM PRICED GOODS Corne in.
Do you want FINE GOODS'-' "We are in it.'
A new line of RATTAN GOODS for Gents, Ladies and the
Little Ones just received.
Whether you want to buy or not come and see us.
E. S. DEB W,
128 JE. Jefferson tet., - Butler* l?a
THE LATE FIRM OF BLACKMORE k GRIEB IS NOW
GRIEB & YOGELEY,
And, owing to the change, we are now T
closing out our entire Fall line of goods,
regardless of cost.
Among the many bargains we are
now offering we quote as follows:
30c. Men's Embroidered Slippers, 0 to 10 at 30 cts.
$1.25. Men's solid, first quality, buff, seamless shoes, in
Bals, or Congress at §1.25.
We are making a sacriOce on a Ladies shoe with a patent
leather tip, running from 3's to O's for 00 ct .
We make these great offers because
of the change in the firm, and that we
are needing the money at present more
than the goods.
We also do repairing of all kinds on
short notice; and* handle Leather and
Hoping that you will call and see us
the next time you are in town, we are
Grieb & Vogeley,
347 S. MAIN STREET, - BUTLER, PA.
EVERY WATERPROOF COLLAR OR CUFF
THAT CAN BE RELIED ON
BE UP BJot to gtTXLIt;
THE MARK 3>fC>t tO DlSCOlOl?I
—————J BEARS THIS MARK.
NEEDS NO LAUNDERINC. CAN BE WIPED CLEAN IN A MOMENT.
THE ONLY LINEN-LINED WATERPROOF
COLLAR IN THE MARKET.
"Thrift is a. \— — dood revenue
resulte from I Wm'lo AHAI trv
oAr U LI v
It* is a.soli d cake scouring so&pi
Try ibinyournexhhouse-ciea.ning beh&ppy
Looking- out ovor the many homes of this country, we seo thousands
of women wearing away their lives in household drudgery that might be
materially lessened by tho us *of a few cakes of SAPOLIO. If an hour
is saved each time a cake is used, if one less wrinkle gathers upon the
face because the toil is lightened, she must be a foolish woman who
would hesitate to make the experiment, and ho a churlish husband who
would grudge the few cents which it costs.
BIJTLKR. PA.. FRIDAY, DECKMBER 5,1890
(ioins To Leave The Farm.
The work of the farmhouse was over for
the day; the children— with the exception
of the eldest son. who had gone to the vil
lage—were in bed. and in the big comfort
able kitchen Farmer Hare wood, his wife,
and his wife's sister. Mrs. Lncas. were sit
ting around a center table. The farmer
was reading the paper, his wife was put
ting a patch on the knee of little Harry's
diminutive knickerbockers, and Mrs. Lucas
was crocheting a hood of blue and white
zephyr for a small niece.
There was silence in the kitchen save for
the snapping of the fire in the stove, the
ticking of the big. eight-day clock in the
corner, and the rustle of the farmer's news
paper. and when Mrs. Ilarewood sighed
deeply, both her <istar and husband looked
up in surprise.
"What's the matter, Sarahf" asked the
latter. "That sigh was the loudest I ever
heard you give. Has anything gone wrong?
Yon look as though you had a big load 011
'4 have," answered his wife. "And it
is a load which you must share, Eli; I have
borne it alone as long as I can bear it.
There is great trouble in store for us, hus
band—George is going to leave the farm."
The newspaper fell to the floor, and for a
moment the farmer looked at his wife, too
much surprised to utter a word.
"Going to leave the farm!" he repeated
at last. "Sarah, you must be dreaming."
Mrs. Ilarewood shook har head sadly.
"I wish I were," she said. "Xo, Eli, it
is true. George has made up his mind to
leave us. I have noticed for months past
that he seemed dissatisfied and restless,
and .-ince you sold Vixen he has grumbled
a great deal about the work, atid the dull
ness of his life. And to-day I heard him
say to Jasper Flint that he would not be
here a month from now; that he had had
enough of farm life, and intended to leave;
and if we refused our consent to it he
would run away, rnd take his chances."
"WE'll SEE about that," said the farmer,
angrily. "Consent to it! I rather think
not! I won't consider it for a moment.
What would he be worth a year from now
if I let him got He'd fall in with all sorts
of rascals in the city, and get us all into
trouble. Besides, I need him here. It'll
be 10 years at least before Harry can take
his place, and he's got to stay, if I have to
tie him down."
"Why don't you make him want to stay
Eli?" asked the gentle voice of his sister
"If he's got the city fever on him all the
talking iu the world wouldn't do any
good," rejoined the farmer. "He wouldn't
listen to a word."
"Don't talk. Don't let him ever suspect
that you are aware of his desire to leave
you. Try a new plan, Eli, a plan I've been
thinking of all day."
"The best plau I know of is to tell him
my mind freely, without any beating
around the bush; and the sooner it's done
"Now, Eli, don't be above taking a
woman's advice. Let me tell you how to
deal with George. I have been here three
months now, and have taken A deep in
terest in the boy. I have seen his dissatis
faction and recognized the cause. I have
overheard him talking to Jasper Flint
more than once, and only yesterday I
heard him say that if he went to the city
what he earned would be his own, bnt that
here he worked from dawn to darit, and
was no better off at the end of the yea
than at the beginning. He said that Tom
Blythe, who is in a grocery store in the
city, gets sl2 a week, and Tom is only 17.
Now, if you want George to stay on the
farm, give him an interest in it, Eli. He
is 18 years old, and has worked faithfully
for you ever since he could talk plain. He
has had his food and lodging, and two
suits of clothes a year, to be sure, but all
that he actually owns is that collie dog
at his heels. You even sold the only horse
you had that was fit for the saddle. And
George was extraordinary fond of Vixen."
"It seemed a pity to keep a horse that
no one but George ever rode," said the
farmer, "and she was too light for work.
I'm a poor man, Hester, and cau't afford
playthings for my children."
"You can better afford to keep an extra
horse than to have your son leave you, Eli.
Whom could you get who would take the
interest in the work George hasf You have
thought it only right that George should
do his share toward running the farm, and
have considered your duty done in giving
him a home. You are disposed to think
him ungrateful because he wants to leave
you now that every year his services more
valuable. But the boy is ambitious, and
is not satisfied to travel in a circle, NE
wants to make some headway. And it is
The farmer leaned his head on his hand,
a look of deep thought on his grave
weather-beaten face. His gentle sister-in
law's plain speaking had given rise to
thoughts which had never before entered
"I believe you're more than half right,
Hestor," he said at last. "I'll think it all
over to-night, and make up my mind what
to do. I'd be lost here without George,
and he sha'N't leave the farm if I can help
"Force won't keep him, Eli, remember
that/'said Airs. Lucas, feeling that she had
said enough, folded up fcer work, and tak
ing up a lamp from a shelf by the stove,
went upstairs to her own room.
Just at daybreak she was roused from a
sound sleep by the sound of horses' hoofs
in the yard, and looking out of the window
she saw Eli trotting away on old Koan.
"Where can he be going at this hourf"
When she went down stairs at 6 o'clock
George was standing by the kitchen table,
having just come in with two full pails of
milks. His face wore a discontented, un
happy look, and he merely nodded in
return for his aunt's cheery "good morn-
A few miuutes later his father cnt€-red,
but George, who had gone to one of the
windows, and was looking out dejectedly,
did not even glance up.
"You were out early, Eli," said Airs
Lucas. "I heard you ride away at day
"Yes, I went to Pine Ridge ou a matter
of business. "
"That's where you sold Vixen, papa,
isn't itT" asked little Harry, and Airs.
Lucas saw a quiver pass over George's
face as the child spoke.
"Yes, my boy, I sold Vixen to Lawyer
Stanley. George," turning to his son,
"I've made up my mind to part with that
50-acre lot by the river. What do you
think of that?"
"Of course you are to get a good price
for it, sir," said tho young man indifferent
ly. "It's the best piece of land you have."
"But I haven't sold it. I am going to
give it away."
"Give it away!" repeated George, roused
out of his indifference, and staring at his
father as if he thought he had not heard
"Yes, deed it over, every inch of it, to
someone 1 think a good deal of, and who
deserves it," laying his hand on his son' g
shoulder, and his voice breaking a little.
"I'm going to give it to MY son, George
Ilarewood, tf**iave and to hold, A.* he sees
fit, without question or ad rice."
"To me! Tou intend to give that 50
acres to me, father!"
"Yes. my boy, and with my whole heart.
You've been a good son, George, and I
only wish I were able to do more for yon.
But I am not a rich man, as you know. and
I have your mother and the three little
ones to provide for, too. Still, I want you
to have a start, and this 50-acre lot will
yield a handsome profit. You can have
three days a week to call your own, and
that will give you a chance to work it, and
if you choose to break in that pair of young
oxen I bought the other day from Bagley
you can have them for your trouble."
"This— this seems to much, sir," stam
mered George. "I don't know how to
"Too much! Then I don't know what
you'll say to this," and the farmer took his
son by the arm and led him out on the
porch. "There's another present for you,
"Vixen!" The word came from George's
lips with a long sigh of joy, aud with one
bound he was at the side of the little black
mare he had thought never to see again'
and had both arms about her neck. "Oh,
father, I'd rather have Vixen than any
thing else in this world!"
And he buried his face in the pretty
creature's mane, and in spite of his 18
years, fairly broke down and sobbed aloud.
That ended George's desire to leave the
farm. HE was never again heard to men
tion the subject, and he grumbled no more
about the hard work, and the monotony of
his life, bnt in every way tried to show his
appreciation of his father's kindness.
In fact, Eli Harewood was wont to say
occasionally in confidence to his wife that
he had reason to bless his sister-in-law lor
her good advice, and that he owed it to her
that be had a stalwart arm to lean on in
his advancing years.
But George never knew to what he owed
the change in his fortune.
Little Things That Count.
In every line of business, no matter
whether conducted upon a large or small
scale, it is the little things that counts.
The little expenses, the little wastes, the
little economies, are the ones that turn the
balance of accounts, either for profit or
loss, and it is these little things that need
the closest attention. The larger, more
important details of every business are
carefully looked after; there is very little
chance for neglect, carelessnsss or over
sight. The workman who spoils a costly
piece of machinery, or causes a loss of any
considerable account, is held responsible,
and is generally very careful in this re
spect, but in little thii:gs he is not as
prompt in exercising care and economy,
and these little things are looked upon as
of no consequence, and as having no real
Wc have heard it asserted by a man who.
beginning on barely nothing, succeeded in
building up a iarge and profitable busi
ness, and retiring with a considerable for
tune, when asked bow he had managed,
what was the secret of his success, he re
plied, by saving what other people wasted,
looking after the little things and seeing
that not a thing was thrown away or cast
aside as too small or insignificant to be of
any value. A few cents here and a few
there make up quite a sum in the course of
a year, and it is by paying careful atten
tion to the little details, by looking after
the cents, that I have made my dollars.
There is a great deal more in this than
most people would be willing to admit.
They are in too much of a hurry to make
dollars to look out for the cents.
A poor and incompent or disinterested
workman is not only a poor man to employ
because of this, but because he is wasteful
and careless about small things. Take
some of our very large manufactories, where
hundreds of employes are engaged, and,
unless the most watchful care is exercised,
the amount of waste that is lost would go
far toward paying running expenses.
In these times of close competition, when
it becomes an absolute necessity that every
possible item be carefully turned to ac
count, the exercise of economy in small
things is being more rigidly cultivated.
Profits at best are only small, and these
are made considerably less by the waste
fulness of careless and unthoughtful* men.
A Few Christmas Mottoes.
Here are some Christmas mottoes for the
use of those who, with needle, pencil or
brush themselves make the gifts they send
"It is the blessed Chrismastide,
The Christmas lights are all aglow."
"Above our beads the joy-bells ring.
Without the happy children sing."
"Kindle the Christmas brand, and then
Till sunne-set let it burne."
"Givo th e fionour to this day
That seet December turn'd to May."
"Let winter breathe a fragrance forth
Like as the purple spring."
"The neighbors were friendly bidden,
And all had welcome true."
"A man might then behold,
At Christmas, in each hall,
Good fires to curb the cold,
And meat for great and small."
A Story of Hannibal Hamlin.
In Hannibal Hamlin's early days, at a
certain caucus in Hampden, the only at
tendants were himself and a citizen of a
very large stature.
Mr. Hamlin had some resolutions to pass
which began by representing that they
were presented to a "large and respectable
gathering of voters."
"Hold on," cried the other man, "we
can't pass that, for it ain't true! It ain't
a large and respectable caucus! There's
only two of us."
"You keep still, brother!" commanded
the wily Hannibal, "it's all right, for you
are large and lam respectable. You just
So the resolution were passod without
Mrs. Xewed —And to think, dearest, you
used to hate me!
Mr. Newed (twining his arms about her)
—Yes, but you know you were my mother
—l)r. I'enner's Golden Relief is warrant
ed to relieve toothache, headache, neural
gia, or any other pain in 2 to 8 minutes.
Also bruises, wounds, wire cuts, swellings,
bites burns, summer complaints, colic,
(also in horses), diarrhoea, dysentery and
flux. If satisfaction not given money
—A Missouri woman lias a peculiar idea
of humor, judging by the explanation a
woman hailing from that State gave of her
elopement with a drummer. She said she
did it fur a joke on the drummer, who was
always teasing her. It is hoped he saw
—The most valuable metal in the world
is said to be gallium, which is worth $3.-
L'3o an ounce. Calcium brings SI,BOO a
pound. Gold is worth only $240 a pound,
but its good enough for us.
Ordinary Actions of Oxygen.
BY GKOBGB L. BT'RDITT.
In the year 1774. philosophers all over
the civilized world were astonished by Dr.
Priestley's discovery of oxygvn. It has
rightly been called the most important
discovery of that century, and rivaled
Xewton's discovery of gravitation in the
preceding century. Besides forming an
epoch in the progress of learning, it put an
end to old chemical theories, and at the
same time laid the foundation of modern
chemistry, furnishing a key to many of
nature's secrets. But, while Newton'*
discovery is unsurpassed in grandeur,
Priestley's is more closely connected with
Oxygen is the most abundant of all the
elements. It composes at least one-third
of the earth, one fifth of the atmosphere,
and eight-ninths by weight of all the water
on the globe. It is also a very important
constituent of all minerals, animals, and
vegetables. Oxygen may be prepared in a
variety of ways. One way is to heat
mercuric oxide in a tube or retort. Mercury
is soon condensed in the coolest part of the
retort, and a gas is liberated, which may
be collected over water: 2EgO equal 211 g
plus 02. It was by this method that Dr.
Priestley discovered the gas. A supply of
very pure oxygen may by obtained by the
actiou of heat upon potassic chlorate. A
flask may be used to hold the chlorate, and
the gas may be collected in jars over water.
When the quantity of chlorate is large,
the heat required is apt to soften the glass
of the flask in which the chlorate is de
composed. It has been found that metal
lie oxides, if mixed in a fine powder with
the pulverized chlorate in the proper peo
portions, cause the expulsion of the gas
at a much lower temperature, although
such oxides do not appear to have experi
enced any change during the operation.
Black oxide of copper and oxide of manga
nese are the oxides generally used, but the
resulting oxygen always contains traces of
chlorine. These are the simplest wayt> ot
getting oxygen for experiments, although
many others exist.
Oxygen is a colorless, tasteless, and
scentless gas, a little heavier than air
(specific pravity 1.1050), and only slightly
soluble in water. It was first condensed
to a liquid by Pictet and Cailletet, but the
operation was quite difficult. It refracts
light the least of any known substance.
AT ordinary temperatures it possesses weak
magnetic properties, but its susceptibility
to magnetization is diminished, and some
times disappears temporarily, at 325 R . Oxy
gen has a strong attraction for other
elements, excepting fluorine, and enters
into combination with them, forming a
great variety of compounds. With some
elements it forms gasos; with others,
solids. Some of these compounds give up
their oxygen with great ease, while others
do not. With one set of substances it
forms neutral compounds; with others,
alkalies; with still others, acids. With
some elements it forms nourishing food;
with others, deadly poisons. Mingled with
one gas, nitrogen, it forms the air we
breathe; combined with another gas
hydrogen, it forms the water we drink. It
is necessary to the support of all animal
life, and hence was called by the old
chemists "vital air;" but its actions upon
the lungs is very violent if breathed un
diluted for any considerable time.
The distinguishing feature of oxygen is
its great power of supporting combustion.
When, by any rapid chemical action, light
and heat are produced. conbnstiou is said
to have taken place. Heat is usually neces
sary to starh tho process, but afterward the
heat given out during the process is more
than enough to carry it 011. In regard to
combustion, all bodies may be included in
one of three classes:
1. Supporters of combustion; those which,
like oxygen, allow bodies to burn freely in
them, but do not burn themselves.
2. Combustibles; those substances which,
like charcoal, actually burn in a gas of the
first class, when raised to the proper
3. Those bodies which, like sand, iron
rust, or earthy bodies in general, neither
burn themselves nor suppoit the combus
tion of other bodies; they may be made red
hot, but they do not burn.
The terms "combustible" and "supporter
of combustion" are, however, merely re
lative; for, although hydrogen is ordinarily
a combustible, and oxygen and cbloriue
supporters of combustion, yet these two
last mentioned gases arc quite capable of
burning when surrounded by an atmosphere
of hydrogen. All substances which burn
in air burn in pure oxygen with greater
brilliancy. If a glowing splinter is put in
to a jar of oxygen, it is lighted aud burns
with a very bright light. Substances
usually considered incombustible may burn
violently in oxygen. For instance, take a
steel watch spring, coil it into a spiral, tip
one end with sulphur and light it, and put
tho spring into a jar of oxygen. The spring
burns with a dazzling light,and scintillates
beautifully. The combination of oxygen
with others elements is called oxidation,
and the products aro called oxides. Com
buhtion is tho combination of oxygen with
another substance; so that oxidation is
really combustion, and vice versa.
The cases considered above are cases of
rapid compustion. At ordinary tempera
tures oxygen often enters into combination
so slowly that the heat liberated is not per
ceptible (for oxidation always causes heat)
This is the case when iron rusts in the
air. This is called slow combustion; but
this slow combustion is always accompan
ied by heat. A pound of iron will produce
the same amount of heat, whether rusted
iu the air or burnt in oxygen, on in the
the first case it may take years to develop
this amount of heat, and in the second
only a few minutes. Under favorable cir
cumstances oxidation may become so rap
id as to raise the temperature of a dody to
its ignition, when it bursts into flame, pro
ducing what is known as spontaneous com
bustion. This is especially the case in
machine shops or factories, if pies ol tow,
used for wiping oil from machinery, or
piles of oily iron filings, aro left lying
about for any length of time. Although
the combustible, or body which is burned,
may undergo such a complete change of
form as to disappear from sight, yet there
is no destruction of matter or loss of weight
during combustion. When a candle burns
it seems to be completely destroyed, leav
ing only traces of ash. However, it may
be shown that there is no actual destruc
tion of the caiulla's components, but that
they have combined with a certain propor
tion of oxygen, forming carbonic anhy
dride and aqueous vapor; and these, al
though invisible, really weigh more than
the original candle, the gain in weight rep
resenting the amount of oxygen necessary
to produce tho change. Metals oxidize
more rapidly in a moist than in a dry at
liiospbere. In the the case of iron, the ox
idation goes through the entire mass; but
with other subtttaucos, like load and zinc,
only a coating is formed on the surface,
which protects the parts beneath from oxi
Slow oxidation is constantly going on
around us, although in such a quiet way as
to lie unnoticed in most Oxygen.
existing free in the atmosphere, prevades
averything, and shows an irresistable de
aire to poKKees everything. The decay of
animal and vegetable matter is due to oxy
gen. which. by it* combination with them,
breaks them up into simpler substances.
It is this slow oxidation which rids the
earth, the air and the sea of their impuri
ties—a sort of smouldering fire which con
sumes all waste matter. Its slight solu
bility in water enable* it to remove impui
ties from below the surface of lakes, rivers,
etc., tbns keeping the water pure. The
part played by oxygen in nature is of the
greatest importance. It i» a sort of key
stone in the arch of chemical elements,
holding them in their propur place* by the
vast number of combinations it makes
One of the practical consequences of Dr.
Priestley's discovery, Prof. Liebig observes:
"Since the discovery of oxygen, the civilix
ed world has undergone a revolution in
manners and customs. The knowledge of
the composition of the atmosphere, of the
solid crust of the earth, of water, and ol
their iufluence upon the life of plants and
animals, was linked with that discovery.
The successful pursuit of innumerable
trades and manufactures, the profitable
separation of metals from their ores, also
stand in the closest connection therewith.
It may well be said that the material pros
perity of empires has increased manifold
since the time oxygen became known, and
the fortune of every individual has been
augmented in proportion."— Pop. Set.
Her Darling In a Tree.
Xear Kaine's floar mill stands a hemlock
tree, which is probably 100 fret high, at
the butt is all of six feet in circumference,
and is minus limbs for at least ten feet up
its jagged trunk. On the extreme top of
the tree a wild grapevine blossomed and
bore fruit this season, and a number ot the
young lads hare climbed the tree at various
times lo secure this luscious fruit. Dr. E.
M. Sloan lives near this locality, and is the
father of a bright, pretty little daughter,
who is now in her 7th year, and is not
overly large for her age. This little miss
has often looked with covetous eyes on the
success of the boys in securing the grapes,
and lately she concluded to try the same
method edopted by them. When dis.
covered she was on one of the topmost
limbs, standing upright, holding herself in
position with one hand, while with the
other she was gathering the finest bunches
lier mother having misoed the little lady
went in serch of her, and discovering her
position, to say that she was scared but
slightly expresses her feelings,but knowing
that to show any signs of fear might cause
the little one to lose courage, she spoke to
her in her usual pleasant manner, and
commanded her to come down immediate
ly. The little one, always quick to obey,
immediately proceeded to do so, and as
nimbly as a squirrel, she climbed down the
tree and landed safely on the ground. A
number of persons had gathered near
while she was coming down, and while
words of surprise were expressed at her
nimbleness, yet a feeling of fear for her
safety was felt by all. It was a daring feat.
It is not what we produce, but what wo
utilize that makes the profit.
A weed has no better right to life in the
fall than in the spring.
A good picture of folly would be a man
burning the straw his land had grown.
It is noticeable that the large majority
ot vicioas horses are handled by bad-tern
Don't allow the threshers' engine in
your yard unless there is a good screen
over the smoke stack.
Many men wear out a dime's worth of
shoe-leather to obtain from a neighbor the
gift of five cents worth of grindstone.
Many a boy has been driven from the
farm by being compelled to do chores while
the men were nooning under trees.
If a little clearing, a little ditching, a lit
tle enriching or a little picking up is done
each year, the farm will steadily improve.
Rut if the tarin suffers a little neglect each
year it will soon run down.
It is better to teach the cows gentleness
than to saw off their horns.
It is better to think twice before you
strike a cow than to think twice to find out
why you struck her.
Wagons and carts that are used daily
should have the axles well greased at least
three times a week. It lessens the work
of the horses.
Stood cn the Floor.
Ella Ewing, a timid country girl lrom
Scotland county, Missouri. poked her head
through the transom of her room at the
Commercial Hotel the other night and
called to the porter to put more coal on
her fire. Miss Ewing wasn't standing on a
table or a chair when she did this but on
the floor. She is eight feet high in her
stocking-feet and weighs 234 pounds, and
is not yet done growing or fully developed.
II er father can walk with a plug hat on
under her outstretched arms and her
mother can hide boneath the generous folds
of her skirt. The girl was brought up to
agriculture and is a model farm-hand. Two
years ago, Mr. Ewing says, she raked
thirty acres of hay with a sulky-rake, and
there are few young men of her age in the
northern part of Missouri who can more
skillfully manage a team of horses. —
The Congressman a Creek.
Col. Lucius W. Miller, Congressman-elect
from one of the Wisconsin districts, is a
fullblooded Greek, and the first man of
that nationality ever elected to an office in
the United States, so far as known, lie
knows nothing about his own parentage.
His foster-father, Col. J. P. Miller, of
Vermont, was in Greece when that country
was fighting for Its existence, and on the
battle field of Missolonghi picked up a
little Greek boy, and being unable to find
claimant brought him to this country,
adopted him as his own child and gave him
bis name. Some years ago theyoung Greek
emigrated to Wisconsin where he has be
come a prominent citiien.
—"There is something that has preyed
heavily on my mind since our engagement
dear." he said "but I am almost afraid to
tell you of it." "What is it. Georget" the
young woman asked anxiously. "I am a
somnambulist." —"Oh, is that allt" she
exclaimed with a sigh of relief, "I have
always been a universalist myjelf, but of
course when we art- made one 1 shall expect
to attend your church."
taclfs that a person never forgets!" said a
lectuier after a graphic description of a
terrible accident that he had witnessed.
"I'd like to know where they sell 'em,"
remarked an old lady in the audience who
is always mislaying her glasses.
—Poet's Wife: "Dinner is ready, de»r.
This is the third time I have called yon."
Poet. "In a minute. 1 am trying to
make a rhyme of'go a fishin' aud prohi
bition." Poets wife: "Oh, the rhyme is
easy enongb, but the ideas don't seem to
Scenes In India.
The following is an extract from a letter
written by August Schmuck. now in India,
to his father in Emlenton.
At Yenangyauug there is a magistrate
who deals out justice to natives and
Europeans alike, not that they both get
justice. There is no jury. I will give an
instance of how Dacoits are dealt with.
Last May six Dacoits were captured out in
the jungle. They were brought in before
the magistrate who heard the case or cases.
After hearing the witnesses he condemned
the six to be hanged by the neck till they
were dead. The clerk wrote it down in a
book. This hearing was held on Sunday
morning und they were hanged on Mon
day. The magistrate was hangman also.
He 4id not know how to make a hangman *
knot and Oliver and Colonel Mays tied it
for btm. I will tell Oliver to give yon an
account of it.
The Burmese buy or steal their wives, or
at least so lam informed. When a young
Burman finds a girl whom he wishes to
marry, the girt of course being willing, he
goes to the girl's parents and aske them
how many rupees presents they want for
the daughter. If they can make a bargain,
all well and good, the parents giving their
blessing or saying amen. If unsatisfactory
the young man goes to his love's house,
calls ber out and immediately embarks for
another clime, stays away for a short time,
and then returns with bis wife. So yon
see we have elopements here as well as at
home. A police, inspector at Yenangy
aung has got a Burmese wife for 250 ru
pees. This is about as high as I ever heard
of a man paying for a Burmese wife.
We don't hunt game in Burmah the same
as in America. Yesterday myself and four
others went into the jungle hunting deer.
e always take our food and water with
us when we hunt. We had three coolies
to carTy water and food for us and we took
about eight gallons of filtered water, twelve
loaves ot bread, one can Chicago corn beef,
one can of mackerel and a fried chicken.
We had three Uurwans, two of them with
rifles and fixed bayonets, and five Bur.
mans. The chief or head man we furnish
ed with a short shot gun (muxile loader).
So you see we had a party of thirteen.
Sandy Miller, the old Scotchman; Prank
Weller, Elmer Keighner and myself left
the house yesterday morning at 3 o'clock,
taking three coolies and tbret) Durwans
with us, and went to Bhema whore we
met Igwoch and his four men, and then
started for the jungle. Christ was ready
to go the night before but did not sleep
well during the night and thought he had
better not go. We traveled from 3 o'clock
till 8, when we halted at the place where
we had previously sent the coolies with
water and food. We had been hunting
in the jungle since daylight. Keighner and
myself, a Darwan and a Burman went in
one direction, Miller and a Darwan and
Burman guide went in another, and Weller
with Igwoch and another Burman and a
still in another. We all came together at
8 o'clock tor food and water,Weller having
seen one deer, which was all that was seen
all this time. We ate and drank with great
appetites, having had nothing since the
night before. We also shared with the
coolies who ate nothing but bread and
sugar, it being against their caste to eat
our meat. The Durwans would eat noth
ing at a'l nor drink a drop of water because
it had passed through our bands and was
against their caste. The Burmans brought
their food with them, also their water
which was filtered. Their food was rice
with curry, aud we gave them two loaves
of bread. Breakfast we started off
into the jungle again, this time my Bur
man followed a deer track a mile and a
half aud only lost it in the grass. It is a
wonder to me how he followed it over the
sandy ground. About I o'clock we met
again for a rest. None had got a deer or
even a shot at one. Keighner was near
ly played out and went home with the
three Durwans, who were weak, hungry
and thirsty. We hunted till about 3 o'clock
and then started home without firing a
sHot the whole day, let alone getting a
deer. We were in sight of the derrick at
Khodaung and I had just remarked that I
would not shoot a deer if I saw one when,
coming suddenly to the brow of a chauug
overlooking an open bushy place, I saw a
small deer running to the bush and I fired
just as it was entering the jungle, giving it
n death wound in the hind quarters. The
whole party livened np. The deer crossed
a small dry bed of a creek and was endeav
oring to clitn'i the opposite bank when
Miller aud Frank fired, one ball taking
effect in deer's head. By eating
sparingly we made two meals of it. Could
have eaten it in one meal. I got one two
weeks ago yesterday.
A Revised Version.
Mr. Bingo—Well, Tommy, what did you
learn at Sunday-school todayT
Tommy—l learned how to say grace.
Mr. Bingo—Let's hear it.
Tommy (meekly)—lt only goes with two
pieces of cake.
—lnk stains can easily be removed from
the fingers with the head of a parlor
match. Moisten the ink-stained spot and
rub it gently with the held of the match,
keeping the skin wet so that it will not be
—A German left his wife in the old
country fourteen years ago and settled in
Whitewater, Wis, and married again.
About six weeks ago his deserted dreamed
of bis location and came oyer and went
direct to the town, the street and the
house, aud her old man now sits in jail and
wonders about the magnetism of souls.
—A minister at Goshen, Ind., halted in
his sermon the other Sunday evening and
said: "There is flirting, talking, note
writing, tobacco and gum chewing and
visiting going on here, and I will stop until
you get through." After waiting fifteen
minutes and seeing no change, he closed
the services and went home.
—lf you don't want to have nitimate
trouble cure your ca'arrh now by using
Old Saul's Catarrh Cure. It ooita but 26
One lap (its mother's) tor the well baby
in daytime. About 700 laps of the bedroom
floor at night for the happy (t) father un
less he has Dr. Bull's Baby Syrup to eaf«
the little sufferer.
—One of the greatest ills of the earth-
—Papermakcrs are using the banana
plant for paper making. They will slip
up on this some day.
—lt was a Scotch grave digger who Mid:
"Trade's very dull noo. I have na buried
a leevin' creetur in a fortnight."
"The winter," saith the goose.
With sadness in her tone,
"Will be both long and cold,
I feel it in roy bone."
—"I am always getting stuck" said the
type. "Nevertheless I have a rerv gocd
impression of you," answered the paper.
- iladf I should say so! They seat.d
me by the biggest fool in the whole room."
"No wonder you were beside yciurfelf!"