Columbia democrat and star of the north. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1866-1867, February 28, 1866, Image 1

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JACCBY & IZELE&. Ublisiicr!.
Truth and Right -Cbd and oar Country.
Two Dollars per Annum in Adrance.
7 .
i t - i J - . 0 -. .
L r
IN pursuance of an crder of tha Or
phans' Court of Columbia count)-, r., on
Saturday i 5lh day 'of March, 1 860,
r.1 10 o'cloik In' the forenoon. Jacob Yca-erntd
Washington. Yeager, administrator of Jobn Yeacur,
lato of Uocust twp., in taiti couot7. rlcc'd.. will ex-
prise to sale, t y public van due, on the premise, tha
following- decscribcd R'sal Estate, to wit: All that
certain Tract of Land siluata in I.oeus? twp , Cn.
umbia couuty., bounded tn the North by lanj ofde-
. 'cedent, on til's East by land of Mary -Mowi-ry anil
ol beta, on t ha Sou til b beirs of Samuel Hampton
nil iSainiict Pilkin;ton, an I on tba West by J iciil of
-latticl Lans oud others, containing
Ftrict measure, on which nrn eracted a two stnry
tramp DWEIJ.1NO IIUCSE.- HANK KAilV arid
sitter out-blUldinLjiya good, t-prinj usar tiio'itoir,
food App'e Urchnrd, ike .
ALSO: One clhT Trurt of Lsnd tit ante in tame
tu p.. iitjoiniiig land of U"" Koturiavbr othr j
InudJ of iecad'-ut on tho N'orUj, Ain.-hai.-I Jlowty't
.Ben. on-UW, lHUf?r '" o. inmeccutumii iuv
foil ill and tV-est. toutsmin; 77 aires, and one lvin
Jred ami seventen perches, strict me&uiure, about
"Twenty acre of which i cleared lam.
ALSO; One oiht-r tract of l-.nd, situate in i.imi
twp , bounded on tlm North by otlir-r lands cf the do
teiluiit ontho East by lamls of John Lazarus, .Ua-
Ui-l Evans and otberj ; on the South b7 other lamts
(if deeedent, and nn tile Went by other lands of dece
dent, and laud, of Lucas Fabri.iser, cootai ning
ant two perches strict measure, on which are erect
ed a Two Story Frame Dwelling Ionise. Bank Haro, 1
raw .-vim, and out Dunuiugv, a guju si'mitf aau ,'juu
Appln Orchard."
ALSO; One olbor tract cf In ml, situate in "ell twp
bounded on t!i North by land of Rachel Evans, o.i
to at by othe? lands cf decedent and Smiiucl
1 ilkinvton ; on the South by land of John Snyder
and on Uiu West by other lauds of decedent, contain
&n1 twenty seven percha?, strict tnaasure, nearly all
f which cli'arerl land.
. ALSO i Una other tract cf !anrl, situatj in thupamn
lvp., bnuadi-n on the North by lands of IV-ter U. Her
Vl'i and Loca Fahrinx r ; on the East and outh
ky t-iber land of decedent, on the West by lands of
John fcbinur and other limls of decedent, contiini nj
n-J for ty-two perches, strict meaiure : on which are
erected a two slnry frame Huugfi. and ilauk liarn a
food nrpin? n J apple orchard nilli cider will.uiost
ly cleared 1-inJ.
ALSO; Una other tract of lanJ. situate partly ia
Locust and partly in -iilaY isxa townslii p. bouuea .
on lha North by land of Jibn ArniTt, on the East -by J
Jnccph Carl , on the South by Jl;cbea t'tine and Wiu i
lisacb, and on th West by Mary Henry, coutdtuiuj
motly lira r lan:l, H.'arinfcreh runs throujti this
tract, and ibr-r is a ol mill seat on the same.
Late lha KiUta of said deceased, kiiaale in lljs
Iwp.. at Locust ami County aforeaH. -
Eioomsb-Jr. Feb. 17, Irita.;
CoirfitiofS of Sale. OnMhirJ of the
purchase money to be secured on thj pvmiscs !ur
iuf tba lilniiiu of the widow of John Veag-r, dee'd.
the interest on IhJ same to be p: iJ annually on the
t day of April, and ths principal at her deatil to lha
heirs of said dee'd,. Ten per ceiit of the purchase
Bioney tr be paid on the striking down of thd prop
crty . the bulunre of rh oue-lhir l on the 1st day of
April next. ,1 he remaining one th'rJ to be divided
intu two equal payments, payable on the 1st day of
April. Id(j7. and iii:; Is', tiay cf April lcu3, Willi i i
. trrest from the 1st tlay of April m-it
1L Alt', ndauce giveu by Uie unrieri?nil.
- WAstl. YtAUtR,
" ' Koarisgrr-f k. Feb. 1. 'Cft ts- Ariiiir's.
Public salu.
.T7'ILL be exroird t Public Silc. at
- f f th rsitlnc t ih ttn.UreljneJ, In Briar
trcck twp., Columbia, county, ou
Ta"sday,the IZtki'ay f 2,Iarch 1630,
The folloin li'ir described valuable property, rix ;
Sixteen Head of Good Horse3,
One of which is a Wild Warrior Colt, 4 years old this
sprin g, and carvo his inil-t Ira 3iu. Jsre.. I black
law b Colt 1 vear eld I Paflng iiorse 7 y ti s old
andean KH in ii-4 , 1 Cray Mare, 'J years old, caa
fo in V il).
TV70 MU.C11 COVVi?, frerh in March, FAT OX
tail COW, -
Thre e T"p Dnsgics. 1 Sulky. I new Serine Va?on,
S two-bor"! WaKons, wajjon ladders, I FielJ Roller
and liar Fork, 14 I'lows 6 Cultivators. Harrows.
pair of Bob-sleds I SleJ a lot of Lcie-chain, wit'n
Farniin; utetsils c?nersl y. - Una doubla set Pilvrr
Piatffit-Harness. 1 single s:t ditto. 2 M t of cooiuion
sin-le HnrncM, Plow Harness, b set of Tuj iiaruess,
4 stt of Icii,h nels,
Three, Buffalo Ri be, 1 Wolf sSin Robe. Fly -nets. 1
Horse Power Hay Fork, 1 cutting Box 1 Circular Saw
Grain hy the Bushel,
1 An1 all the Grain in the Ctouul. A's", Household
Furniture, consisting of
One CooVing F love and utensil. J Rockin? Chair,
and a. half-dozen other Cnatrs, 3 pair of Bedsteads.
3 Leaf Tables. I Cloibea Press. SCockn. 2 8pinni-ig
Wheels, I Dosk, Three Cupboard. P.arrels, Kegs.
Fiikins. &c 'oo nuaserou to inenlioii.
K7" Bale to commence at 9 o'clock, A. M,. and con
tinue from day today, until a'l is sol i, when atten
lion m ill bo given and condition mide kniwn b v
JO. O. WIXTERHTSEX, Aactionacr,
Feb. W, 13G0 1
immi Cattle Powers.
".ir Tola preparation,
long and favorably
,rv known, wtn mor-
' . t .nn,t,l ri nviffnrf
broken-down ana
low-sririted horses,
by strengthening
and cleansing; th
stomach and iates-
f It is sure rr-
A - sjrAnti wm ff sail rii A.
gajrfeacss' 11 ' incident to
this animal, soch U tUXG FETEB,
ll.ll, n A A r.o, x
s improves the &"k J
w 1 a d , increase. M.. fj
tue nc
nopetite-giTcs U 3
moeth andvX ij
a to
g.OTiy skio aim ---n.
traaaforms t h .
mlserabls skeleton into a Cne-iookinj and spirited-
torse- - m
T keepers of Cowj'thU preparation Is Inraluahl
It increase. Uie quantity and improve, the quality
C ' - - - of the milk. It has
w'.Av-) been proven by ao
C-: "1 i .! tual experiment to
' V '. - c. tncnease the qnan-
&JjL '".- J tity of milk and
OV,' - ;J eream twDty per
v- rx 4 1-; cent, and make tho
v' ' 5 Ik . batter firm and
A j'mi 'I iwef-t- Infatu-ning
j - - V ."J tj3 cattle, hirivestheta
f - ' l '. an appetite, loosen,
t" ; - t!,'!ir bide, and,
much faster. -
' In all dlscaa of Swhis, such as Counts, UTcrs la
the Lonff, L) rtr,
&c, tins arxicis
ru as a upeciut
IT puttrmj Irons i
eoe-balf a piper
(a nan Ir, "
Nirrcl ii'ju-ni Ui
svno'-e diseases XS-i-
w 1.1 i,e e.ituiCAteu . - u
or entirely jrvcnted. If gien In t'rns, ertaiS
preventive an-t cure fov the Hog Cholera.
Pries 23 Ceta per Paper, or 5 Papers for (L,
, fZ?ASJT-' '
at TKr.ra -4-
v.n:iT3U2 as a nrziniz ietct,
ITo. 113 xr-rAlin li Ealtictro, 113..
Fc-r T.a: Fy r-.-nreista acd Ewrekerrs through
nt tae t'citc-l
VZT Vat sal at i'- H. js ftora or
EYE a j- I! OYER,
I ii-nsirbar; Ta-
My conscience Is tny crown i
Contenteil thoughts, niy rrst ;
My hrari is happy In itself.
My bliss is iu my breast.
Enough I reckon wealth ;
That mean, the surest lot.
That lies too high for base sont.myt.
Too low for envy's shot.
My wishes are but few,
All easy to fu'.fll
I make lha limits of tny power
Ths bounds unto my w ill.-
ffear no care for gol-l,
Well-doin is my wealth
My mind to ma an pir. is.
. . Wbilafraco airurdeth hesliru. , ,
I clip Itih -climbing thoujhtr. '
Thawing, of swelling pride ;
Their fall is worst that from tba b'lglit
O." grcatoit honor slido .
Eineo sail of larg est sixs
The storm doth soonest tear,
1 bear so low and sin all a ail
As Irceth tuc from fear.
I wrestle net with rago
While fury's fla me doth burn;
It is ip vain to slop the slrscut
Until the tide do th turn.
Cut "ben the flame is nut.
And ebbing wrath doth end,
I turn a late enraged fuo
Into a quiet friend.
And taught with with of:en proof,
A temper'd calial find
To bo most solace to Itself.
Best core for angry mind.
Sparc diet is tny fare.
My clothes mere fit than fin. ; . .
I, know 1 feed And rlolh m fn.
That pamper'J would repine.
I envy not iheirhap
W horn favor doth advanee ;
I take no pleasu re in iheir palo
That have less happy chanc.
To rise by othf rs' fa'l
I deem a login; gai n ;
AM states with others' ruinbjl'l
To rain run amain,
K J chan;e of Fi.rtuna's calm
Can cast my comforts down : .
When Foiluue suiis, I smite to think
How jiiick!y shu will frav3. -
And whn in frcward mood,
She proved an angry foe,
Small gain , I found , to let her come
Les loss to let her jo.
1 i: K M5 EiS T J 11 X S O.
Tj the St--:'e vf the United Slilu
I have examined with care tha bill, which
originated in the Senate and has been pass
ed by the two Houses of Congress, to
amend an act entitled "An Act to establish
a Curean for Ihe Reliaf of Freedmen and
Refugees, and for o her purposes." -Having
with much regret come to the conclusion
that it would not be consistent with the pub
lic welfare to give my approval to the mea
sure, I return the bill to the Senate with mj
objections to i!s becoming a law.
I might call to mind, in.advance of these
nj?ctions, that there is no immediate ne
cessity lor the pmpoed measure.
The act to establish a bureau fnr '.ha re
lief of freedmen and refugee, which was
approved in tho month of March lat, has
uoiyei cxrreJ. . Ii wa, thought stringent
a d extensive for the purpo-e in vier. Be
fore it ceases to have f fleet, fur'.her experi
ence may assist '.0 guide us to a wisa con
clusion as lo the policy to be adopted in
lime of peaca.
I have with Congress the strongest dfsire
lo secure to the fre dmen ihe full enjoy
ment cf their freedom and their property
and their entire independence and equality
in m-iking contracts for their later. But the
bill refcre me cortaias provisions-which in
my opinion are not warranted by the Con
tituticf, and are not well soiled 10 accom
plish the end ia view;,
The bill proposesio establish, by acthcr
iiy of Congress, military jurisdiction over
all parts of the United S'ates containing
refugees and freedmen. It would, by its
very nature, apply with mot force to ihcse
parts -of the United States in which the
'raedmon most abound ; aid it expressly
extends the existing temporary jurisdiction
of the Freedman'a Bureau, with greatly en
larged powers, over those S!3te in which
tha ciliary course of jcdicial proceedings
has been interrupted by the rebellion. Trie
source from wh'cu thia military jurisdrction
is to emanate is none other lhan the Presi
dent of the United States, acting through
tha War Department and the Commission
er of the Freedmen's Bureau. The
to carry oct this military jurisdiction are to
He selected either from the army or Irom
civil life. The coantry is to be divided into
districts and sub-districts, and the number
of salaried agents to be employed may be-'
eq cal to the number of counties or parishes
in all the United S atcs where freedmen and
rafugaoi ara lo te found. The subjects
over which "this military jurisdiction is lo.
extend in every pari cf the United States,
ir.ciada protection to "all employees, agents
and officers of this Bureau in lha exercise
of tie duties imposed npon them by ibe
till. In eleven Mates it is further to extend
over all cases affecting freedmers and refu
gees ditcriraibateJ ajainst by local law,
custom or prejudice. , Ic those , eleven
Mates iha bill sotjects any wdho person
wbo may be charged with depriving a freedv
jfnaa cf any civil riahta cr immunities be-
Hongins lo wbita persona lo imprisonment
or fine, cr ho;tir witaoot, . Dowever, Germ
ing the civil rights and imrnoniiies which
ara thus to ba secured to lha freedmen, by
military law. This military jurisdiction also
extends to all questions- that may arise re-
. : .fl.j'.at, Th nl ccrtn ia thna
I to exerciia the ofUca-of a rcililary j"de,
iray be a slranser, er.lirely ignorant of tha
laws of ibe place, and exposeJ to ihe er
rors of judgment to which ail men are lia
ble. The exercise of power, over which
tbere is no lH;zal supervision, or -o vac; a
number of agents a, is contemplated by the
bill, most, by lha very nature ol man, be
attended by acts of caprice, injustice and
l passion. The trials, having their origin
under this bill, are to lake place without
the intervention of a jury, ant! without any
fixed rutea of law or eviJendce. The rules
on which offences are to be heard and de
termined, by the numerous agents, are such I
roles and regulations as the President,
through the War Department, shall pre- ties, of private associations and of inJiviJ
scribe. No previous presentment is re-' a!s.' It has never deemed iK?lI authorized
quired, nor any indictment, charging the
commission of a crime against the laws;
bnt the tril must proceed on charges and
specifications. The punishment will be
not what the law declares, but such as a
Court-martial may think proper. And from
these arbitrary tribunals there lies na ap
peal no writ of error !o any of ihe Courts,
in which the Constitution of the United
! States vests exclusively the judicial power
1 of the country; while ibe territory, ttnd tte
class of actions and offences, that are made
j mtject to this measure, are so extensive
1 that the bill itself, should it become a law,
will have no limitation in point of lime, bnt
will form a part of the permanent legisla
tion of the country. I cannot reconcile a
system of military jurisdiction of this kind
wi.h the wora's of the Constitution, which
declare lhat "no person shall be held to an- I
ewer for a capital or 'otherwise infamous j expected to Miaiu a self-susiaining coruli
crima, unless on a presentment or indict- tion, must have a tendency injurious alike
men! of a grand jory, except in cases aris- ! to their character and their prosperity. The
j ing in ihe land or paval lcrces,or in ihe appointment of an ""agon! for every comity
miliiia, when in actcal servicn in lime of J and pariih will crea'e an immense patron
! war or public danger;" and lhat "in all p .we. and the expense of ihe numeroos o(H-
I criminal prosecutions, ihe eccosed shall
enjoy the right to a spedy and public trial
by an impartial jury of the State or district
wherein ihe crime ehall have been com-
The safegnards which the wisdom and
j experience of ages taught our father? to es
j tabiish as securities for the protection of the
! innocent, the punishment of ihe nuilty, aad
the equal administration of justice, ara to
be set aside, and for the sake of a more vig
orous interposition in behalf of justice, we
are to take the reM of ihe many acts of in
jistica that would ol necessi'.y follow from
an almost countless number of agen's es
tablished in every parish orcoumy in nearly
a third ol the Su?e, of the- Union, over
whose decision there is lo be eo supervi
sion or control by ihe Federal Court. The
power thus placed in the
hands cf the President is such as in time of
prace certainly ought never lo be entrusted
ta any one rran. If it be af-ked whether
the creation of such a tribunal within a
State is warranted as a measure of war, the
qnes'ion immediately present, itself wheih
er we are still engaged In war. Let us not
unnecessarily disturb the commerce, and
credit, and industry of the coucrry, by de
clarirg'to tho Airerican people and the
world that the United Slates are still in a
condition ol civil" war. At present there is
no pari of our country in which the authority
of ir.e United States is dispa'ed. OiTences
that may bo ccfnmi'ted by individual.
should r.ot work a forfeiture of the rights ol
the same commonities. The country ha
entered, or is returning to a state of peice
and ir.dustrt, and the rebellion is in fact at
an end. The measure, therefore, seems to
be as inconsistent with the actual condition
of the country a, it is at variance with '.he
Constitution of ihe United Sutes.
If, passing from general con-idera'ions,
we examine iho bill in detail, it i, open to
weighty o? j-ction. In lima of war it was
i eminently proper that we should provide
for tboe who were passing sadderily Irom
a condition of bondage to a state of freedom.
But this bill proposes to make he Freed
men's Boreao; established by the act ol
18G3. as one of many great and extraordi
nary military measures (o sonprees a for-
greatly enlarged. I have no reason to sup
pose, and I do not understand It to be til ;
, . i . . , . r HI u,aer U - - . . . 1
legej, mar tue aci vi inaicu uoj, u pi"'-
ed deficient for the purpose for which' it
was passed; although at lhat time, and for
a considerable period thereafter, the govern
ment of the United States remained unac
knowledged in most of the State", hose
inhabitants had been involved in the re
bellion. Tha institution of slavery, for the
military destruction of which tha Freed
men's Bcreaa was called "into existence bs
an auxiliary force, has been already effec
tually and finally abrogated throoghout the
whole country by cn amendment of the
Constitution of the Uni'ed Slates, and prac
tica'.ly its eradication has received the as-!
sent and concurrence of most of those
Slates in which it at any lime had existed.
I am not, therefore, able to discern in the
country anything to justify an apprehension
that the powers and agencies of the Freed
men's Burean, which were effective for Ihe
protection of freedmen and refugees during
the actual continuation of hostilities ad
of Afriacan servitude, will now, in a ticoe
of peace, and alter the abolition of slavery .
prove inadequate lo ibe same proper ts.u
If I am correct in these views, there can
be no necessity for the enlargement of the
powers of the Eoraao, for which provision
ia made in the bill. "Tne third aeciion of
ihe bill authorizes a general and unlimited
grant of support to the desitnte and suffering
refosees and freedmen and iheir wives and
rhildren. Snceeedimr sections-make pro-
Ti.ions foitha reolor purchase of landed'
midable rebellion, a permanent branch rfjtation and resi.essnes ; wntie ia mo.e
the peblio adminiira ion, with its powers! among whom he live, it will be a source
estates for freedmen, and (or the erection,
ior their benefit, of suitable buildings for
asylums and choo!, the expenses to be
defrayed from the treasury of the whole
people. Trie Congress of the United Slates
a. s -
ha, never herelofore thought itself compe
tent to establish any laws beyond the limits
of the District of Colombia, except for the
benefit of our disabled soldiers and sailors.
It ha, never founded 6choo!s for any clas
of onr own people, not even for the orphans
of ihosa who have fallen in the defence of
Ibe Union, but his lelt the care ot their ed-
ucation to the much more competent and J
efficient control of the States, of communi-i
Jo expend Lhe,pnb!io money for ihe reM or
the purchv.ce of IiCim for the ihou'anjs,
not to say millions, of the white raco who
are honestly toiling from day to day for
their subsistence. A system for the snp
port of iodigent persons in the United States
wa, never con templated bj the authors of
the Constitution. Nor can an y good rear?on
be advanced why, as a permanent estab
lishment, it should be founded faxoo8 clas
or color of our people more than for ano:h
er. Pending the war many refugees and
freedmen received support from the Gov
ernment, but it was rever intended thaf
'.hey should hencefonh be fed, clothed, ed
oca'ed and sheltered by tho United States.
The idea on which the slaves were assisted
lo freedom, was lhat on becoming frew'they
would be a self sustaining popula'ion. Any
legislation that shall imply lhat they are not
cers and the clerks lo be appointed by the
President will be great in the beginning,
w'nh a tendency sieadily to increase, The
appropriations asked by lha FreeJme;i's
Bureau as now established for the year 1SC5
amountto Sll.745,000. Ii may ba ssfeiy
estimated ihe ro.t to be iucurred under- the
pending bill will require double that amount,
more than ths entire sum expended in a-iy j
one year under th-3 administration of the j
second Adams. If lha presence of agents j
in every parish and county i to be con-id j
ered as a war measure, opposition or even j
resistance might be - provoked, so trial to
give effect to iheir jurisJiction troops would
have lo be stationed wiihin reach of every
one of them, and thus a Inr-re standing foioe
be rendered necessary. Lar-je appropria
tions would, therefore, be required to sus
tain and enforce military jurisdiction in ev
ery county or parWh from the Potomac to
the Rio Grande. The condition of our fis
cal affairs is encouraging, but in order to
sustain lha present measure of public ccn-
j fidence, it is necessary that wa practice not
merely customary economy, but as fir as
noesible severe retrenchment. In addiiion
lo ihe objections already sta'ed, th-9 fifih j
section of the bill propose, lo tike away!
land from its fomer owners without aty
legal proceedings being firsl had, contrary j
to that provision of the Constitution which j
declares lhat no perton shall be deprived of :
life, liberty or proper y without due process
of law. It dees not appear lhat a part of
ihe lands lo which this. section refers may
J not be owned by minors or r ersor.s of un
sound mind, or by thuse who have been;
faithful lo all their alligations as citizens of
the Ur ite J States. If any portion of the j
land is held by such persons, it is not corn- j
potent for any authority to deprive them of;
it. If, on ihe other hand, it be found that!
Ihe property is liable to confiscation, evenl
then it cannot ba appropriated to pull c j
purposes, until, by due prscess of law, it j
sha'l have , been declared forfeited to the j
Tr ere ara still further objections lo lha
bill, on grounds seriously afleding the c'as ,
of persons :o whom it is designed to bring
relief. It will lend lo to keep ihe mind of
the freedmen id a !a:e of uncertain expec-
. . . . . i .
' of constant and vague apprehension.
doubied'y the freedmen should be protected,
but be enocbi be protected by the civil ao
thoriiies, especially by the exercise of all
ihe constitutional powers of the courts of the
United States and of the Stales. . His condi
tion is not eo much exposed as may at firei
be imagined. He is in a ponion of the
country where his labor can not well be
pared. Competition for his service from
planters, from those who are constrccling
or repairing railroads, or from capitalists in
his vicinage, or from other States, will ena
ble him to command almost his own terms.
lie also possesses a perfect right to change
t his place of abode, and if, therefore, he does
not find in one community or State, a mode
of life suited to bis desires, or proper remu
neration for his labor, he can mora lo
another, where labor i, more esteemed and
better rewarded. In truth," however, each
Sta'e, induced by its own wants tand inter
ests, will do what ia necessary and proper
m rot am wiihin ii hnrdara all the labor that
I i3 needed for "the developement of its re
sources. Tha laws that regulate supply
and demand will .'maintain their force, and
the wagea f ibe laborer will be regulated
thereby. Thei. : no danger thai ihe great
demand for labor will not operate ;n favor
ol the laborer. Neither i, sufficient consid
eration given to the ability ol the freedmen
to protect and take care of themselves. It
ia no more than justice to them to believe
that, aa tbey have received their frsedom
with moderation and forbearance, so tbey
wi'd difiinguteh themselves by their inins-
try and thrift, and roon show the world that .
in a condition of freedom they are se!f-sus-!
taining and capable of eeleciing their own .
employment and thsir own places of abode ; '
cfMnsiMing for themselves a proper remu
neration, and of establishing and maintain
in" iheir own asylumns and schools, h is
earnes lly hoped lhat instead of wasting away j
they will, by their own efforts, establish
for themselves a condition of respectability
and prosperity. It is certain lhat they can
attain to that codition only through iheir
own merits and exertions. In this connec
tion the qnery presents itself whether ihe
system proposed by ihe bill ill not, when
put into complete operation, practically
transler the entire care, support and control
of four millions of emancipated slaves to
agelts ovorseefs or laskmasters, whr, tp
pointed at Washington, are to be located in
every county and parish throughout the
Uuited States containing freedmen and ref
ugees. Soch a syb'em would inevitably
tend to such a concentration of power in
the Executive which would enable him, if
so disposed, to control the action of a nu
merous class and use them for (he attain
ment of his own political ends.
I canot.but add another very grave objec
tion to tiiia till. The contlitullon imperi'ive
ly declares in connection with taxation lhat
each slate shall have at least one Represen
tative, and fixes ihe rule for ihe numOer to
w hich in future limes each elate shall be en
titled. Il also provides that lha Sanate of
the United Slates shall be composed ol two
Senators fro me ea?h State, and adJs with
peculiar force that no State without i s con
sent ehall be depiired cf its equal suffrage
in ihe Senate. The original set was neces
sarily passeu in tua absence ot tr.e states
chiefly to be aiTecle', because iheir peo;!e
were then contumaciously engaged in the
rebellion. Now tho case ia changed, and
some at least of ihe Siates are attending
Congress by loyal representati vs, solicit
ing ihe allowance ol the constitutional right
of repree;ita'ion. At the tim?, however,
of lie consideration and the passage of ihe
bill there was no Senator or Representa'i ve
in Congress from the eleven Stares which
are to te mainly affected by ihe provisions.
The very fact that reports were and are
made against the jrnoJ disposition of the
country is an additional reason why they
need and should have representatives ol
iheir own in Congress to explain their con
dition, reply to accusations and assit-t by
Iheir local knowledge in the perfecting of
measures i.nmedia'ely affecting themselves
v. bile the liberty cf deliberation would then
be free, and Congress would ihen have full
pnwer to decide according to its judgment
There could be no objection urj;ed that the
S ates most i t 'rested had not been permit
ted to be learJ. The principle is firmly
fixed in the minds of the American people
lhat there should be no taxation without
representation. Great burdens are now to
be borne be all the country, and we may
best demand that they shall te borne with
out murmur when they are voteJ by a ma
jority of the represeniatit es cf all tha peo
pie. I wou;d not interfere with the unques
tionable right of Congress to j d:e, each
House for its-elf, of the e!eciions,returns and
qualifications of its own members. Bui
that authori'y cannot be cons ruel as inclu
ding Ihe right to shut out in time of peace
any S.ate from the representation to which
il is entitled by the Constitution. At pres
ent all the people of eleven S ate, are ex
cluded. Those who were most fai hful du
ring the war not less than others. The Sta e
of Tennessee, for instance, whose at thori
tes engaged in rebellion, was restored to all
her constitutional relations to the Union by
tho patrioiism and energy ol h?rirj: red and
betmyeJ people. Before the war was
brought lo a termination they had placed
themselves in relation wi:h the General
Goverr.rceni, had established a SiaTe Gov
ernment of Iheir own, and, as they were not
itidcJed in the emancipation proclaraaiior,
ihey, by llictr own acl, had amended their
Constitution so a to abolish slavery wiihin
the limits of their Sta'e. I know r.o reason
w hy iho State of Tennessee, for eiample,
shnald not fully joy all her constitutional
relvions to ihe United Stales.
The President of the Utii'e J Slate, stands
towards ihe cosctry in a somewhat differed
aitituJe from that of any member of Con-
press, chosen from a single district or Stt'e.
Tbe President is chosen by the people of a'l
the Siates. Eleven States are not, at this
lime, represented in either branch of Con-
gress. It would seem to be his doty on all
proper occasions lo present their j jst claims
to Congress. There always will be d ilar
ences of opinion in the community, and in
dividual, may be guilty of transgression, of
ihe law. But these do not constitute vtlid
objection, again! the right of a State to rep
resentation. It would in no wise interfere
with the discretion of Congress with regard
to the qualification of members ; but I hold
it my duty to recommend lo yoa in the in
terests of peace, aud in the interests of the
Union, ihe admission ol every Slate to its
share of public legislation, when, however,
insubordinate, insurgent or rebellious its
people may have been, it presents itelf not
only in an attitude of loyalty and harmony,
but in the persons of representatives whose
loyally cancot be questioned under existing
constitutional or legal test. It is plain that
an indefinite or permanent exclosion of auy
putt of the country from representations
most be attended by a spirit of disquiet and
complaint. The bill under consideration
refers to certain of the States as though they
had not "been fully restored in all their con
stitutional relations to the United Slates."
If they have not let us ttenceact tfgathet
to secure ihat desirable end at the earfiest
possible moment. It i, hardly neceseary
for me to inform Congress that, in my own I
judgement, most of those States, so far at ,
least as depends upon their own action,
have already been fully restored, and are to
be deemed to bo entitled to enjoy their con- j
e'.itutional rights as members of the Union.,'
s'.itutional rights as members of the Union.
Reaoninz from the Constitution itself, and
from the actual situation of the country, I j
feel not only !ititl9d but bound to assumo
that, with the Fedtra! courts restored in the j
several Siates and in the full esercise of '
their function, the rights and interests of j
ail classes of the people will, with the aid
ol ihe military, ia cases of resistance to the
law, bo essentially protected against uncon
stitutional infringement and violation.
Should thisexpectatio.T unhappily fail, which
( do not anticipate, then the Executive is
alreadj armed with ihe powers conferred
by ihe Act of March, 1865, establishing the
Freedmen's Barean ; anJ hereafier,s here
tofore, he can employ Ibe land and naval
forces of the country lo suppress insurrec
tion and lo overcome obstructions to the
I return the bill to the Senate In lha ear
nest hope that a .measure involving ques
tions and interests so important lo ihe coun
try. will not become a law unless upon de
liberate consideration by the people it shall
receive the sanction of an enlightened pub
lie jiidj-rner.l. ANDREW JOHNSON.
Washington, D. C, Feb., 19, 18C6.
A Vtice from the Home of Senator Grimrs.
The following is an extract from a letter
dated Burlington, Feb. 6ih, 1866. Il was
i- r i 1 1 o n Ki-o P a. ( i, K ll,n u Kn ..i 1 (gr f 5-
coin and Johnson, but who is now an en i
radica!. 1 he election look place on Mon
day, ihe oili iast. It is the first lime in
ei gl.t years that a Democrat has been elected
Mayor of lhat ci'y :
"G'orious reu!t Radicals cleaned out
Core elected Mayor ly fie or 6ix hundred
every ward carried except one our
Treasurer elected Walliday recorder,elected
(Republican, wounded officer, no opposi
tion) and a CPneral cleaning out. The
llauhrye (a radical paper) and postmaster's
clique have not yet heard of the result ! It
i3 glory enough for one day. The Cermant
are ta i us.
"Sales elec'ed by 'forty majority in his
ward the greatest triumph of all, for he
was most bitierly opposed as a Copperhead,
We brought out Democrats who had
not voted in four years ; and there are more
of them yet.
"We mean to keep the leaJ no'.y. May
God sustain ihe President !"
This i, one of ihe evidences of that re
ao ion which has now fairly begun, and
which will overwhelm the destructives and
all their works. Retributive justice may be
slow, tut is always sure.
First Usk or Paper Mo.xty in America.
The first American colonists used pelting
and wampum as substitutes lor coia. In
1640, the Council in New Netherland po
litioned to raise the value of money in their
colony in order to prevent it, exportation.
Afterward, Gov. Stuyvesant tried to intro
duce a specie currency and to establish a
mint at New Amsterdam. New England
already had her mint.
Massachusetts was the first o I the colo
nies lo use nirser monev. In 1G90 it issued
, f ,, , , ;
bills lo ihe amount of seven thousand pounds
. ... .1
to pay ihe sclJiers engageJ in the expedi
tion against the French in Canada. Twelve
years after Carolina issued paper money to
pay her soldiers. Threo or fjur year, after
a paper money act was passed in ihe Island
o! BarbaJoes. A hula afier, :u 1703, Con
necticut and New York passed enactments
creating bills of credit.
1 he law 6'ate ol ibe currency at this lime
in New Voik was thought to arise Irom the
fid lhat mo-it of the foreign trade of the
country came, through Boston and other;
New England ports, drawing thither money
and prrduce. In 1698 the difference be
tween New York and sterling money was
j about one-fifirt ; in 1700 about a quarter.
j Tlie present lejjai rate ol interest in NewJ
York (feTe3 per cent ) was established in
Wiir Mxn Fail. Mrs. Stowe says ihal
people of small incomes, if they deny the
palate to please the imagination, can adorn
their homes with many cm, of art. The
j foiiJwjng jncident may be soggeftive
many who find their incomes inadequate to
iheir wants :
A young merchat, wbo had just failed in
( business, having spent in lour years a lega
cy cf ten thousand dollars, in addition to any
profits realized, was met by a thrifty young
mechanic, who had formerly been on lurms
of intimacy with him. During the conver
sation which ensued, the merchant said to
him "How is it. Harry ,that you have besn
able to live and save money on the small
sum yon receive for your service, while I
found il impossible to live in ray business
with a good round ten thousand dollars to
back me !"
Oh," said ihe mechanic, 'thal is easily
understood. I have lived with reference
mostly to ihe comforts and tastes of myself
and family, while yotr lived mostly wilh
reference to opinions and tastes of others.
Il costs more to please the eye than to keep
the back warm and stomach full V
A toast at an Irish Society's dinner at Cin
cinnati! : "Here's to the President of ihe
Society, Patrick O'Raferty, and may be live
to eat lie ben lhat scralcbesover hi, grave."
"I'm on the trail of a dear." as otr imp
said when be stepped cn the dress of his
lady love in lbs street.
&!ea of Good Hearts.
''Mora men are haigad in Englani in dna
year ,aari n France in raven, because the)
Lnglish have better hearts." So said Chief
Justice Fortescue, who presided over the
Court of Henry VI., and who lived and
learned in the days of lhat jovial King Hal,
learned in the days of lhat jovial King Hal,
v-hose princely follies and royal deeds are
so saily and graphically told by Shakspeae.
In ohakspeare's own day; bluff King HeDty
the Eighth managed to hang 72.000 in his
r,J'e"i (twenty on one gibbet at once so
Sir Thomas More, bia chancellor and victim
writes,and the appetite of the Virgin Queen
was satisfied wi h 400 a year. Ibis was
whilt Bacon wrote and Spencer aang.
There were some variations in this sanguin
ary moo?; but in the reign ol Georgo the
Third the .-number of offence, punishable
with death amounted to 220 ! passing all
natioas in bloodiness of its coda "for thet
En- l.h have better heart, !"
An Iu.ikois Lswtcr Doing Will There
were few abler lawyers in the State of Illi
nois during the past quarter of a century
lhan ihe late Judge Purple of Peoria. He
was the author of several law books. By
hi, entire devotion to his profession, he had
attained merited celebrity as an advocate
and a jurist.
Some years since Judge P., when in thd
ci y of Washington, met with a gentleman
from Boston, who, cpon learning lhat thf
Judge was from Illinois, made particular en
quiry as to the success of a yonng sprig of
ihe law by the name of B , who had
emigrated West some five years before.
'He I, doing well, very promptly replied
H is 1 Well I ara glad to hear Itglil
te hear it, indeed."
Yon think he has a gcoj you
Don't know any ihiig about his prae
lice,' replied Purple ; 'bat he is doing well
succeeding finely.'
Making raoney then, ii he V persisted:
ltellyoal don'i know any thing about
his business,' said Purple.
Well,' said ihe'Boston manyon seem for
thick that he is doing well, and yet yon
kuow nothing about his practice or business-
What do yoa mean ?'
'I mean this,' said Purple, 'that any matt
who practices law in Illinois five years. ahI
keeps out ol the penitentiary, is doing well,
whether he ha, practiced or not.'
Hard Road to Travel. Il seem, o as a,
hard lo get in the Union as il is to gel out.
The South respectfully asks to move ona
way or the other. We are like the fellow
who wa, forced to go to ihe show, and then
not allowed to go any farther than where hs
had paid lor bia ticket. We have been
dragged into the doorway cf tha Federal
tent, and are not allowed to see any of tha
performance except lo settle with the tax
collectors. .We can hear ihe animals growl
ing iuside and the cracking of the ringmas
ter's wnip but we can't eee the show onleaa
we pay ior one and take a colored lady.
And tte worst of it is they keep a great
eagle perched over the entrance, which if
you attempt to go back, swoops down npon
yoa and picks a hole ia yocr head. Ws
justly think this is unreasonable: they ought
J 1 . , ' ' "utsu-
iihflr i rasain nr rnton.t nnr mnnav
either lei cs pass in or refand our moaey
and tie np the e?g!e. CharltltsviUt (Fa )
One of ihe Thad Siever.s style of religion
ists. wbo superintend, a Sabbath school in
Detroit, a few Sundays since, was discours
ing lo his classes of ibe Israelites, and the
enemies they encountered in the nation of
Moabites, when by way of illustration, bo
put the question :
'Have we any great public enemy in ihia
country V evidently intending to eee how
much his Hale auditor, knew about ihe te
beltion. Yes, sir ? ' responded a bright liiile six
year old.
Who, my eon V queried ihe gratified
The radicals," responded the boy.
The Ptostration wa, not any further press
ed on that occasion. Savagc. The desire of gain will
sometimes inspire wilh dishonest cunning;
an illiterate savage. Alter a successful at
tack on ihe royal party, in 1745, a High-
larder bad gained a watch as hi, share of
the spoils of the vanquished. Unacquaint
ed w ith its own use, he listened with equal
surprise (o to Ihe ticking sound with which,
his new acquaintance amused him; after
few hocrs, however the watch ran down,
the ncise ceased, and ihe dispirited owner,
looking on the toy no longer with any satis
faction, determined (o conceal tne mis
fortune which bad befallen it, and to dis.
pose of it to the first person who offered
him a trifle in exchange. He soon met
w'uh a customer ; but at parting, be could
not conceal bis triumph, and exultingly ex
claimed, "Why, she died last night 1"
A Tmr& Skcll. U is related, as an amo
skig incident, lhat a lad of a darkey fell from
the second story of a window, a distance of
fifteen feel, lighting wilh his bead on tba
flagstones of a side-walk, in the. town of
Lynchburg, Va. Oae of the flags was sbiv
ered and il was supposed the boy was kills)
ed. Several persons wbo beard the con
cussion, repaired at once lo lha spot - Tba
darkey was on bis (eet before tbey fairly
reached him, with a broad grin overspread.
ir. bis countenance, "Golly, massas," said
he, "dtm ttcne$t if dcy dorSl vartf to fff kvrf,
must kcj cvt efdti njor' if ry i
vf I
r '