Butler citizen. (Butler, Pa.) 1877-1922, March 10, 1880, Image 1

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No eube ription will be Jiacontiuue.l nut il all
.. * ..a are raid. |»o*tnu»ter» neglecting to
I Jtiix V- when B-abocribers do not take out their
rapera - ill be held liable for ibe aubacnptu.n |
S t; ! s;i removing from one jxratothce to ■
a : r should give twine name of the former j
a* w-H »!• the preeeut office.
.11 communicati <-na intended for publication j
in thi* paper must be accompanied by the real |
name of the writer, oot for publication, but a» ,
a guarantee of good faith.
Marriage aud dehfh notices must be aocompa
liied by a responsible name.
(Cutler Tiuse.)
f rains leave Butler for St. Joe, Millerstown,
K inis Citv. fctroliti, Parker, etc., at 7/i> a. iu ,
an I 2.05 and 7.20 p. in. [See Wow lor con
lici i'i.n- with A. V R R.|
1" rains arrive at Butler from the above named
no'.- - a. ni.. and 1.55, and 0.->5 p ra.
Th I V, irtin connects with train on the \v est
Penu roud '.lirotmli to Pittsburgh.
T, j:;,«i..rdV Mill, Butler county,
for II: rr: viilc, Greenville, etc., at 7.40 a. m.
81-1 IS.-.M and 2.2u p. ro- ~ in
• e Pefrolia at 5.30 ft. m. for i.40
train, an.: at 10.00 a. ro. tor 12.00 train.
■ -n-i-s leave Milliard on arrival of
trai l- it 11.27 a. in. and 1.50 p. m.
t ii:t' leaves M.i:llutborj{ ut 9.30 for 12,80
Trains Icavi Bui ler (Butler or Pittsburgh Time.)
■urrles at 5.06 a. m., files through to Aile
eh'cnv, ir. Vuu nl 0.01 a. in. This train con-
L.Hi-" at Fri< port With Fruport Accommoda
tion, which arrives at Allegheny at 8.20 a. m.,
railr :d tim '. _
;it 7.21 a. m , connectiDK at Bui er
Jniicti. n, without ebunpe of care, at 8.-6 »>th
E x .. -s w-st, arriving In Aliefrhtnv at 9--»8
r. in , and Express wist at Blairs\.ile
at 11 00 a. m- railroad time.
Mail at 2.36 p. m., connecting *1 But to. Jnne
tionwiilnnit chance of ours, with Express west,
arriving in Alle*h.ny - 526 p. in., and Ex
„r cafl arriving at Blairsviiie Intersection
at c ' . in. railroad time, which connects wth
Philadelphia Kspn-s" east, when on time.
Tl;<- "» I'» to train connects fit nlairsMile
at 11 05 • iu. «:".ii the Mai! taist, and Uie 2.30
p.m." train at 0,5 a with the Philadelphia Er
' Tiftina arrive fit Bnlh-r on West Peon U. K_ al
0.51 a. m . 5.0» ; and 7.20 p. in , Butler time. The
li ".l and /> 0'! trains unmet witii trains on
tl Butler Parker K. K. Sun ay train arrive#
at i«jr at 11.11 a. in., connecting with train
for P;.j ki.T.
Main Line.
Tiiroti'jh trains Imvis Pittsburgh lor the Ka?«
n» 2 ."it' s.r>6 a. in. and 12 51, 4.21 aud 5.06 p.
r arriving at Philadelphia at 3.40 and 7.20
p. Li and J.OO, 7 0 and 7.40 n. iu.; at Baltimore
about the fame time, at Sew York three hoars
1: r, ant! t Washington about one and a half
hou.s later.
liiv2l-ty] BUTI.EK. PA.
0 1/ WALDRON. dr. dnate ol the Phli
ft adclpliia,Dentai Coilesre.is prepared
a I* •to do anything in the line of hu
pro! - ion in a satis factory manner.
Office on Main street, Butler, Union Block,
.-! lire. "H* 11
William 8. Boyd has 320 acres of So. 1 Praiiie
I.and in Butler conntv. Kansas, which lie will
exchange for 100 acres in litis county, and pay
difference if any. ,
A large numl er of CHEAP FAl> S for sa.e
in this eoniiiv, West Virginia, Missouri and Kan-
Ma. ApiA to WM. M. BOYD
mar3-2ra Vogeley House. Butler, Pa
A handsome six-room fiatne house, located
on Bluff street, northwestern part of Buticr.
Lot *>il\l7i>. All necessary ouilmildinifs.
'1 I.UMS —Ore-'.hird cash and balance in four
equ . annual payments. Inquire at this ofl'ce.
Farm lor SALE.
The undtMaiitaed will sell the farm of Jacob
Sh.mor, dee'd, situated in Centre township,
three miles li< in Butler. It consists ol 175
a; res, about a hundred cleared, the balance in
JJOO I timber, Iwo orchards, frame bauk burn,
frame house, fiame wash house and granary
It . t sold in a body it can be divided without
ii>; irv. inquire of
j. a. MUVIZ,
janl-i-2'n Butler, Pa.
Valuable Farm for Sale.
The undersigned offers at private sale the
faun Intrly owned by Kobert Oilleland, dee'd,
Ja'e cf Middlesex township, containing
162 Acres,
more or less, with a two story brick house and
h?nk lnro. hay house wagon shed and other
outbuildings. Two good orchards thereon. 130
ari en cl -ired, balance in good timber, easy of
ace.-s, bv about oi.e-ha!f mile from Butler and
Pittbl plank road and 1 miles from new
ige rail.-oad, is well improve ! ami in
good erudition, and is well adapted for dairy
purposes. For terms applv to
declTtf] Bakerstowu, Allegheny Co., Pa.
For teale.
The well-improved farm of Bev. W. R. Hutch
ison, in the northeast corner of Middlesex town
ship, Butler county, Pa . is now offered for sale,
low. Inquire of W. K. FRISBEE, on the prem
ises. apl6tf
?"> will buy a one-half interest in a good hus
lue-s in Pittsburgh. One who knows some
thing a!..<ut f preferred. An honest man
with the above iinionnt will do well to address
bv letter. SMITH JOHNS, aire 8. M. James,
0:'. Liberty str -et, Pittsburgh, Pa. |au-7-ly
IS U T L, K It. P A..
President. Vice President.
War. CAMPBELL, Jr., Cashier.
■William Campbell, J. W. Irwin,
.'in. D. Anderson, George Weber,
Joseph L. Purvis.
D er- a O'-noral Banking A Exchange bnsiness.
Interest p nd on time depr>sits. Collections made
an.) prompt returns at low rates of Exchange.
Oold Kxchauge and Government Bonds bought
an Isold. Commercial paper, bonds, judgment
and other securities bought at fair rates. ia2o:ly
(n<'orp»rat««3 I S li>.
A-ets $7,078,224.49.
1.0-.-et. paid lii f>l years, $51,00P,000.
J. T. Mi JI" N KIN ife SON, Ajrents,
jan'3,siy Jefferson street, Butler, Pa.
Kutual Fire Insurance Co.
Crßcn C*)r. Main and Cunningham Sts.
J. 1,. Purvis, E. A. Helmboldt,
Wiiliara Campbell, J. W. Barkhart,
A. Trontnian, Jacob Sehoene,
G. C. Roesilntr. John Caldwell,
Dr. A lrvin, W. W Dodds,
J. '".Christy 11. C. Heineman.
JAB. M'JUKm. Gen. Ac't
pnHett Ojlwii.
VOL. xvir.
Boot and Shoe Store
OF !
John Bickel,
.. - - ' ~ y
The largest and most complete stock of Goods ever brought <
to Butler is now being opened bj- me at my store. It comprises (
Boots, Shoes, Gaiters, Slippers, |
Misses' & Children's Shoes, • ;
in great variety. All Goods were purchased for CASH
in the Eastern markets, and therefore I can sell them at the
Old Prices, and I
Lines of Philadelphia, New Ycrk and Boston Goods embrace \
my stock, and customers can take their choice. 1
I Mean What I ©ay:
All can call and see for themselves. The best of satisfaction <
will be given for CASH. !
of Goods in my store cannot be excelled by any other house in <
the county, for proof of which a personal inspection is all that is J
necessary. 1
Leather and
at Pittsburgh'prices. Shoemakers should come and purchase if ]
they wish to obtain material cheap.
of the Well-Known Splendid
We wish to inform the public that we have remodeled our Mill with the
latest improved
Gradual Reduction System Machinery,
which is well known by Millers to be the best in existence. We can say to
Farmers and Producers of wheat that it will be profitable to them
to give us a trial. We claim that we can make a
out of the same number of bushels of wheat than any other M'll in the
county, and equal to any first-class Mill in the city, or Western M'"lls.
The new Under-running Mill, used for Regrinding, bought of Munson & Bro.,
Utica, N, Y.; the (ieorge T. Smith Middlings Purifier, bought
at Jackson, Mich., together with Bolting Cloths,
Reals, Conveyers, Ac., suitable fop
the Machinery, cannot be
Excelled in the United States
or elsewhere. This may seem an exaggeration to some, but we wish the pub-'
lie to know that we are able to perform all that we publish, as we have given
our machinery a thorough test in the presence of several good Millers and
Millwrights, and it has proven even better thau it was guaranteed to do.
We are also remodeling our Mill for
Grinding Other Kinds of Grain,
which will bo entirely satisfactory to our customers. "Farmers wishing to
have their grist home with them the same day, can do so on
short notice. They will thereby save anotlmr trip.
Buckwheat Flour, Bolted and Unbolted Com Meal, different kinds of Chop,
Brau and Mill Feed, all of the best quality and at the
Jjj§T" Parties in town purchasing from us will have their orders promptly
atended to and articles delivered at their place of residency.
We PVy the Highest Market Price for all of Grtfn.
[Written for the CITIZEN'.]
The origin of horse shoeing is a
subject which has been enlarged upon
by numerous writers. Although the
horse is frequently alluded to in the
Scriptures, there is nothing said of his
being shod. Among the early Greeks
and Egyptians the art was unknown,
although by carelessness or license in
the translation of elassieal history, the
idea has been given in some instances
that the hoofs of horses were shod,
sometimes with iron, sometimes with
brass. There is no foundation for such
a supposition, at least so far as protect
ing the sole of the foot with metal is
coneerned. There is no doubt that the
first shoeing of the horse was of leather,
attached with thongs, as sandals were
with men. In Egypt this method of
protecting the camels' feet with raw
hide attains to the present day. In
Japan, before the introduction of the
iron shoe, the horses wore shoes of
straw, as many as half a dozen sets
being worn out in a day's journey.
In the wars of the ancient Greeks and
Romans immense bodies of cavalry
were rendered useless, because the
hoofs of the horses were worn away
during long and fatiguing marches.
The flimsy protection spoken of not
being of material use, various methods
were resorted to of hardening the hoof,
such as paving a track with small
round stones, so that by long continued
traveling upon them the hoofs might
acquire hardness. From the use of
rawhide, rushes, etc., the translation
to metal productions for the horse's
hoof was natural; by virtue of neces
The question is: "When was the art
originated, and where?" Fleming 1 , in
his reeent work, is inclined to think
that the Celts or Uallo Celts were the
originators of the art. Now, there is
no proof of this, as the < use of iron
was not known to that people, nor '
have shoes of bronze or an}* other ma- '
terial been found among their remains.
In the British Isles, horse shoes of
the Romano-British period have been
found, and almost all of them on Ro
man sites. We will go back. Xeno
phon and Vegetus, both of whom lived
some centuries before Christ, in their
works do not speak of horse shoes,
although they both wrote upon the
horse. Neither did their contempora
ries of other nations speak of horse
shoes. Catullus and Appian, Roman
historians, the lirst of whom lived in
the century before Christ, the latter in
the first century A. D., wrote upon the
horse. Catullus speaks of shoes made
uf iron, wire, or plate iron. Appian
ilso speaks of an iron shoe. Catullus,
who died in the year 40 B. C., lived in
the time of Julius Ca>sar. Fifty-five
years before the birth of Christ, Ctesar
invaded Britain, and althou/rh coming
with lire and the sword among the
ravage islanders, he brought civiliza
tion in his train. Now, here is a cu
'ious circumstance. In Norfolk, Eng
and, among other remains, were found
[toman urns, and a horse shoe of a
leeuliar shape, being round and broad
n front, very narrow at the heels,
jointing inward, and with the nail
loies still perfect. l)iodarus, a Greek,
ived in Caesar's time, and did not
;peak of horse shoes. Catullus, a
Etonian, who also lived in Ctesar s
ime, did speak of them, although no
!ontemporary of his timedid. Is this
lot conclusive evidence that they came
nto use in Ciesar's time, and origi
lated with the Romans'/ Leo, the
)hiloeopher, Emperor of the East, who
■eigned in the ninth century, speaks of
lorse shoes, which lie called bv the
jreek name selenaiu, from their moon
•hape, and that description answers
ixactly to the shoe found in England.
In fact, that shape was preserved for
nany decades, as is proved by many
»rints and works of the old masters,
[f the art of horse shoeing hat. been
n vogue in the East, it is not likely
hat Leo would have called the shoe
jy the foreign name. Some writers
contend that the art originated in
Sreece, because Leo used a Greek
ivord. He simply did so because it
was most expressive, the shoe resem
bling the Ottoman symbol—the cres
:ent- in shape. As an oflset to such
i supposition, we will say that the
,vord "farrier" is derived from ferra
~iuß, (a worker in iron) from the
Latin. There is no doubt that the art
vas invented by the Romans, and
roni them it extended to other people,
is the face of the country changed,
md as the military power of the lto
nans became mightier, cavalry being
he most important branch of the ser
•ice, they were forced to render their
mimals serviceable, in order to extend
heir conquests. In the East there
vas no necessity for artificial protec
,ion to the hoof, as from the dryness of
he soil and the even temperature of
he air, the hoofs became firm and
ough. Thus it is easily seen that ne
cessity first brought about the shoeing
>f horses with metal, and practice con
irmed the custom. The gold and sil
ver shoes of Nero's mules were sup
josed by some to have been simply
dates of those metals, inclosing the
ivalls of the hoof. There is no foun
lation for such a supposition, as the
>resent form of shoeitip was before bis
ime. The system inaugurated by the
[tomans spread throughout Europe
During the Anglo-Saxon period the
irt was practiced with clamps, so that
.hey could be detached at pleasure.
In the eleventh century, I think, we
jave the first written intimation that
ixen were shod for traveling. Guiltert
le Nogent, a contemporary of Peter the
Hermit, in describing the excitement
ittending the preaching of that worthy
n favor of the crusades and the rescue
jf Jerusalem, gives as an illustration
hat of "the rustic, who shod his oxen
ike horses, and placing bis w hole
amily on a cart, where it was amusing
,o bear the children, on the approach
,o any large town or cattle, inquiring
f that was Jerusalem." This allusion
s curious inasmuch as it informs us
bat oxen were shod, and as if some
ting very remarkable. It is not until
he thirteenth century that we find
iny positive record of special build
ngs for shoeing. In 1202 A. D. there
ITS* twxj ebYrft* for VtoAty,
In Kngland, in 1235, during the reign
of Henry 111., Walter C. Brown, a
farrier, had a piece of land granted
him in the strand, in the parish of St.
Clements Dane, London, whereon to
erect a forge, on conditions that he
should render at the Exchequer, aunu
ally, for the same, a quit rent of six
horse shoes, with the sixty-two nails
Ixdonging. The custom has continued
ever since, and from it originated the
"counting of the horse shoes and the
hob nails" on swearing in the London
Sheriffs at the Court of Exchequer of
the present day. From the daily ex
pense book of the 28th year of Ed
ward I. (120JI) we loarn that the pay
of the smiths was four pence per day,
and that horse shoes were charged at
ten shillings per hundred and nails
twenty pence a thousand. Iron was
sold at five pence per stone. Iron
was known at least 1537 years B. C.
The Lacedamonians coined it into
money, and in Homer's time it was
used in axes, plowshares, nails, etc.
As to shoeing horses in the present
day, a thorough knowledge of how to
perform the art presupposes an inti
mate understanding of the whole pro
cess. In my opinion there is no rule
that will apply to the shoeing of all
horses. In no two horses are the feet
exactly alike, yet in their essential
functions all act and are governed by
the same law. The movements of the
horse's foot and limbs require that the
bearing surface should come to the
ground in a given line at every step,
but that natural requirement is rarely
presumed, and, when it is so, it is
more by accident than by rule. There
is a verv taking phrase always used
by people who wish to be thought
wise about shoeing, viz., that the shoe
is to lie fitted to the foot, and not the
foot to the shoe. If there be any
truth in that saying, it does not lie so
near the surface as is generally sup
posed. In preparing the horse's foot
to be shod, as well as the shoe, the re
quirement in the skill of the operator
above all is, that he should know the
right form and required bearing surface
of that particular foot, and set the
shoe with the the proper bearing, on
the wall of the foot, without burning
the foot. There is a science in the
punching of a shoe, in the forming of
a shoe, in the paring of a foot, in the
driving of nails, in the c inching of a
nail, and many other points in making
and driving a shoe, each of which
would take a column to fully explain.
Coultersville, Feb. 2C», 1880.
Various accounts have been given of
the invention of the "Fifteen Game,"
otherwise known as the "Gem Puzzle,"
which is just now having a run second
only to that of "Pinafore." According
to one story it is the invention of a
deaf mute in Hartford, who made it
for the entertainment of the inmates of
the asylum where he lived, without a
thought of the insane asylum for which
it seems likely to mako so many pa
tients. Another story ascribes the
thing to the postmaster at Canastota,
X. V., who gave the game to a lady in
Syracuse, who sent it to a lady at
Watch Hill, who took it home to Hart
ford, where a Boston man saw it, and
so on. But whoever invented it, it is
the manufacturers who are reaping
the profit. It is not patented, but the
manufacture appears to have been con
fined so far to twoXew England firms,
who are said to have been turning out
the games at the rate of six to eight
thousand a day and still hardly have
supplied the demand. The puzzle is to
be seen everywhere. From the judge
on the bench to the bootblack on the
sidewalk, everybody is puzzling over
it. The scientific people are discussing
it. and for the last few days the news
papers have been full of it. The appa
ratus consists of sixteen little squares
of wood, numbered consecutively from
one to sixteen, and fitting exactly in a
shallow square box. In use, the square
numbered Ift is removed, and there is
thus one blank space left, which allows
the blocks to slide, one square at a
time, and they are thus to be arranged
without removing them from the box.
The fifteen squares being mixed and
placed indiscriminately in the box, the
problem is to arrange them in regular
arithmetical series, as in the following
diagram :
I I j j 1
12 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 .10 11 12
13 14 15
Anyone can make the game fur him
self by cutting the little squares from a
cigar box, or by dividing the bottom of
a square pastboard box, first into quar
ters and then into sixteenths, and us
ing the lid of the box, which will of
course, just contain them. Or it can be
played with counters on a quarter see-
I tion of a checker-board. The game as
it is sold in the shops, however, is
! more convenient, and it can be had
anvwhere lor a quarter or even less.
The early moves of the game are
i simple enousrb. Starting with the 1
j and working it gradually toward the
! corner, and following with the 2, and
!so ou, a beginning is easily made.
Then you start this line in procession
around the 6ides of the box gradually
working the numbers in in the required
order. This proces cannot be described
minutely, but one soon discovers a cer
tain sort of method in it, and it looks
as though the solution of the puzzle
were only a question of time and pa
tience. Gradually the lines are formed :
1, 2, 3, 4; 5, 6, 7, 8, and so on. Vic
tory it? at hand, apd the player subduus
lookers-on say : "He has it." But he
hasn't. Although so near, the end is
yet so far that sanguine hope soon
gives way to dispair. After working
for a longer or a shorter time, accord
ing to the familiarity of the player with
the method of the thing, this is the way
it comes out:
12 3 4
5 6 7 8
10 11 12
13 15 14
And no art can get that 15 into its
right place. The more you struggle
with it the worse it gets, and the labor
iously-arranged rows Income all mixed
up again. It is at this point that grim
despair settles down upon all but the
most courageous. Sometimes the 13.
14, 15 come in their right order, while
two other numbers are misplaced, but
we lx>lieve that every combination can
be reduced ultimately to that given
above, so that the real problem is to
get the 15 after the 14. An enterpris
ing Yankee lately advertised to send
the solution of this problem for two
stamps, and to the many who applied
he sent back the answer: "Take up
No. 15 carefully between the thumb
and forefinger and place him where he
belongs." This is on the Gordian prin
ciple of Alexander's solution of the
Gordian knot-; it is heroic, but not sat
It is necessary, however, to resort to
such heroic measures. The 13, 15, 14
combination is soluble, but only by
chnnging the direction of the column*.
This is the secret of the problem. The
player has started with the purpose of
arranging the numbers in horizontal
rows, and he has failed. He has now
to go on from this halting place and ar
range them in vertical columns. This
is the idea intended to be conveyed by
those who have spoken of "turning the
board," a phra.se apparently borrowed
from chess, but only confusing in "fif
teen." It is necessary to give ail of the
twenty-nine moves required for the
solution of the problem, but the follow
ing will enable every one to work it
1 2 3
12341 2 3 1 2 "
i» 10 11 12 !> 10 11 8 9 10 11 5
13 15 14 il3 15 14 12 13 15 14 12
i 5 «
5123 5 123512
13 10 11 813 10 11 813 10 11 4
15 14 12 15 14 12 15 14 12 8
Thus far we have been siniply mov- j
ing the outer row around the board.
We now make two more such moves I
such movements, bringing the board
to the position numbered 8, and then, J
in three moves, bring the 15 into the |
centre (as in 11). and then two forward
movements more:
§ 11 1.1
13 6 7 313 6 7 313 6 7 3
15 10 11 4 15 11 414 15 11 4
14 12 814 10 12 810 12 8
Following are the positions after
everv other one of the next six moves : !
15 17 1»
9 5 113 9 5 113 9 5 1
13 6 7 214 6 7 214 6 2
14 15 11 3 15 11 315 11 7 3
10 12 8 410 12 8 410 12 8 4
The player may now begin to see
his way out. The next eight moves
give the following results:
21 25 2K
13 9 5 113 9 5 1 13 9 5 1
15 14 6 215 14 6 214 10 6 2
11 7 3 10 7 315 7 3
10 12 8 412 11 8 412 11 8 4
It now remains only to move the 11
into its place and the 12 into its place,
and the problem is solved :
13 9 5 1
14 10 G 2
15 11 7 3
12 8 4
But, it may be objected, the only
legitimate arrangement is that repre
sented on the lid of the box, with the
numbers in horizontal order. Very
well. But instead of starting out to ar
range them in horizontal lines begin
with the vertical arrangement in view,
with the 1. in the lower left-hand corner.
You can thus obtain this position:
4 8 12
3 7 11 14
2 6 10 15
• 1 5 9 13
which corresponds precisely with the
first position in the above series, as can
be seen by turning the board upon its
side, and the same moves will bring
the numbers into horizontal order, ex
actly as shown in the large diagram at
the beginning of this article. The num
bers can be arranged either way, but
the secret of success is, at the appa
rently insuperable point, to change the
direction of the columns.
Xo attempt has been made here to
euter into a scientific explanation of
the puzzle or to do anything more than
present one practical method of solv
ing its difficulties. As fifteen numbers
are susceptible of no less than 1,307,-
674,308,000 different combinations, it
is plain that the mathematical possibil
ities of this puzzle cannot be treated
in a single article. Another form of en
tertainment which the "Gem" affords
is iu arranging the whole sixteen
squares in such order that the sum of
the numbers in every continuous row,
vertical, horizontal or diagonal, shall
be the same. This is a form of the old
magic square, which has furnished di
version to mathematicians for so many
centuries. Magic squares were known
ia the East iu remote ages, but }he
I "urhrt oft
was a Greek of the sixteenth century,
named Mosehopulus, whose work was
translated into Latin by De la Hire
and read liefore the French Academy
in lfi9l. Since that time the subject
has been elaborated by a great many
famous mathemeticians, who have
found in it an exhaustless field of study,
and the combinations which have been
made of compound squares, magic
cubes, and what not. and the abstruse
mathematical formula by which their
constructions is explained, would ter
rify an unlearned reader.
[Harper's Weekly.]
Among the changes which have
grown up in the administration of our
Government under the Constitution,
one of the most important is that which
is known as the "courtesy of the Sen
ate." It was recently illustrated by
the rejection of Mr. John Mortou, who
was nominated to 1M; Collector of the
part of San Francisco. Mr. Morton
is a son of the late Senator Morton, of
Indiana, and is now consul at Hono
lulu. There was no question, as we
understand, of his character or capac
ity. or that he was not a fitting candi
date. There was no assertion against
him of any principle of a sound civil
service. But he was not the choice of
the Senators from California, and "the
courtesy of the Senate" required that
the nomination should be judged, not
by its merits, but by the wishes of the
Seimtors from the State. "The cour
tesy of the Senate" further requires
that when a Senator, or one who has
been a Senator, is nominated, he shall
lie confirmed without reference. In
this way Mr. Reverdv Johnson was
nominated as minister to England,
and it is alleged that a motion of Mr.
Sherman to refer the nomination of Mr.
Simon Cameron as Secretary of War
led Mr. Cameron to oppose the con
firmation of Mr. Sherman as Secretary
of the Treasury, in which opposition,
as the Times correspondent an
nounced, Mr. Conkling joined. 'The
courtesy of the Senate" is not quite so
absolute a rule as the laws of the j
Medes and Persians, however, as this
incident and the confirmation of the (
present chiefs of the New York Cus
tom-bouse prove. But in the con
firmation of local appointments it is
generally supreme.
"The courtesy of the Senate" is,
therefore, very well defined by the In
dianapolis Journal as an "alliance of
fensive and defensive for the control of
patronage." That it is a violation of
the the Constitution is indisputable.
The Constitution plainly intends that
the President shall nominate upon his
responsibility for the efficient execution
of the laws, and that the nomination
shall be confirmed except for reason
affecting character of the proper dis
charge of official duty. The power of j
confirmation is not specifically quali
fied, but it is obvious that it is a power
looking to the welfare of the service,
and not to the personal interests or
preferences of individual Senators.
This, indeed, as we say, is not ex
pressly stated, but it is as much implied
as that the Presideut shall nominate
only with the same regard to the pub
lic welfare, and not to subserve his
personal aims. With the vast in
crease of officers, however, there is an
increased disposition to make appoint
ment depend upon the confirmation of
the Senate, and its "courtesy" is but
another name for the agreement to se
cure to each Senator his proportional
share in the patronage. It is this prac
tice which ffives to certain Senators a
political importance and prominence
which they could not have gained by
intrinsic ability. It is sometimes said
that such men do not personally in
terest themselves in minor appoint
ments. But that is not necessary.
Generals do not deal with private
soldiers, but with commanding officers.
The former practice of the Senate
was to confirm nominations unless
some valid objection could be inter
posed. It is enough now that a Sen
ator, for any reason whatever, does
uot favor an appointment proposed for
his State, and it is rejected. We
know an instance of nomination to an
important judicial position in a State,
which was defeated for a year, and
the office left unfilled, simply because
the person whom the Senator ironi the
State dictated for appointment was
not named bv the Executive. There
was no objection whatever to any per
son nominated, but the Senate abdi
cated its duty and responsibility, and
confided its whole power and authority,
without debate, to a single Senator.
It is not a practice in terms forbidden
by the Constitution, but it shows how
power may l>e usu ped under the form
of law, and how readily the Senate
mav grasp a disproportioned share
of the Government. "The cour
tesy of the Senate" is an exceedingly
smooth phrase. It means control of
patronage. It recalls Napoleon's
bland professions of devotion to the
Revolution. They meant empire.
PROFESSOR S , whose loss is
deeply lamented in the scholastic cir
cles of New York, was nt one time
a highly valued contributor to the
journal "of which he afterward took
charge, and being one day introduced
to its editor, was greeted with every
expression of cordiality and respect.
It was a great pleasure to meet one
whose learning and services hud been,
etc., etc. "Hut, Professor," added the
editor, turning upon him, and seizing
his hand with sudden earnestness, and
with solemnity in his face, 1 hope
yon prav for my printers. 1 "'
" The Professor replied that he was
very happy to offer his prayers in be
half of any who were in need of them ;
but what was the special urgency iu
this case ?
"Ah!" answered tbe editor, shak
ing hi* head impressively, "if you
could hear them swear when they get
to work on your manuscript!"
"The moon is always just the
same," he said, languidly ; "and yet I
always find some new beauty in it."
"ItVjust so with the opera," she an
swered. He y>ok the hint-, aud bought
Oee «TBtre. OLB insertion, $1: evh ret --
insertion, 60 cent J Tearlr ad7crtHr»nif
exceeding one-fourth of a co.'tur.n, per ir. h
Figure wcrs double rates: additional
charge* where weekly or monthly change* are
uia.lc Local advertisements 10 eent!< per line
for flrrt insertion, and 5 cent* per line for each
additional insertion. Mairiages and deaths pub
lished free of charge. Obituary notices charged
an advertisements. and payable when handed in
Auditors' Notices. i 4 : Executor*' and Admiuis
trators' Notices, <3 each; Estray, Caution am*
Dissolution Noticea. not exceeding ten lines,
From the fact that the Cmzrs is the olden'
established and most extensively circulated Re
publican ce»>paper in Butler county. (a Repnt
lican county; it milst be apparent to business
men that it is the medium thev should use in
advertising their business.
NO. 10.
Considering the immensity of the
trade, modern science bos done but
little for the tanning industry. Exeept
in the perfecting of a few compara
tively simple mechanical devices for
the saving of labor, the work of tan
nine heavy leather is row very nearly
the same as it was a hundred years
ago. The time required for tanning
has been shortened by the use of
stronger bark solution*, and more fre
quent handling of the hide or in
such liquor but the principle is the
same ; a greater variety of tanning
agents are employed, the astringent
principle, similar to that found in oak
bark, and which exists in greater or
less proportions in almost every plant,
must be sufficient to combine with the
gelatine of the hide, which alone
makes tanned or tawed leather.
Yet there has been no lack of en
deavor in this field, for a substantial,
or even partial success, in the making
of something which would compete
with an article so universally used as
leather, or in perfecting a cheaper
mode of producing it, would be sure
to bring to the discoverer or inventor
large rewards. German chemist? have
Wen especially active in this direction.
One of them lias claimed that tanning
is not, as it has always heretofore been
considered, a chemical operation, but
that it is simply mechanical, and that
the tunning only surrounds, but does
not actually combine with the particles
of gelatine. This theory has not met
with general acceptance, but it is,
nevertheless, certain that leather
tanned with some description of tan
ning material, such as valonia, gam
bier, and divi-divi, can be again so far
brought back to the raw hide condi
tion as to be suitable for use in the
making of glue. The most noteworthy
result of the recent efforts of German
chemists has l>een, however, in th<*
perfection of a method of making
leather without the use of bark at all,
by what is called a mineral tanning,
with" a solution principally of iron,
making what is called an iron canned
leather. Some very fair samples of
both upper and sole leather have been
produced by this process, aud it is
claimed that leather can be made
thereby in much less time than it
takes by the old method, and with a
material saving of cost. It is to lie
remarked, however, that the sole
leather so made is very hard and brit
tle, so that it is difficult to make up
and finish in a boot or shoe, and is
liable to chip out and wear away rap
idly except in wet weather. It seems,
however, to have sufficient toughness,
when wet, to resist a good amount of
wear, and its water resisting qualities
are about equal to those of many
kinds of bark tanned leather. That
it will, as at present made, come into
competition with our leather, does not
appear at all likely, but the fact that
hides and skins are now chemically
treated so as to make an article nearly
resembling bark tanned leather, and
which will make serviceable boots and
shoes, marks a step forward in the
progress of an industry, which, though
one of the* oldest in the world, has
probably shown less change than any
The German process above alluded
to has boon covered by two patents in
this country, but no leather of such
manufacture has yet been made here.
In fact the process can hardly be said
to have met with any decided favor in
Germany, where, from the high price
of tanning material, and the general
inferior quality of sole leather man
ufactured, it would seem to have most
chance of being adopted. The patents
cover the process, and a new chemical
compound, as mineral reagent, in the'
place of a vegetable tanning material.
The process includes the making of a
•peculiarly prepared basic sulphate ol
iron, which forms the tanning ma
terial into which the hides or skins are
placed for two or at the most four
days, without any handling or chang
ing liquors. It is this part of the pro
cess of making leather in the ordinary
way which requires so much time anil
labor, heavy hides being kept in the
bark liquors from two to six or seven
months, and in some cases consider
ably lonarer. The preparation of the
hide for the liquor or compound, so
far as the removal of the hair, flesh,
etc., are concerned, is supposad to be
the same for the new tanning process
as by the old method of tanning, as
are also the carrying and finishing
We can now make very cheap
leather in this country, beearse bark
is so abundant, and the iron tanned
leather has not as yet been brought to
such a standard of excellence that it
can compete with the product which
our native forests supply us with the
means of furnishing; but it requires
no long look into the future to see that
these conditions mav, at 110 very dis
tant dav. be reversed. Our woods
are being rapidly destroyed, so that
available bark for tanning is found,
year bv year, only at a greater dis
tance, and this will afford additional
incentives to a spirit of investigation
and research which may, in time, find
us a substitute for bark in the manu
facture of leather.— Scientific Ameri
J i;r>GE .1 UNKiJi, of Perrv county, at a
recent term of the county court at New
Bloomfield, cautioned innkeepers about
the peril of selling liquor by the bottle
over their bars, lie admonishes land
lords that they have no right to sell
liquor to a sober man who would trans
fer it to one in the habit of becoming
intoxicated, or to minors, and lie was
hound, as much as a drujryrist who dis
pensed poison at the call of a custofner,
to know who was to use the liquor.
The purchase of a quart ol whiskey bv
a sober man was itself a suspicious cir
cumstance and raited the fair inference
that it was being bought tor some one
to whom the landlord would not sell
it. And he added, proof of its transfer
to and use by drunkards and minors
was sufficient cause for revoking the
innkeeper's license.
Wt ifj iMW