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Stato, not to speak of other Statea which may
place) themselves in a similar attitude. Con
gresa alone has power to dcide whether the
present laws can or cannot be amended so as
to carry out more effectually the objects of the
Constitution. The same insuperable obstacles
fo not He in the way of executing the laws for
the collection of the customs. The revenue
vtill continues to be collected, as ber.et?or
t ttm custom house in Charleston $ and skoell
tho collector unfortunately resign, a suttces
or may b appointed to perform this duty.
Theo ia regard to the property of the United
Stats its Svuth Carolina. This has been pur
chased for a fir equivalent, "by the consent
r of the legishtnre of the State," "for the erec
tion of torts, magazines, arsenals," &c, and
oyer those the authority "to exerciso exclu
sive legislation," has been expressly granted
by the Constitution to Congress. It is not be-
lieved that any attempt will, be made to expel
""the United States from this property by force;
r, but If in this ( should prove to be mistaken,
the officer (ft command of the forts has receiv
j. d orders to act strictly on the defensive. In
ch contingency, the responsibility for con
sequences would rightfully rest upon the beads
'f the assailants. Apart from the execution
, if the laws, so far as this may be practicable,
. the executive has no authority to decide what
shall , be the relations between the Federal
Government and South Carolina. He has been
.invested with no such discretion. lie posses
ses no power to change the relations hereto
fore existing between them, much less to ac
knowledge the independence of that State.
, This would be to invest a mere Executive offi
cer with the power of recognizing the dissolu
tion of the Confederacy among our thirty
; three sovereign States. It bears no resemb
lance to the recognition of a foreign it facto
government, involving no such responsibility.
Any attempt to do this would, on his part, bo
a naked act of usurpation. It is, therefore,
,roy duty to submit to Congress the whole ques
tion, in all its bearings. The courso of events
is so rapidly hastening forward, that the emer
gency may soon arise when you may be called
upon to decide the momentous question wheth
er you possess the power, by force of arms, to
compel a State to remain in the Union. I
should feel myself recreant to my duty were
I not to express an opinion on this important
subject. : . . .
jf - SO STATE CA!f BE FORCED INTO SUBMISSION.
, The Question fairly stated is : Has the Consti
tution delegated to Congress the power to force a
.State into submission which is attempting to with
draw or has actually withdrawn from the Con
federacy t If answered in the affirmative, it
must be on the principle that the power has been
conferred to Congress to declare and to make war
against a State.- - After much serious reflection I
hare arrived at the conclusion that no such power
bad been delegated to Congress or to any other
department of the Federal Government. It is
manifest, upon an inspection of the Constitution,
that this is not among the specific and enumera
ted powers granted upon Congress ; and it is
-equally apparent that its exercise is not "necessa
xy and proper for carrying into execution" any
one of these powers. So far from this power hav
ing been delegated to Congress, it was expressly
refused by the convention which framed the Con
stitution. It appears from the proceedings of
that body, that on the 31st May, 1737 the clause
'authorizing- an exertion of the force of the tehole
against a delinquent State," came up for consider
ation. Mr. Madison opposed it in a brief but
powerful speech, from which I shall extract but a
single sentence. He observed ; "The use of force
against a State, would look more like a declaration
of war than an infliction of punishment; and
would probably be considered by the party attack
ed as a dissolution of all previous compacts by
which it might be bound." Upon his motion the
-clause was unanimously postponed, and was nev
er I believe again presented. Soon afterwards,
on the 8th of June, 17&7,wheu incidentally advert
ing to the subject, be said : "Any Government for
the United States, formed on the supposed practi
cability of using force against the unconstitution
al proceedings of the Slates, would prove as vision
ary and fallacious as the government of Congress,"
evidently meaning the then existing Congress of
the old Confederation. 'Without descending to par
ticulars, it may be safely asserted that the power
to make war against a State is at variance with
the whole spirit and intent of the Constitution.
Suppose such a war should result in the conquest
of a State, bow are we to govern it afterwards ?
Shall we hold it as a province, and govern it by
despotic power ? In the nature of things we could
not, by physical force, control the will of the peo
ple, and compel them to elect senators and repre
sentatives to Congress, and to perform all the otb
er duties depending upon their own volition, and
requiring from the free eitisens of a free State as a
constituent member of the Confederacy. lint, if
we possessed this power, would it be wise to exer
cise it under existing circumstances ! The object
weutd doubtless be to preserve the Union. War
would net only present the most effectual means of
destroying it ; but would banish all hope of its
peaceable reconstruction. - Beside, in the fraternal
conflict avast amount of blood and treasure wonld
be expended, rendeiing future reconciliation be
tween the States impossible. In the meantime,
who can foretell what would be the sufferings and
privations of the people during its existence ? The
fact is, that our Lnion rests upon public opinion,
and can never be cemented by the blood ot its eit
isens shed in civil war. If it cannot live in the
affections of the people, it must one day perish.
Congress possesses muny ineansof preserving it by
conciliation ; but thesword was not placed in tbeir
band to preserve it by force. .But may I be per
mitted solemnly to invoke my countrymen to pause
nd deliberate, before tbey determine to destroy
fbis. tbe grandest temple which has ever been
dedicated to human freedom since the world be
fan? It has been consecrated by tbe blood of our
fathers, by tiie glories of the past, and by tbe hopes
of the future. The Uniou has already made us
the most prosperous and, ere long. will, if preserv
ed, render us the most powerful nation on the faee
of tbe earth. In every foreign region of the globe
the title of American citizen is held in the high
est respect, and when pronounced in a foreign
land, it eanses the hearts of our countrymen to
awell with honest pride. Sorely when we reach
tbe brink of the yawning abyss, we shall recoil
with horror from the last fatal plunge. By such
a dread catastrophe, the hopes of the friends of
freedom throughout the-world would be destroy
ed, and along night of leaden despotism would
enshroud the nations. Our example for more than
eighty years would not only be lost ; but it would
be quoted as a conclusive proof that man is unfit
for self government It is not every wrong nay
it is not every grievous wrong which can justify
a resort to such a fearful alternative. This ought
to be the last desperate remedy of a despairing
people, after every other constitutional means of
eonctnation nao osen exnausieu. vtesnouid re
flect that under this free Government there is an
incessant ebb and flow in publio opinion. The
slavery question, like everything human will have
its day. I firmly believe that it has already reach
ed and passed the culminating point. But if, in the
midst or tne existing excitement, the Union snail
perish, tbe evil may then become irreparable.
WHAT CO.VGKtSS SHOl'LD DO. -
'Congress can contribute much to avert it by
proposing and recommending to the legisla
tures of the several Slates the remedy for ex
isting evils, which tbe Constitution has itself
provided for its own preservation. This has
been tried at different critical periods of our
history, and always with eminent success. It
is to b found in the 5th article providing for
Its own amendment. Under this article a
raendmenU have been proposed by two thirds
of both bouses of Congress ;. and have been
ratified by the legislatures of three fourths
of the several Stales,' vaud bare consequently
become parts of tbe Constitution. , To this
process the country is indebted for the clause
prohibiting Congress from passing any law
respecting an establishment of religion, or
abridging the freedom of speech or. of the
press, or of the right of petition. To this we
are, lo, indebted for the Bill of Kights.which
aacue be people against any abuse ot power
by tbe Federal Government. . Such were tbe
jpreJxensjonsJusty entertained by the friends
pf le,ta riht.s at tha.t fl9& l to bay ren-
dered it extremely doubtful whether the Con
stitution could have .long survived without
these amendments.- Again, the Constitution
was amended by the samo ( process after the
election of President Jefferson by the House
of Representatives, in February, 1803. This
amendment was rendered necessary to prevent
a recurrence ot the dangers which had serious
ly threatened the existence of the Government
during the pendency - ot that election. The
article for its own amendment was intended
to secure tbe amicable adjustment of conflic
ting constitutional questions like the present,
which might arise between the government of
the States and that of the United States. This
appears from contemporaneous history. In
this connection, I shall merely call attention
to a few sentences in Mr. Madison's justly cel
ebrated report, in 1799, to the legisluture of
Virginia. In this ho ably and conclusively
defended, the resolutions of the. preceeding
legislature against the strictures of several
other State legislatures. These were mainly
founded upon the protest of the Virginia legis
lature against the "Alien and Sedition Acts,"
as "palpable and alarming infractions of the
Constitution.'! In pointing out tbe peaceful
and constitutional remedies, and he referred
to none other, to which the States were author
ized to resort, on such occasions,he concludes
by saying, "that the legislatures of the States
might have nude a direct representation to
Congress with a view to obtain a rescinding of
the two offensive acts, or they might have rep
resented to their recctive senators In Con
gress their wish that two thirds thereof would
propose an explanatory amendment to the
Constitution, or two thirds of themselves, if
such had been their opinion, might, by an ap
plication to Congress, have obtained a conven
tion for the same object. This is tho very
course which I earnestly recommend in order
to obtain an "explanatory amendment" of the
Constitution on the subject or slavery." This
might originate with Congress or the State
legislatures, as may be deemed most advisa
ble to attain tbe object.: The explanatory a
mendment might be confined to the final set
tlement of the true construction of tho Con
stitution on three special points:
1. An express recognition of the right of
property in slaves in the States where it now
exists or may hereafter exist.
2. The duty of protecting this right in all
the common Territories throughout their ter
ritorial existence, and until they shall bo ad
mitted as States into the Union.with or without
slavery, as their constitutions may prescribe.
3. A like recognition ol the right of the
master to have bis slave, who has escaped from
one State to another, restored and "delivered
up" to him, and of the validity of the fugitive
slave law enacted for this purpose, together
with a declaration that all State laws imposing
or defeating this right are violations of tho con
stitution, and are consequently null and void.
It may be objected that this construction of
tbe Constitution has already been settled by
the Supreme Coutt of the United States, and
what more ought to be required 1 The answer
is that a very large proportion of the people
of the United States still contest the correct
ness of this decision, and never will cease from
agitation and admit its binding force until
clearly established by the people of the sever
al States in tbeir sovereign character. Such
an explanatory amendment would, it is believ
ed, forever terminate the existing dissentions
and restore . peace and harmony among tbu
States. It ought not to be doubted that such
an appeal to the arbitrament established by
tbe Constitution itself would bo received with
favor by all the States of tho Confederacy.
In any event it ought to be tried in a spirit of
conciliation before any of those States shall
separate themselves from the Union. ; . . ..
FILLIBl STEBl.NQ, C.
When I entered upon the duties of the Pres
deutial office, the aspect neither of our foreign
or domestic affairs was at all satisfactory. Ve
were involved in dangerous complications with
several nations, and two of our Territories wero
in a state of revolution against the Govern
ment. A restoration of theAfrican Slave Trade
had numerous and powerful advocates. Un
lawful military expeditions were countenanc
ed by many of our citizens, and were suffered,
in defiance of the efforts of the Government,
to escape from our shores, for tho purpose of
making war upon the unoffending people of
neighboring republics, with whom we were at
peace. . In addition to these and other difficul
ties, we experienced a revolution in monetary
affairs, soon after my advent into power, of un
exampled severity and of ruinous censequen
ces to all tbe great interests of the couutry.
When we tako a retrospect of what was then
our condition and contrast this with its ma
teterial prosperity at tho time of the late
Presidential election, we have abundant rea
son to return our grateful thanks to that mer
cilul Providence which has never forsaken us
as a nation in all our past trials.
OUR FOREIGN RELATIONS.
Our relations with Great Britain are of the
most friendly character. Since the commence
ment of my administration, the two dangerous
questions, arising from the Clayton and Bui
wer treaty, and also the right of search claim
ed by the British government, have been ami
cably and honorably adjusted. The recent
visit of the Priuce of Wales, in a privato char
acter, to the people of this country, has proved
to be a most auspicious event. Jn its conse
quences, it cannot fail to increase tbe kindred
and kindly feelings which I trust may ever
actuate the government and people of both
countries in their political and social inter
courses with each other. With France, our
relations continue to be of the most friendly
character. A decision has recently been made
recognizing the natural right of expatriation.
A Frenchman, who has become a citizen of the
United States, Cannot, therefore, be compel
led to serve in the French army in case he
should return to his native country. Between
the great empire of Russia and the United
States the mntual friendship and regard which
has so long existed still continues to prevail,
and, if possible, to increase. Our relations
with Spain are now of a more complicated
though less dangerous character than they
have been for many years, growing out of
claims held by a number of our citizens. The
acquisition of Cuba by purchase from Spain is
again recommended. Our relations with Aus
tria, China, Japan, and other foreign govern
ments, with tho exception of Mexico, are in a
satisfactory state. The President urges 'the
Senate to confirm the treaty," formed by Mr.
McLane with the government of Mexico, tbe
stipulations of which, he says, are calculated
to promote the agricultural, manufacturing,
and commercial interests of the country, and
to secure our just influence with an adjoining
republic as to whose fortunes and fate we can
never feel indifferent ; whilst at the same time
they provide for tbe payment of a consider
able amount towards the satisfaction of the
claims of our injured fellow-citizens. . t
. - KANSAS AND CTAH. ?'
At tbe period ot my inauguration I was' con
fronted in Kansas by a revolutionary govern
ment, existing under what is called the- Tope
ka constitution. Its avowed object was to sub
due the territorial government in Its stead.
To accomplish this object an extensive mili
tary - organization was formed and its com
mand entrusted to the most violent revolution
ary leaders.: Under these circumstances, it
became my duty , to exert the whole con
stitutional power - to prevent the flames of
civil war from again raging in Kansas, which,
in tho excited state of the public mind, both
North and Sooth, might bayo extended into
the neighboring States. The hostile parties
in Kansas had been inflamed against each
other by emissaries both from the North and
the- South, to a degree of malignity without
parallel in our history. To prevent actual
collision: and to assist the civil magistrates
in enforcing tbe laws, a strong detachment of
the army was stationed in the Territory, ready
to aid the marshal and his deputies, when
lawfully called upon, as a potse tomitatu in
the execution of civil and criminal process.
Still the troubles in Kansas could not have
been permanently settled without an election
by the people. The ballot-box is the surest
arbiter of disputes among fieemeu. Under
this conviction, every proper effort was em
ployed to induce the hostile parties to vote at
the election of delegates to frame a State con
stitution, .and . afterwards at the election ' to
decide whether Kansas should be a slave or a
free State. .The t insurgent party, refused to
vote at either, lest this might be considered a
recognition on their part of the territorial
government established by Congress. A bet
ter spirit, however, seemed soon after to pre
vail, and the two parties met face to face at
the third election, held on the first Monday of
January, 1858, for members of the legislature
and State officers under the Lecompton con
stitution. The result was the triumph of the
anti-slavery party at the polls. This decision
of the ballot-box proved clearly that this party
were in the majority, and removed the danger
of civil war. i rom that time we have heard
little or nothing of tbe Topeka government ;
and all serious danger of revolutionary troub
les iu Kausas was then at au end.
The Lecompton constitution, which had
been thus recognized at this State election by
the voles of both political parties in Kansas,
was transmitted to me with the request that I
should present it to Congress. This I could
not have refused to do without: violating my
clearest and strongest convictions of duty.
The constitution,and all the proceedings which
preceded and followed its. foundation, were
fair and regular on their face. I then believ
ed, and experience has proved, that the in
terests of the people of Kansas would have
been best consulted by its admission as a State
into the Union, especially as the majority,
within a brief period, conld have amended the
constitution according to their will and pleas
ure. If fraud existed in all or any of these
proceedings, it was not for the President, but
tor Cougress, to investigate and determine tbe
question of fraud, and what ought to be Its
consequences. If, at the two first elections,
the majority refused to vote, it cannot be pre
tended that this refusal to exercise the elective
franchise could invalidate an election fairly
held under lawful authority, even if they had
not subsequently voted at the third election
It is true that the whole constitution had not
been submitted to tbo people, as I always de
sired : but the precedents are numerous of the
admission of States into the Union without
such submission.- It would not comport with
my present purpose to review the proceedings
of Congress upon the Lecompton constitution
It is sufficient to observe that their final action
has removed the last vestige of serious revo
lutionary troubles. The desperate band re
cently assembled, under a notorious outlaw,
in the southern portion of the Torritory, to
resist tbe execution of tbe laws and to plun
der peaceful citizens, will, I doubt not, be
speedily subdued and brought to justice. Had
1 treated the Lecompton constitution as a nul
lity and refused to transmit it to Congess, it
is not difficult to imagine, whilst recalling the
position of the country at that moment, what
would have been the disastrous consequences,
both in ai'd ont of the Territory, from such a
dereliction ol duty on the part of the Execu
five. Peace has also been lestored within the
Territory of Utah, which, at the commence
ment of my Administration, was in a state of
open rebellion. This was the more dangerous,
as tbe people, animated by a fanatical spirit
and entrenched within their distant mountain
fastnesses, might have made a long and f'ornii
dable resistance. Cost what it might, it was
necessary to bring them into subjection to the
Constitution and the laws. Sound policy,'
therefore, as well as humanity, required that
this object should, if possible, be accomplished
without the effusion of blood. This could on
ly be effected by sending a military force into
the Territory sufficiently strong to convince
the people that resistance would bo hopeless,
ana at the same .time to oner them a pardon
for past offences on condition of immediate
submission to tho Government. This policy
was pursued with eminent success ; and the
only cause for regret is the heavy expenditure
required to march a large detachment of the
army to that' remote region and to furnish it
subsistence. Utah is now comparatively
peaceful and quiet, and the military force has
been withdrawn, except that portion of it ne
cessary to keep tbe Indians in check and to
protect the emigrant trains on their way to
our 1 aciflc possessions. -
AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE, &C.
It is witn great satisfaction 1 communicate
the fact, that, since the date of my last An
nual Message, not a single slave has been im
ported in violaton of the laws prohibiting the
African alave trade. 1 his statement is found
ed npona thorough examinasion and investiga
tion of tho -subject Indeed, the spirit which
prevailed some time among a portion of our
fellow-citizens in favor of this trade seems to
have entirely subsided. :
I also - congratulate you upon the public
sentiment which now exists against the crime
of setting on foot military expeditions within
the limits of the United States, to proceed
from thence and make war npon tho people of
unonending states with whom we are at peace.
In this respect a happy change has been ef
fected since the commencement of my Ad
ministration. It surely ought to be the prayer
of every Christian and patriot, that such ex
peditions may never again receie counte
nance in our country or depart from our shores.
It would be useles repetition to do more
than refer, with earnest commendation, to my
former recommendations in favor of the Pa
cific railroad of the grant of power to the
rTesiaent to employ the naval force in the vi
cinity, for tbe protection of the lives and prop
erty of our fellow-citizens passing in transit
over tuo different Central American routes, a
gainst sudden aud lawless outbreaks and dep
redations ; and also to protect Amreican mer
chant vessels, their crews and cargoes, against
violent and unlawful seizure and confiscation
in .the ports of Mexico and South American
republics, when these may be in a disturbed
and revolutionary condition. It is my set
tled conviction, that without snch a power we
do not afford that protection to those engaged
in the commerce of the country which they
have a right to demand. :
' ELECTION OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS.
I again recommend to Congress tbe passage
of a law in pmsnance of the provisions of the
Constitution, appointing a day certain, previ
ous to the 4th of March, In each year of an
odd number, for the election of Representa
tives throughout all the States. A similar
power has already been exercised, with gener
al approbation, in the appointment of the
same day throughout the Union, for holding
the election of electors for President and Vice
President of the United States.' My attention
was early directed to this subject from the
fact, that the 35th' Congress terminated on
the 3d of March, 1859, without 'making tbe
necessary appropriation for the service of the
Post Office Department. 1' was then forced
to consider tbo best remedy for this omission,
and an immediate call of tbe present Congress,
was the natural resort. Upon inquiry, how
ever, I ascertained that fifteen out of the thirty-three
States composing the Confederacy,
were without Representatives; and that.conse
quently, these fllteen States would be disfran
chised by such a call. These fifteen , States
will be in the same condition on the 4th of
March next. Ten ot them cannot elect Rep
resentatives, according to existing State laws,
uutil different periods, extending from the be
ginning of August next until, the months of
October and November. In my message I
gave warning that, in a time of sudden and
alarming danger, the salvation of our institu
tions might depend upqn the power of the
President immediately to assemble a full
Congress to meet the emergency.
" ' ; " r "- J THE TARIFF QUESTION. , T f 1' '
It is now quite evident that the financial ne
cessities of tneGovcrnment will require a mod
ification of the tariff during your present ses
sion, lor the purpose of increasing tbe revenue.
In this respect I desire to reiterate the recom
mendation contained in my last two annual
messages, in favor of imposing specific instead
of ad valorem duties on all imported articles to
which these can bo properly applied. From
long observation and experience 1 am convinc
cd that specific duties are necessary, both to
protect the revenue and to secure to our man
uiacturing interests that amount of incidents
protection which unavoidably results from a
revenue tariff. As an abstract proposition it
may be admitted that ad valorem duties would
in theory, be the most just and equal. But if
the experience ot this and of all other com
mercial nations has demonstrated that such
duties can not be assessed and collected with
out great frauds upon the revenue, then it is
the part of wisdom to resort to specific duties
Indeed, from tbe verv nature of ah ad valorem
duty, this must be the result. Under it the
inevitable consequences is, that foreign goods
will be entered at less than true value. The
Treasury will therefore lose the duty on the dif
ference between their real and fictitious value,
and to this extent we are defrauded. The
temptation which ad valorem duties present to
a dishonest importer are irresistable. His ob
ject is to pass his goods through the custom
house at the very lowest valuation necessary
to save them from confiscation. In this he too
often succeeds in opite of the vigilance of the
revenue officers. Hence, the resort to false
invoices, one lor the purchaser and another for
the custom-house, and to other expedients to
defraud the Government. The honest impor
ter produces his invoice to the collector, sta
ting the actual price at which he purchased
the articles abroad. Not so the dishonest im
porter and agent of the foreign manufacturer
And here it may bo observed that a very largt
proportion of tho manufactured articles im
ported from abroad are consigned for commis
sion merchants who are mere agents employed
by the manufacturers. In such cases no actua
sale has been made to fix tbeir value. The
foreign manufacturer, if be be dishonest, pre
pares an invoice of the goods, not at their ac
tual value, but at tbe very lowest rate neces
sary to escape detection, i In this manner tho
dishonest importer and the foreign mannfactu
rer enjoy a decided advantage over tho honest
merchant. - They are thus enabled to under
sell the fair trader, and drive him from the
market. In fact, the operation of this system
has already driven from the pursuits of honor
able commerce many of that class of merchants,
whose character throughout the world, is the
pride of our country. Tbe remedy for these
evils is to bo found in pecidc duties, so far
as this may be practicable. They dispense
with any inquiry at the custom-house into the
actual cost or value of the article, and it pays
the precise amount of duty previously fixed
by law.-- They present no temptations to the
appraiser of foreign goods, who receive but
small salaries and might, by undervaluation in
a few cases,- render themselves independent.
Besides, specific duties best conform to the re
quisition in the Constitution that "no prefer
ence shall be given by any regulation of com
merce or revenue to the ports of one State o
ver those of another." Under our ad valorem
system such preferences are to some extent in
evitable,and complaints have often been' made
that tbe spirit of this provision has been viola
ted by a lower appraisement of the same artl
cles at ofie port than at another. An impres
sion, strangely enough, prevails to some ex
tent that specific duties are necessarily pro
tective duties. Nothing can be more falla
cious. Great Britain glories in free trade, and
yet her whole revenue from imports is at the
present moment collected under a system of
specinc duties. It is a striking fact in this
connection that, in the commercial treat)' of
23d January, I860, between France and Eng
land, one of tbe articles provides that the ad
valorem duties which it imposes shall be con
verted into specific duties, within six months
from its date, and these are to be ascertained
by making an average of the prices for six
months previous to that time. The reverse of
the proposition would be nearer the truth, be
cause a much larger amount of revenue would
be collected by merely converting the ad va
lorem duties of a tariff into equivalent specific
duties. To this extent, the revenue would ba
increased, and in the same proportion the sje
cific duty might be diminished. Specific du
ties would secure to tbe American manufactu
rer the incidental protection to which (he is
fairly entitled under a revenue tariff, and to
this surely no person would object. The fra
mers of tbe existing tariff have gone further,
and, in a liberal spirit, discriminated in favor
of large and useful branches of our manufac
tures, not by raising the rate of duty upon the
importation of similar articles from abroad,
but what is the same in effect, by admitting
articles free of duty which enter Into the com
position of their fabrics. Under the present
system it has been often truly remarked thai
this incidental protection decreases when the
manufacturer needs it most, and increases
when he needs it least, and constitutes a slid
ing scale which always operates against him.
The revenues of the country are subjected to
similar fluctuation. Instead of approaching a
steady standard, as would be the case under a
system of specific duties, tbey sink and rise
with the sinking and rising prices of articles
in foreign countries. - It would not be difficult
for Congress to arrange a - system of specifio
duties which would afford additional stability
both to our revenue and our manufactnres, and
without injury or Injustice to any interest of
the country. This might be accomplished by
ascertaining the average value of any given ar
ticle for a series of years, at the place of ex
portation, and by simply converting the rate
of ad valorem daty upon it which might be
doemed necessary for revenue purposes, into
the form of a specific duty. Such an arrange
ment could not injure the consumer. If he
should pay a greater amount of duty one year,
this would be counterbalanced by a lesser a-
mount the next, and in ; the end the aggre
gate would be the same. ; ;
- . ! . J THE KANSAS SUFFERERS.'
It has boon represented to me, from souroes
which I deem reliable, that tho inhabitants in
several portions of Kansas have been reduced
nearly to a state of starvation, on account of
tbe almost total failure of the orops.whilst the
harvests in every other portion of the country
have oeen abundant. The prospect before
them, for the approaching winter, is well eal.
culated to enlist the sympathies of every heart.
The destitution appears to be so general that
it cannot be relieved by private contributions.
and they aro in snch indigent circumstances
as to be unable to purchase the necessaries of
Ijfo for themselves, J refer the sul ject to
Congress, f If anv constitutional measure for
their relief can be, derised, i wouia recom
mend its adoption. ' ,
Z-:" THE DISTRIC OF COLUMBIA.
v I cordially rhcommend to your favorable re
gard the interests of the peoplefof this Dis
trict, iney are eminently .entttiea i jour
consideration, especially since, nnlike the peo
ple of the States, they can appeal to no Gov
ernment except that of the Union
' James Buchanan.
Washington City; 3d December, I860. :-,
Advertisement set i n large type, cuts, or out of usual
stylewul be charged double price for sjtaee occupied.
-NOOPER'S GELATINE, a good article, for sale
T OOKING-GLASS PLATES, an assortment, for
IJ sale at -' Uecizi - UAmawmwa.
LANKS of all kinds, and Foolscap and Letter
paper, for sale at HAKTSWICK'S.
LARGE ASSORTMENT of colored Paints, in
1 lb. cans, ground in oil. Also, dry paints of
11 kinds, for sale at HARTSWICK'S.
A LARGE ASSORTMENT of Fancy China-ware,
and other articles, suitable for Christinas
presents, for sale at II ARTS WICK S.
A LARGE STOCK of Varnishes Copal, Coach,
White Damar, White Spirit, Flowing. Japan
Lryer. and Black Varnish for Leather, Ac., for
sale at DeclZ - iiAKiawiuh o.
SAMUEL II. PLEASANTS, BARBER AND
HAIR-DRESSER, has opened a shop in the
basement of the Clearfield House, and solicits a
share of public patronage. Dec. 12, 1860.
CAUTION. The public are hereby cautioned
ajrainst purchasing or intermeddling with 1
Bay Horse in the possession of Wn. W. Wilson of
Chest township, as tbe same is left with him on
loan and subject to our order only.
A. II. PEIRCE A BRO.
: Chest township. December 12, 1860 3tp.
TN tbe matter of the salo of the Real Estate of
JL Augustus Mulson. F G.Miller. Esq., prays the
appointment of Thomas J. McCuIlough, Auditor,
to distribute the money arising from said sale,
wmcn is done, frrtjur.
; By virtue of the above appointmens, I will at
tend to tho duties thereof at my office in Clear
field, on tbe oth day of Jenuary, 1S61, at 10 o -
clock. A. M . of said day, when and wheje all per
sons interested may attend if they see proper.
T1IOS. J. M CULLOUGH, .
Clearfield, Deo. 12, IS60. -Auditor.
DRUG & VARIETY
S TO 11 E,
MARKET STREET, NEARLY OPPOSITE JAIL.
The undersigned will have constantly on hand
a weil selected stoak of Drugs. Chemicals, Dye
Stuffs, Oils, Paints, Varnishes, Tobacco and Segars,
Stationary, Perfumery, Brushes, and Faney arti
cles, which he will dispose of cheap for cash.
He invites the public to call and exnpiino his
stock of goods before purchasing elsewhere.
Country Physicians furnished with Drugs, Med
icines, and Surgical Instruments, at the most rea
sonable rates. J. G. HARTSWICK.
Clearfield. Pa. December 12, I860. '
A BOOK THAT EVERY FARMER, ME-
xm- CI1ANIC AND BUSINESS MAN WANTS.
Just published, the Township and Local Liws of
jreunsuiva-nia, iompuea jrom tne Acts of Assem-
lj by William T. llaine. Esq.. and publ
,'lward F. James, West Chester, Penn,a
This work contains over 400 pages of cloiely
. . j . . - . .
primea matter, ana win oe soia oy suoscrtption.
It teaches the duties of Justices of the Peaee,
with forms for the transaction of their businets.
It teaches tbe duties of Constables with all the
necessary forms, appertaining to the office.
It contains the duties of Supervisors of every
County and Township in tho State- It contains
the mode of procedure for the laying out and o-
peningof public and private road , of vacating
and altering roads, the building of bridges, Ao.
. It contains the Common School Law, with expla
nations, decisions and directions, together with
forms for Deeds, Bonds, Contracts, Certificates, Ac,
Ac. This department of the work was compiled at
llarrisburg by Samuel P. Bates, Deputy Superin
tendant, and is alone worth the price of the vol
ume to any one interested in Common iSchools.
It contain tbe duties of Township Auditors. It
contains the laws relative to Dogs and Sheep. It
contains the duties of Assessors. It contains tbo
laws iu relation to Strays, Mules and Swine. It
contains the laws relative to Fences and Fence
viewers. It contains the laws relative to Game
Hunting, Trout and Deer. It contains the Elec
tion Laws, with all tho necessary forms, ft con
tains the Naturalixation Lawg, with all tho ne
cessary forms for Application, etc., etc.
It contains a large number of Leeal Forms.
which are used in the every day transactions of
ousiness. 8ucn as AOKnowiedgments, Affidavits. Ar
ticles of Agreements and Contracts. PartnemhiD.
Apprentices, Assignments, Attestations. Bills of
Exchange and Promisory Notes, Bonds. Bills of
oaie, tnecKs, covenants, Heeds, Deposition, Due
It'll . . w mi . . '
inns ana rroauoe xxotes,-landlord and tenant,
Leases, Letters of Attorney, Marriage, Mortgages,
Receipts and Releases. . The work is bound in Law
sheep, and will be sold to subscribers at SI 23 per
cuFJr payaoie on aeuvery oi tne worx. xneworK
has passed the revision of many of the best Law
yers in the State and has received their unquali
fied approbation, as a reliable hand book of refer-
ence upon all subjects npon which it treats. The
whole is arranged in such a manner as to present
u jjiaiu, cuuciwt idu explicit eiaiemem or rne du
ties of all Township Officers, as may be readily un
derstood by any one. This County will be thor
oughly canvassed for the work, and the support of
v, : . : rn i - -. i
lug ;hii;iib is rusueuuuuy SOUOliea.
R. J. WALLACE, Esq., U General Agent for
Clearfield county. t" P. S. Good canvassers want
ed mail parts of this county for the above work,
10 wnom a noerai compensation will be given.
Applications, which must be made at an early
date, addressed to the General Agent at Clearfield
win receive prompt attention. Dec. 12,-4 1.
THE FIRST ARRIVAL WINTER
. t ;
Fall and Winter Goods.
t REED, WEAVER & CO.,
Marlet St., 2 doors North of the Court Ilovse.
VHERE they are just opening an unusually
. V V i&riru H.I111 well Bfl nAran rvlr ri f tmr,rrtm
ed to the wants of the cnmtnnnttv fn Vill .-J
Winter Trade, whioh they offer is large or small
uiilmCs mi mo ui oh i reasonaoie terms, uall ana
.u.uaiuo ivi j uuiaci co. iiieir assortment oz
' -. DRV GOODS tivn nnnvs
v o - V VM f V WW, M ill nviu 1 4U UPI w , -
erj artioU bet of fashion and service. Especial
Attention l hOn V-voir s 1 e aalaAliVn .f T. A
DIES' DR&S8 GOODS, which are of every variety
mnA tli. .... I..nt .1.1.. . o : i l t -1 : . ni - ,
,WIT l.CB Slj 1CB , DI1RB, AvlAlllCS, JL IttlUS,
C'burtrfi. Mnrtnna Pnnltna. Alnnosa Pnnhn,ir.a
1 :ieh, Scotch and Domestic Ginghams, Prints,
Swisses, Cambrics, Brilliants, Figured and Plain
Bobbioetts, Veil Baixe, Irish Linen and Cloths,
Rlli.lr A.n.1 17ann Pnaiimarna Sfttlinafa T ... .l .
Corduroys, Hickory Stripe,.Tioking, Crash, Dia
per, Bleached and Unbleaohed Muslins and Drills,
Red. Grev. White and Canton Flannel. Lingvo.
Ao. ' Also, a large stock of Ladies' and Gentle
men'! Shawls, Double and Single Stellas and Che-
T" t l a T . V ni .
nines, j.jac ana . xsrao iotn, capes ot the very
laiDBt mtaiua. Sentl li
k NEW ONE-HORSE SLEIGH for sale by
L deoS - . Reko, Wsavkr A Co.
T ITTTKIt ' IUTTTPH l.
of good roll Butter, for sale at the store of '
Dec; 5, J8G0. ; ' - WM. F. IRWIN.
PROVISION AND GROCERY STORk
A The undersigned keeps constantl on hsn!i
at his store room in Philipsbur'Centreycount,
full itock of Flour, llams. Sho'ulders Si '?. rV
fee, Tea, Sngar, Rice, MoIafs, Ac. aL i '
floors of all kinds. Tohitwn S....
of which hm fTo,. . ""uu. ,
i. i-.ivu.ii.ii uu mo moat a
vantageon terms. Give hid a call, and trvi,
articles. - mar211 ROBERT LLOYh
NEW BREWERY. MORE LAGL'R
The subscribers would respectfully info.""
the Tavern keepers and others that they hav, ,
cenuy started anew urewery in the Borouch
Clearfield, and that they are now prepared to fur'
niih Beer on tbe most accommodating terror TL
have employed an experienced Brewer, from ilJ
east, and they feel confident that they can autsrVi
a superior article of beer. Giv th-m .
judge for yourselves..
June zu. ;ro , ;v, ; ; CHARLES IIAUT 4 CO.
NEW STONEWARE MAMT FACTOR v
- ' ' IN CLEARFIELD. PA W"K
The nnrlrsirn(l til-pa Oti i . r - .
ing the publ io that he has commenced the inn
factum of Rfrtn.War 5 !, It,.. v. ... nu"
field, and thst he is now prepared to supply 'I
who mav want thorn with Milk ml Cr-.'f-J ,
Jogs. Jars, Ac., at lower prices, than the v can L
Dougnt elsewhere. He solicits a share of nm
ago- FREDERICK LEITZlSuER
Clearfield. Pa., Mvy 25, 1859-ly. .
GRIST AND SAW MILL FOR SALE.-.
The Undersifrned will enll nt rrttt. ..l. i .
grist and saw mill on Little Clesrfield creek ir
New Millport, Clearfield county, Ta. The g'ri-t
mill can be run by cither steam or w.i . l'
both at the same time. Tln nmrl.nr n -
- m - . . i a j Salt ' i
The location is one of the best in the county Th
saw mill is in good running order and capable of
ciwinir 4000 (Vet tttr 12 hnn Th... : . .1
. V.. . . . - ivnisin
dwelling house with the. property. For trrm.
wnicn win oe moderate, apply to the subscriber
residing in New Millport '
Aug. 13, I8tu-3m. MARTIN O. STIRK.
LOOK HERE. GENTLEMEN ! VTAO'iv
SHOP AHEAD!!!! The subscriber thsi.kful
for past favors, takes this method of inforir.in
his old customers and the public in irenera! tu
ne nas removed uis stoop irom the roumiry to th
shop formerly occupied by George W. Orr, on St
ond street, iiearueld. 1'a., where he will contiaue
to manufacture Wagon of every description, to
order, of good material and in a workuiSLlik
manner. Also, Wheelbarrows, Harrows Grain
cradles, Ac., made on short notice, in superior
style, and of the best stock. Kepairiiiir of every
1. A :.u j: . . . 'J
. wi- uuuv nnu uispiiLcu. nnu vii reasonaoie le r 1:1 -
June ; WILLIAM R. BROW N .
OROKE OUT IN A NEW FL ACE !-I.M--t
PORTA NT NOTICE TO THE RAGGED "I
The undersigned having opened a Tailoring Es
tablishment in Shaw s Row, in the room recent! r
occupied by II. F. Naogle as a Jewelry store, um-
nounces mat nc is now ready and willing t-. mak
Coats, Pmttaloons, Vests, S c., for his oi l . .:;'., -
ers, and as many new ones a nisy ire him -i'I
after the latest and most approved styles, or ::ftcr
any of the old fashions, if they prefer it l'r
doing his work in a neat and substantial manner
and promptTy fulfilling his engagements, he ex
pects to secure a liberal share of patronage.
Jan. IS. 15bu. llADLUAUi'i.
STIRRING TIMES IN PHILADEL
PHIA lTremriulons Ercitrmntt amoiiL' th
Masses EXCITING FOOT RACE httirrr,, th-
Philadtlphia Police and a notorious Porcer and
counterfeiter. James Puchanan Croix !.'!.'! Cras
Recaptured !.'.'.'.' It seems to be the ceneral oiiB
ion in Clearfield, that if Ctom had worn a pair uf
Frank Short's French-calf Boots, that he voulJ
not be taken yet. However, Shorty is not niucli
put out at missing his custom; but would an
nounce to all Breckinridge, Doug-las, Lincoln and
Dell xnrn, and women and children in Clearfield.
and Sinnemahoning in particular, that ho is pre
pared to lurmsn them with Ikxits, bhoes and Wai
ters ot any style or pattern, stiched. sewed or peg
ged, (and as he is a short fellow) on short nolico.
AW Kinds of oountry produce taken in exchange,
and cash not refused Repairing done in the neat
est manner and eharcrcs moderate, at tho Shor
Shoe Shop on Second btreet, opposite Reed, Wm
ver Co s store. FRANK SHOUT
N..B. Findings for sale. Aug. 24. lKt.0
NEW FALL AND WINTER GOODS
II. L. HENDERSON A CO.,
IIve just received and opened at the old '.s:--f
of Lewis Smith, in Bethlehem, an extensive an I
well selected assortment of the most fashion-ilU
Fall and Winter Goods,
Staple and Fancy. - The stock consists in part . '
Prints and Dress Goods of the latest styles, togetk
er with Hardware, Queccsware, Groceries, Drugs,
Medicines, Fish, Tobacco, Segars, Hats and Caps,
Bonnets and Shawls, Boots and Shoes, and a large
variety of useful Notions and such article as are
usually kept in a country store. All goods will
be sold cheap for cash. Give us a call and see for
yourselves, before you buy elsewhere. All the a-.
bore will be sold cheap for cash or exchanged
for approred country produce and lumber.
Oct 24, 1860. 11. L. HENDERSON i CO.
Ql Ci A A If RAYMONDS PATENT SEW
OlU.UUl! ING MACHINE FOR TEN DOL
LARS, will Fell, Gather, or do any kind of fami
ly sewing and so simple that any lady can lern
to operate on it in half an hour. It will make
one thousand stitches in a minute, and for its su
periority in every respect, it took the First rre
tuium at the Maine State Fair over alt other tfew
ing Machines. A large number have been sold
and are now in use in this borough (Brookville)
and vicinity, and are pronounced the simplest and
best machine ever invented superior to most ol
the high priced sewing machines.
The undersigned having purchased the Rizht
from the Patentee, to sell these machines in tba
counties of Jefferson, Clearfield, Elk, and Forest,
are now ready to fill orders for the same in the a
bove district. Urders Tor machines will be filled
in the order of their reception. Persons wishing
machines should send in their orders immediate
ly, as we have over 30 machines already ordered
in advance of our supply. Townshin riebts for sale
' All applications for maobines or township right
by letter or otherwise, should be addressed to.
A. B. M LAIN A CO..
Aug. lS,18S0-tf. Brookville, Jefferson co-Ts.
TnE ATLANTIC MONTHLY .-C on.
menoment of the Seventh Volume. The Pub
lishers of The Atlantic Monthly have pleasure in,
aanounomg mat tbe new volume, to commence
with the nam her for January. 1861. will contain
features of remarkable interest and attractiveness.
Anions these, may be named, a New Novel, by
Mrs, Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of "Uncle
Tom's Cabin." and '-The Minister's Wooinjr."
A New Novel, by Chaa. Reade, author of -Chris-.
tie Johnstone," "Peg Wofiington." etc., ete.
New Stories, by Miss Harriet Prescott. authorof
"The Amber Gods." and "Sir Rohan's Ghost."
A new Romance, by the author of "Charles Au-
chester," and "Counterparts."
Also, oontributions in Prose and Poetry, by Hen
ry W. Longfellow, Nathaniel Hawthorne. "Oliver
Wendell Holmes, James Russell Lowell, Ralph.
Waldo Emerson. John G. Whittier. Bavard Tav-
lor; Edwin P. Whipple, Henry Giles. R'ichard B
Kimball, George S. Hitlard, Rose Terrv, Rev. Dr.
Bellows, Mr. Fannie Kemble, Charlet'E. Norton,
Winthrop Sargent, T. W. Higginson, J. T. Tow
bridge, and other distinguished writers. :
Terms S3 per annum, or 25 cents a number.
Upon the reoeipt of the subscription price, tbs
publishers will mail the work to any part of tbe.
Unltod States, prepaid. Subscriptions may begin
with etthe'r the first, or any snbsnnent number
The postage of the 'Atlantlo' Is Thirty-six cents .
year, if prepaid. 1 The pages of the'Atlantie' are
stereotyped, and back numbers can be supplied-
. wnuuing .arrangements. buoscriDer 10 y
their own poatago. Two copies for $5: Fire ot; -
ies for $10 : Eleven copies for $20. Address,
TICKN0R & FIELr j.
135 Washington c!r
A SPLENDID assortment of Uuia'. -men's
and children's Gloves and Hosiery, '
sepil9 ftEED, VtKAVSR a V" .
CALL and examine the Patent air tight gi
and stone Jars. They are jurt the thing J.
want. For sale bv Rr.itD, Wr.AvrK A
' ' - -