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BY S B. KO AY:
OLEAEFEELD, WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 2-3,
THE BLIND COY'S LOVE.
There is something raournfully beautiful and
touching ia the following lines, by John II. Sew.
which, we copy from the ' Knickerbocker" for l'ec.
List ! oh list! she is drawing near ;
. For her tiny step and brief
Fall sofily on lay strained ear,
As the rain on Ternal leaf ! "
Why beats my heart so wildly tow,
, A'nd starts my blood in fiercer flight,
And crimson neok and check and brow.
" . As skies, they say-kc-n megs the night ? .
.Why, e'en my tongue forgets its art,
And croacheth down, oppressed with fear,
As lilac when the north winds part,
" , Or beasts whose master conieth near.
Ah me! she has passed me like the breeze
,' 'With odors from tha autumn plain,
-Or like a ship o'er southern seas,
Whaa scarce a ripplct scars ihe main.
Eut, as a wrecked ona on the shore,
'' W'ten Night has set her sectries.pale,
Vh os low-bowed ear for everiuora
Is fillod with rustlings of a sail, ' . -
I stand ailbrealhics3, hsaring yet . ' .
The niurin'ring cf her f.idir.g Eight,
' While every sound i3 sweetly set
To the music of her foot-fall light .
Hut than," my Lily! shalt never know
-The soul that, like the restless tea,
To thee shall ovor ebb and flow, ;
Unceasing as eternity :
For who am I to dream of levo
" Of thee, a twin to Eeauty born,
Wham every songster of the grove,
Greets with his carol, as if the Morn?
No. no; those late-lite eyes of thine
Should mirror back a face more fair
Than this poor, dark one, sad, of mine,
W'Lero moody sits each full-browed Care.
' And yet, my Gon! if for an hour
Tuoc Mat grant me ia her eyes to gaze,
lion cheerful would I yield the power
Pf life itself through countless days!
; The mother of this patriotic family was a
native of Caroline county, Virginia. Her
name waj Elizabeth Marshall, and she was
probably of the same family with Chief Justice
Marshall, as she belonged to the same neigh
borhood. Alter her marriage to Abram Mar
tin, she removed to the settlement, bordering
on the Indian nation, ia Ninety-Six, now Ed
gefield District, South Carolina. The coun
try at that time was sparsely settled, most of
its inhabitants being tho pioneers from other
States, chiefly from Virginia; and their neigh
borhood to the Indians had caused the adop
tion cf some of their savage habits. The name
of Edgefield is said to have been given, be
cause it was at that period the edge or boun
dary of the respectabb settlers and their cul- nirried.again
tivated fields. Civilization, however, increas
ed with the population, and in the time of the
Revolution, Xinety-Six was amonr the fore
most in sending into the Cel l .its quota of har
dy and enterprising troops to oppesa the Brit
ish and their savage allies.
At the commencement of the contest, !l"rs.
Marshall had nine children, seven of whom
were sons old enough to bar arms. These
brave young men, under the tuition and exam
ple of their parents, had grown up in attach
ment to their country, and ardently devoted
to its service, were ready on every occasion to
encounter the dangers of border warfare.
the officer as he turned and rode away, is fctill
remembered in the family tradition.
The eldest son married Grace Waring, of
Dorchester, when she was but fourteen years
of age. She was the daughter of Benjamin
Waring, who afterwards became ons of the
earliest settlors of Columbia when established
as the seat of government cf the State. The
principles of the Revolution had been taught
her from childhood, and her efforts to promote
its advancement were joiued by those oftrojf
husband's family. She was one of the two
who risked their lives to seize upon the dis
patches as ahov3 stated. Her husband's un
timely death left her with thrco young chil
drentwo sons and a daughter ; but she never
: A SKETCII OF TIIE PAST
Wo like to treasure v.p all the historical le
'gveds X our Revolutionary struggle.; They
are sketches of the past which grow more val
nl.! Tpar after roar ms3es by, and tho in
cidents they refer to become more and mere
deeply enveloped in the haze-and mystery cf . frequently exposed to tho dej
When tho first call for volunteers sounded
through the land, the mother encouraged their
patriotic zeal. . .
"Go, boys," said she, "fight for your coun
try ! fight till death, if you must, but never
let your country be dishonored. Were I a
man I would go with yon."
At another time, when Col. Cruger com
manded the British at Cambridge, and Colonel
Bi own at Augusta, several British officers
j stopped at her house lor refreshment, and one
cf them atked l.o-.v rainy sona she ha 1. Sho
answered eiht ; and to the question where
they all were, replied promptly :
'Seven of them aro engaged in the service
of their country."
"Ileally, madame," observed tho officer,
snceiingly, "you have enough of them."
Xo, sir," sail tho matron, proudly, "I
wish I had a sc''re."
Her house in the absence of her sons was
redatioas of the
Tories.. -On one occasion they cut open her
feather beds, and scattered the contents.
HISTORY OP EXCLSSIVE WINTERS.
From Graham's Hagaziue, Jn.lijj3.
In a. d. -101, the Black Sua was entirely fro
In 402, the Danube was frozen, so that The
odorner marched over tho ice to avenge his
brother's death in Sus.bia.
Ia oIj, the cold was so intense in winter
that the birds allowed themseivea to bo
caught by the hand.
lu 7G3, not only the Black Sea, but the Strait
of tho Dardanelles was lrozen over. The
snow in some places rose fifty feet high, and
the ice was so heaped in the cities as to push
down the walls. .
nter was intensely cold.
In ts- ih, rreat rivers of Europe, such 66 .shillings a quarter.
I ' c - - -
as the Danube, the Elbe, and the Seine, were
so hard frozen as to bear hoavy wagons for a
month. In bGO, the Adriatic was frozen.
Ia b74, the winter was very long aud severe.
The snow continued to fall from the beginning
of November to the end of March, and en
cumbered the ground so much that the forests
wtre inaccessible for the supply of fuel.
In 891, and again in 803, tho vines were
killed by the frost, and the cattle perished in
In 031, tho winter lasted very long with ex
treme severity. Everything was frozen ; the
crops totally failed ; and famine and pesti
lence closed the year. v ...
In 101 1, great quantities of snow lay upon
the ground. The vines and fruit-trees were
destroyed, and famine ensued.
forty days without interruption. Al.thc riv
ers in Germany were frozen and the very
birds took shelter in the towns. The price of
wheat rose, in England, to"' - r-f even shill
ings a quarter, but was ri .cc i "'-shillings
in the following yerr. ' -In
14C0. tho Baltic r " t
likewise, continue i i ana
the vineyards in C u - lestroycd.
In 14GS, the wiutcrias so severe in Fland
ers, that the wino distributed to tho soldiers
was cut ia pieces with hatchets.
In 1514, the" same thing happened cgaia, the
wino being frozen into solid lumps.
In 1513, the wiiity was very cold and pro
tracted. Ectwet? Denmark and Eostock,
sledges avvn by horses or oxen travelled
over the ice. f -.
.In i:Gl, and again in 1503, the winter was
extremely severe all over Europe. The
Scheldt froze so hard as to support loaded
wagons for three months. Z'
Ia 1571, the winter was sever o and protract
ed. All the rivers iu France were covered
with hard and solid ice; the ru'it trees even in
Languedoc were killed by the frost.
In 109-1, the weather was bo severe, that the
: and at Erora, in Portugal, people could hardly
creep out of their houses for heaps of snow.
The winters during tho five successive years,
1743. 1746, 1747, 1748, and 1749, were all of
them Tery cold.
In 17ol and 17.33, the winter was particular
ly cold. At Taris, Fahrcnhcrt's thermometer
sanklo the beginning of the scale; and in Eng
land, the strongest ale, exposed to the air in a
glass, was covered, in less than a quarter ot an
hour, with ice an eighth of an inch thick.
The winters of 17dG, 17C7 and 17GS, were ve
ry cold all over Europe. In France, the ther
mometer fell 0 dcg. below the zero of Fahren
heit's scale. .Tho large rivers and the most co
pious springs in many parts were frozen. Tho
thermometer, laid on tho surface of tho snow
at Glasgow, fell two degrees below zero.
In 1771 tho snow lay very deep, and the
Elbe was frozen to tho bottom. .
Iu 177G much enow fell, and the cold was in
tense. Tho Danube bore ice five feet thick
below Vienna. Wine froze in the cellars both
in France and Holland. Many people were
frost-bitten; ar.d vast multitudes Loth of the
1'jathered and of the finny tribes perished.
Yet the quantity of snow that lay upon tho
ground had checked the penetration of the
frost. Van Swinden found, in Holland,
that the earth was congealed to tho depth
of twenty-one inches, on a spot of a Ear
den, which had been kept cleared, but
only nine inches at another place ijcar it,
which was covered with four inches of snow.
The successive winters of 17S4 and 17S-5
were uncommonly- severe, insomuch that tho
Little Belt was frozen over.
In 17S9 the cold was excessive ; and again
in 1703, whjfnihc republican armies of France
The successive winters of 1709 and 1S00
were both very cold.
In 1803 tho wiptcB-was remarkably severe-
t'ln 1S10 quicksilver was frozen hard at Mos-
. . . , ,
cotr. But tse winter ol isi- was ueyona au
tradition. TL one which follows is full of in
terest, and liuuishcs an instance of courage,
as striking as any connected with, the part ta- : When the voung men returned shortly after-
ken by South Carolina iu the events of thes wards, their mother bade them pursue tho ma
troublesome times. rr.r.d'i-s. One of the continental soldiers hav
The patriotic enthusiasm which prevailed : jng been left at the house badly wounded, Mrs.
among the people during the siege of Augusta ; Martin kindly attended and nursed him till his
and Cambridge, prompted to numerous acts of recover-. A party cf the loyalists who heard
personal risk and sacrifice. This spirit, en- ' of his being there, came with the intention of
couraged by tbe successes of Sumpter and j taking his life, but she found means to hide
others over thy British arms, was earnestly him from their search. . '
fostered by General Green, whose directions j The only daughter of Mrs. Martin, Lctilia,
marked at leat the outline ot every r.nderta- ! married Capt. Edward Wade, of Virginia, who
king. In tho eilorts made to strike a blow at j fc v, jth his commander, Gon. Montgomery,
the invader's power, the sons of the Martin J at the siege of Quebec. At tho time of the
family wero among the most distinguished for J siCge of Chaileston by Sir Henry Clinton, the
active service rendered, and for injuries sus- j widow was residing with her mother at 2sinc-
tained at the enemy's bauds. The wives ofjty-Six." Her son "Washington Wade was then
the two eldest during their absence, remained j five years old, and remembered many occur
at home with their mother-in-law. One even- ' rences connected with the war. The house
ing intelligence came to them that a courier, ! as about ICO miles in a direct lino west of
conveying important dispatches to one of the , Charleston. lie recollects walking in tho pi
upper stations, was to pass that night along zza. on a calm evening with his grandmother,
the road, guarded by two British ollkcr3. j A light breeze blew from the east, and tho
They determined to waylay the party, anI,'at sound ot heavy cannon was distinctly heard ia
tho risk of their lives, to obtain possession of ! that direction. The sound of cannon heard at
the papers. . . . that time, and in thatpart of the State, tbey
For this purposo tho two young women dis- knew must come from the besieged city. As
guisod themselves in their husband's clothes, report after report reached (heir ears, the agi
and being well provided with arms, took their ration of Mrs. Martin increased. Slu knew
station at a point en tho road which they knew i,ot what evils might be announced ; she knew
tho escort" must pass. It was already late, and not but tho sound might be the knell of her
they had not waited long before the tramp of j EOns, three of whom were then in Charleston,
horses was heard in the distance. It may bo ; Tii(.:r wives were with her, and partook of the
imagined with what anxious expectation the j sarno iienrt chilling fears. They stood fctill
heroines awaited fne approach of the critical ; for a fcw minutes, each wrapped iu her own
moment on which so much depended. The : painful and silent reflections, till the mother
forest solitude around them, tho silence of the j &t iength, lifting her hands ar.d eyes toward
nizht. and tho darkness, must have aided to ' heaven, exclaimed fervently: "thank God,
"the terrors conjured up by busy fancy. . l'res- . they are tiie children of the Republic
In 1W7, the cold was so intense, that most
Rhine and the Scheldt wcro l'rczen, and even
the sea at Venice.
The vear 1C3S wa3 uncommonly cold, tind
snow lay of immense depth even at Padua.
Wheat rose in the Windsor market from b to
i shillings a quarter. ,
In 1621and 1622, rdl tho rivers of Europe
were frozen, and even the Ouiacr .ee. a
sheet of ice covered the Hellespont ; and the
Venetian fleet was choked up in the lagoons
of the Adriatic.
In 1G55, the winter was very severe, espe
cially in Sweden. The excessive quantities ot
snow and rain which lell did great injury in
ti,i ...Jntnra f if.."".. 1Cr$ and 1GC0 were in-
I ....ilnn Tint:t ccvorp r,f thn nrespnt ccn-
tensely coll. The rivers in Italy bore Heavy 'i, " ' f.
had not fallen at lurJ "Ja 'luu,-'lu -
by the sullerings of the 1 rencli army tlu
ring its retreat from Russia. Several winters,
since that period, of ir.oro or less severity,
have been mentioned ia various cotcmpora-
ries. But the last winter, in the intense and
prolonged severity of cold, exceeded any ever
er experienced in this country
carriases; and so much snow
Rome for several centuries. It was in loob,
that Charles X. of S weden crossed the Little
Belt over tho ice from Holstein to Denmark,
with his whole army, loot aud horse, followed
by the train of baggage and artillery. During
these year3 the price of grain was nearly doub
led in England; a circumstance which contrib-
tn tht: Restoration
of the travelers in Germany were frozen to -- ; 1 " " ; vw
death on the roads.
In 1121, the winter was uncommonly severe
and the snow by very long.
In 11G3, it was extremely cold in Italy. The
Fo was frozen from Cremona to the sea ; the
heaps of sacw rendered the' roads impassable;
the wine-casks were burst, and even trees split
bv the action of the frost, with immense noise
In 117U, the snow was eight l'ect deep in
U3lria, and lav till Easter. Tho crops and
vintage failed; and a great murrain consu
mod the cattle.
The winters of 1209 and 1210, wero both of
them very severe, insomuch that the cattl
Of the seven patriotic brothers, six wero
spared through all thcMangers ot the partisan
wartare in tue region oi ure -u.u j
cntly the courier appeared, with his attendant
guards. As they came close to the rpot, tue
-disznised women leaped from their covert in j
the bushes, presented their pistols at tho oCi- j grounI." Tho eldest, Wm. M. Martin, was a
cers. and demanded the instant surrender of j captain of artillery ; and after having terved
the onrf fbnir despatches. Tho men i ,, ;th distinction in tho siege of Savannah and
were completely taken by surprise, and their i Charleston, was killed at the siege of Augus
alarm at the sudden attack yielded .a prompt j ta, just after he had obtained a favorable posi-
snbmission. The seeming soldiers put them
. on their parole, and having taken possession
of the papers, hastened home by a short cut
through the woods. IS"o time was lost in scn-
ding the important documents by a trusty mes
senger to Gen. Green. The. adventure had a
i. singular ..termination. Tho paroled . officers,
thus thwarted in their mission, returned by
the road they had taken, and stopping at the
house of Mrs. Martin, asked accommodation,
as weary travellers, for the night. The hos
tess inquired tho reason of their returning so
, soon after they had passed. They replied lv
UIIJUIUI "liiitui , f..nn (Alifl(!
Tn vifi. n.n V Troze fifteen ells deer, and ny Pl"u -
v.inc burst the casks.
In 1231, the Fo was again frozen; and load-
r , vf!"-ri;s erosseci me vu.1 iai.io io i cuiti-.
" O '
fine fort was kied by the frost at Ravenna
In 120G, the Danube was frozen to the hot
torn, and rcius
:d for a considerable length
of time in that state.
In 12G0, the frost was most intense in Scot-
i.in.i itA fim frrniitifl bound iin. Tho Catcsrat
.ti'. ...w Cj." 4
was frozen between Norway and Jutland.
In 1231, such quantities of snow fell in Aus
tria as to bury the very houses.
In 1232, the Rhine was frozen over at Drey
ABSTRACTS OF ASXUAL UEFOETS.
Fosr Ofi ice Department. The Report of
the Post Master General shows a net increase
of 8G2 post offices dnring the year ending GOth
June, 1855 the whole number of onices at that
date being 24,410, and on the COlh Xovcmbcr,
21,770. On the 30th of June last there were
i It r,-n ..-.o;! mnina at nn estimated IcntTtli of
. 1 ,1 T. Tl ITT'll I I ,'J-J I11U11 ivuwui " - " -o
277,903 miles. The total annual transporta
tion of mails was 07,41,103 miles, costing
; 3.G13.2CS. Compared with tho service of the
year previous, there is an increase of 3.807,023
miles of transportation, cr of about o per
Tho frost in Germany began eeut, VJ., , -
percent, lno increase iy rauroau service i
3.4S0,132 miles ; by modes not specified, 3,
575,177 miles while the transportation by
coaches is loss by 2,S23,G2S miles, and by
stenmIoat 1.C35.G5Q. This change results
mainly from the reletting of contracts iu many
of the Soutliern and Western States and Ter
ritories. On the 30th of June last there were
in service S19 route agents at a compensation
of $233,170 C3-100; 20 local agents at $10,
328 ; and CS1 mail messengers at $100,171 C3,
making a total of 351,070 00 to be added to
tho cost of transportation. This makes the
total amount for the current year $3,S2i,0S0
20, which will probably bo increased to $G,-
hnrl and Denmark, both tho JUittle ana tua
Great Belt being frozen.
In 1G34, the winter was excessively cold
Forest tiees, and even the oaks in England,
were spilt by the frost. Most of tho hollies
were killed. Coaches drove aloisg the Thames,
which was covered with
thick. Almost all the birds perished
In 1G01, the cold was so excessive that tho
famished wolves entered jenna, ana auacu-
ed the cattle, and even men
The winter of 1005 was extremely, severe
in October, and continued till April ; and ma
The years 1G07 and 1G00 were nearly as bad
In England the price of wheat, which in prece-
,i:v.m l!iil Koldnni Tafiliea to iJ Sliliuiia
VAIU l.lo i w.
a nuarter, now mounted to 713.
In 1700 occurred that lamous winter, caueu
by distinction the cold u-tufer. ine meia
aud lakes were frozen, and even the seas, to
tbe distance of several miles from the shore.
The frost i3 said to have penetrated three
yards into the ground. Eirds and wild beasts
were strewed dead in the fields, and men per
ished by thousands iu their houses. The more
tender shrubs and vegetables in England were
Mcn,a.wuJIB.wulu,.-8uo. w..w - millionth of France.
. i. m A- 1 T . . i ' , , I crt lUlir U !1U5 a ' uaui. " '
extended ueiv.cen jor uuununauu, w -
TAi'tt. The cost
killed; and wheat rose in its price fromtwo to - - . fl.
. . . . . ,i e... oi s r:rmi- tue onvo pianuuona
tiiat travelers passe v, - rtnvo.ro.A from that
Kirov eu; uui ; i-iv jv-.v.---
fatal disaster. The Adriatic Sea was quite
frozen over, and even tho coast of the Mcdi-
ny GOO peasants were employed to clear away
the snow for the advance of t.ie Austrian arm
In 1303, the rivers ia Germany were frozen;
and much distress was occasioned by the scar
city of provisions and forage
In 1310, the crops wholly failed in Germa
ny. Wheat, which some years before sold in
England at 2s. a quarter, now rose to -
Iu 1323, the winter was so severe, that both
mounts to SG11,4G7. The Postmaster states
thp.t on 3d Anril last, he concluded a contract
VOL. 2.-ir0. 2i.
deducting foreign balances, amounted to
810,651 81, making a ditlerence in favor cf
1853 of $518,310 10. The exces of expendi
ture for 1855 over that of 1854, is $2,C26,2C5
1G. This excess is attributed partly to the in
crease in compensation to Postmasters and
clerks ot office, and partly to the increase cf
expenditures for transportation owing to tha
great extension ot the railroad service. The
condition of the Department goes to show that
the rates fixed by the act of Sd March, 1851,
will not enable the Department to sustain it
self by its own resources.
Another cause of this excess cf expenditure
is attributed to the letters and documents car
ried free of charge for members of Congress
and others, and to the immenso amount of
printed matter conveyed at low rates. Tho
Postmaster General thinks that tho reduction "
of fifty per cent, for advance payment on naws
papers, is wholly without justification, llw al-
so recommends that pre-payment by stamps
be mado compulsory on all kinds of matter.
Tho expenditure of the Department for 185G,
is estimated at $10,100,024, and tho means
available for the same year, $9,010,874, leav
ing a deflciency of $1,183,151, to be provided
Rcfercnco Is again made to the fact that the
Collins line of steamers receives from the Go
vernment $S5S,000 for twenty-six trips, whila
the British Government paid the Cunard lino
SS6G.700 for fifty-two trips, which, in the opin
ion of tho Postmaster-General, is amply suffi
cient. Measures have been recently taken to
lay before tho Mexican Government proposals
on the subject of a postal convention. Tha
Report alludes at some length to tho last Re-'
port cf the Postmaster General of Great Brit
ain, and concludes by deprecating tho denun
ciation of the Department for mistakes, care
lessness, or neglect, instead of advising it of.
the wrong committed, and leaving it to apply
the remedy. - vV "
Depautmext or the IxTEMOa; MKMcClel .
land devotes a large space of his report to a
consideration of tha Indian question. His
views are clearly expressed, and a number ot
recommendations are submitted. .
The Indian chiefs and warriors, addicted ta
drinking and gambling, arc made the dupes of
evil-disposed persons. The system of grant
ing licenses to traders is indicated a3 the basis
of all tho evils of which complaint is made.
It is necessary to abolish the cash Bystem of
payments, and enable the Indian to obtain all
he requires at cost price, if we mean to reme
dy the trouble, or to civilize and enlighten tha
savage. A study of the history of tho Indi
ans, in connection with tha conduct of the
whites towards them, reveals the fact that In
dian disturbances aro often traceable to the in
discretions aud aggressions of tho white men.
Upon this point the report enlarges. Never
before has the Indian been subjected to such
severe trials and hardships ; tho ofiences of
which bo is guilty are too often palliated by
extreme want. All this impresses the neces
sity of kindness and forbearance; and accor
dingly the Secretary suggests tho propriety'of
attempting to civilize and christianize the Red
Men. He alludes to the amount of good that
has been e.Tected by missionary enterprise,
and discovers in tho Indian a susceptibility of
improvement and civilization, which renders
it a duty to persevere in all humane efforts ta
preserve tho race from extinction. In this
particular, Mr. McClelland and Col. Davis are
of two minds. ' The Btatistlcs of this report
cover much space. Tho principal figures aro :
Acres of land sold last fiscal year, 8,720,474
Amount received therefor, "" $2,358,918
Lands surveyed in 1855, acres, 15,315,2S3
Lands sold," 0,261,163
Land warrants issued, S7,95S,412
Virginia military land warrants, ' 1,460.000
Pensioners, ' ''14,480
Pensions pai l, '$1,505,112
terrancan about Genoa, and tbe citron and or-
,-,;,!, Tr. .T,,.1M F. Jov. to convey tha mails i Patents issued since Jan. i icoo,
from Cairo to Xew Orleans &tWL iack, daily, ho
having full powers to negotiate such contract
I 1 .1.' . S. . I -1
an-e proves suffered extremely in the finest on oenuu oi the lumois central uawroan, out
parts cf Italy.
In 1710, the winter was very cold. Un the
Thames booths were erected, and fairs hcl.
Tho printers and booksellers pursued their
traveled over tho professions upon Us surface.
tion for his cannon, by elevating it on one of
ti.o towers constructed by Gen. Pickens. It
is related that not long after his death, a Erit
ish officer passing to Fort Ninety-Six, then in
possession of the English, rode out of his way
to gratify his hatred to tho "Whigs by carrying
the fatal news to the 'mother of this gallant
young man. - Ho called at the house and ask
ed Mrs. Martin if she had not a son in the ar
my at Augusta. ' She replied in the affirma
tive. "Then I saw his brains blown out on tho
Geld of battle," said the monster, who antici-
t : y aj.a SIK113 OI a parent a
t d his tnumuh iu 4. u
showing their paroles, saying they had been j a ' But the cficct 'of tho startling an
taken prisoners by two rebel lads. The ladies j nf n(, ... hc eSected: Tcr
raiicu mem upon ineir want 01 inirepia;ty
"Had you no arms?'.' was asked. The officers
answered that they had arms, but wero allowed
no time to tise their weapons. They departed
rible as was the shock, and aggravated by tho
ruthless cruelty with which her bereavement
was made known, no woman's weakness was
suffered to appear. After listening to the
horse and foot passengers
ice from Denmark to Lubcc and Dantzic
In 1330, the crops failed iu Scotland ; and
such a - famine ensued that the poorer sort of
people were reduced to feed on grass, and ma
ny of them perished miserably in the fields.
Yet in England, wheat was at this time sold so
low as three shillings and fourpence a quarter.
In 1344, it was clear, frost from November to
March, and all the rivers in Italy were frozen
In 1392, thavineyardsand orchards wero de
stroyed by the frost .and the trees torn to piecc3.
The year 1403 was one of the coldest win
ters ever remembered. ' Not only the Danube
was frozen over, but the sea between Norway
and Denmark ; so that wolves, driven from
their forests, came over the ice into Jutland
.- . . , , i froze :
In Prance, tho vineyards and orcuarus ti trcC3 were killed by tho frost;
"V ' : : " ero benumbed on their sad-
t , v-k nml tha Baltic and postimo... ... . . 17-10, the
ill il.J, UUIU 1UU iiuiwi I -. : 41, viirs. UUJ
' 1 . i I ,i c in ni II ii luw j i
eral Assemoiy w s -" - -
1720, tho v.intcr was so intense that people
traveled in sledges across the strait from Co-
penhagan to the province of Scania in Sweden.
In 1720, much injury was done ty uie irosi,
which lasted from October till May. In Scot
land, multitudes of cattle and sheep were bu
riod in the snow ; and many of the forest trees
iu other parts of Europe were killed.
The successive winters of 1731 and 1732
were likewise extremely cold.
The" cold of 1740 was scarcely inferior to
that of 1700. The snow lay eight and ten
ft riflf..-. in Snain and Portugal. '. Tbe Zuider
Zee was" frozen over, and many thousand per
sons walked or skated on it. At Leyden, the
thermometer fell 10 deg. below zero of Fah
renhoit's scale. All tho lakes in -England
and .a whole ox was roasted on the
"""" nin-, having - J.. idful recital, tho only replv mado ly th
v.quura to the verv women whoso
ioUaiitv they had claimed.
American dainc, was, "he could not have died
in a nobler cause !" The evident c
were frozen. Travelers passed on loom w
Lnbec to Dantzic. In France, tha frost pene
trated into the cellars. Corn and wine failed,
and wen and cattle perished for want of food.
Tho sucot ssive winters of 1432, 1433, and
13C4 wer "uncommonly severe. 'It snowed
ordained a national last, w -----of
the dearth which then prevailed. -
In 1744 the winter was again very co.u. Tho
Maine was covered seven 'weeks with icn
ply with their engagement, they failed to do
SO from tho high price demanded of them by
the owners of the boats on the line, and the
routo was accordingly advertised for reletting.
Tho new distribution schemes have been
completed, and each distributing ctuce nas
now alphabetical lists cf all tha counties in ad
the States, except California. In accordance
with tho late act of Congress, suitable meas
ures have been adopted to put in operation
the new system of registering valuable letters.
but it has not beeu sufficiently long in opera
tion to bo able to form a just estimate of the
success' of -tho plan. Tho Postmaster has,
however, found abundant proofs of its useful
ness, and cf the necessity of bringing, it to
The expenditures of. the Department for the
last fiscal year amount to $0,908,342, and the
gross revenues derived from postages, (inland
and foreign,) are SG,G42,1S0 13, which, adding
the annual appropriations made in compensa
tion of mail service to the government, by the
acts of 3d March, 1810, and 3d March, 1S51,
amount to $7,342,130 13. Deducting the bal
J TTr;t1 States duft ta Foreisrn
ative "gams j . -
t.,.- lor postal accounts, from the above,
.tnl eross revenue of the, Department
,i. .rwitn June 30th, 1855, will be
c7 sku7. . The cross revenno of 18M, after J :
Patent Office Building, - " ?1,GOO,000
Expend. National Insane Hospital, 171,341
Indian stock, now held, 2,093,8-0
Surplus fund of the Department, 350,243'
The business of the General Land Office has
greatly increased. Tho surveys have been
vigorously prosecuted, and a largo quantity of
land is ready to be brought into market daring
the coming year. .
ForcLATioN or Chisa. Boring, tho English
Envoy to China, has made a report on the vi
tal statistics of China, giving that empire
population of 400,000,000. Kiang-su, tha lar
gest of the eighteen provinces, has a popula
tion of over 37,000,000 " ' " . ..
A constable pursued a thief, who took re
fuge on a stump ma swimn, and' pulled tha
rail after him on which he went out. Th
constable made the following return: "Sigh
table conversible non - est coraetabie ia
swamp um tip stumpum raih?."
Tue Colored Popciatiox or CAiiroasiA.
At a recent convention of colored men held
. . . , . -1 1 1 T.rtf
at Sacramento, me ioiai cwweM, uymun.
Califonia was estimated at 54,851, witS'an ag
gregate in wealth of $2,375,000..' . .7
A bachelor, ad vertisid ior a "helpit.te.
one who vfould prove a oonipanioa ".j,
heart, his hand, and Ids ?ot- A D-
plying, R!lh.CV Miuiouj
your 101 1 - -
y-m stsl- M.m -w