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I have awiim upon the Alter of (Jod, eferual huairtttjr to every furiu of Tyranny over the tlllud of MUu." Thomni Jelhtrion
Iff. WEB 15, EDITOR AND PKOPRIETOIJ.
IILOOHSIU COLIDIIHA COL XT V, PA. SATURDAY, MAY 23, I84C,.
.'Vihii Ihy' ,1,
'J . !"
OFFICE OF THE DEMOCRAT,
orpj.irs tit. 1'aul's Cimikch, Main-st
Th COf.UMlllA DEMOCRAT will be
pvhIUhul every Saturday morning, at
Tin) 1) OLl.AllS Vrr annum payable
lini ifarltj in advance, or wo Dollars , , , . ,,
Eiftlj CeJs,ifnot paid udthin the year.iooat clUzen na,urally '""P"
'So subscription wilt be taken for a short er """" Wl1'' lhe qu"tion ef boundary
period than nir months; nor any diseon -
tinnance perinitted,until all arrearages
JiDVEHTISEMESS hnCexceeding a
square will be conspicuously inserted at
One hilar lor the first three insertion
uiid Twenty-five cents for every sitbse
qitent nscrtion. lO liberal discour,
made to those who 0'lvcrtisc by the year
LMTTEUS addressed on busines,musl
be post paid.
WAI? WITH JIJOXSCO.
To the Senate and House of Representa
The exisiing stale of the relations be
twern the United Slates and Mexico, rer.
dors it proper that I should brhg the sub
jei't to the consideration of Cong'ess, In
my message at the commencement of your
jirescnl session, the state of these; relntinns
the cansps which led lo the suspension !
diplomatic intercourse between lh twt
countries in Marrh, 1815. and the long
continued and unredressed winngs and in
juries committed by lhe Mexican govern
ment on citizens of the United Slates in
their persons and property, wtte briefly
As the f ids and opinions which were
then laid before you were carefully consid
ered. I cannot belief express niv presen
i-on fictions of the condition ofaflYirs up d
tint tiin", than by referring you lo tha'
The strong desirp to estab'i') poac
with Mexico, on liVnl and lionorabl
terms, an I the rMtlin"? of this govern men
in regulate and adjust our bonndary an.
other ruMC of difference with thai povvr"
en fiwli fair and eq'i'.ah!fi principle
would lead in pprmaue.it relations r.f lh
in. t friendly nature,' induced me in Sep
tetni.cr last to seek tha re-opening ofdipln
malic relations Set ween the ti'o countries.
I'very measure ndopi' d on our part hto
for its olj"ct the furiheianee of these desire'
results. In communicating o Congress
n Fiiccincl statement of the injuries which
we had suffered front Mexico, and which
had been accumulating during a period of
more than twenty years, every expression
that could lend to inflame the people ol
Mexico, or defeat or delay a parifi.' reul'.
was carefully avoided. An envoy of the
United Slates repaired to Mexico with full
powers lo adjust every existing difl'crence.
Hot though present on the Mexican soil; In
agreement between the two governments
invested with full powers and bearing evi
dence of the most friendly depositions, his
mission has been unavailing. The Mexi
can governirient not only refused lo receive
him, or listen lo his propositions, but.
after a long-continued series of menaces.
have at last invaded our territory and shed
the blood of our fellow-citizens on our oat
It now becomes my duty to state more ii
detail the origin, progress and failure ol
that mission. In pursuance of lhe instruc
tions given in September last, an inquiry
was made on the Hth o( October, 1815, n
the most friendly terms, through our Con
sul in Mexico, of the Minister of Forcigi
AfiYirs, whether the Mexican Governnen
would receive an Envoy from the Unite)'
Stales, intrusted wilh full powers to adjust
sill the questions in dispute between the two
governments,' il the assurance that 'should
the answer he in the iiffirmat'.ve, such no
Envoy aouhl be immediately dcspatt:lied.ast lo receive and accredit an American
to Mexuo.' The Mexican Miniver, on'fnvcy, violaiej their plighted lai'.h, and re-
tliP 1 3ih t.f October, gme an fcffiruiaiivs a:i-
swer to litis it.nniry. requesting, l the
ame lime, that our naval force al Vein
Cruz mi"!it he will. drawn, Usl its continued
i rt scnt-e n.iL'hl assume the nopjaranco f.f
nun. and coercion pending the negolia-
.... Ti.,i foree was iminadiitely with-
n On the Kith cf November, 1813.
Mr. Jt-I.it Mil-1' I. '-f Lvuivar,a, vas com
missioned by me as Envoy Exlraortinsry
and Minister 1'lrnipotentUry of llie United
Stales lo Mexico, and was intrusted with
full powers to adjust both the questions of
the Texas boundary and indemnification to
our cilizen(I. The reJre88 ol 9 wroMs
.The settlement of llie one question, in a
correct view of the suljecl, involves that of
the other. 1 could not, for a women', en
loriain thu idea that the claims of our much
injured and long suffering citizens, many of
which had existed for more than twenty
years, should he postponed, or sepaiateo
from lhe settlement of tho boundary ques
Mr. Slidell arrived at Vera Cruz on the
30ih of November, and couiteonsly received
by the authorities of that city. 13 u t the
government of Gen. Ilsrrsra was then tot.
tering to its fall. The revolutionary party
had seized upon Texas question lo effect
ir hasten its oveilhrow. Its determination
to restore friendly relations with the United
.Slates, and to receive our minister, to ne
gotiate for lite settlement ol tins question
was violently assailed, and " undo the
great theme of denunciation ugiinsi u. The
government of Gen, Heirert, ihern is good
eason to believe, was siucer -iy desirous to
reccre our miri'ster; but it jiel.l-'d to the
storm raised by its enemies, a:.. I on th
2 1 9 1 of December refused to accredit Mr
Slidell 11,1011 tin! moil frivolous pr texts
These arc so lully and ably exposed i i tin
not- of Mi. Sii.'e I of iha2t.li ( iWi'in Vi
liillu thu Mexican Minister of i'.iiti::ii K--atious,
hcrewi.li iransmiiied, i!i-.i 1 dct o:
t unnecessary to enter into firthcr .l,:tio on
ihis portion of lhe suljecl.
five days aficr the daiee of M. S'i le'.'i's
lote, Geo. Ileruri yielded lhe govt rumen1
lo G.'ri. I'aredss without a siruuj'e, oiJ on
he 33ih of December resigned the f'rrs!
Icncy 'J'his levnlutio.i was ae.-oui, ilifc,
oiiidy by the army, ths people h .n-.j uken
nit lull pari in lhe contest; and tlmi the
uprcrnB power in Mexico passeo u.io die
lan.U of a military lector.
tic ei 'imti'il to li'Hie no t Ifirt nntrifi) to
(feci an amiivhle ailjustintnt wi h ,'Jexii i
I directed Mr. Slidell lo present it eindeu
oals lo the government of (Jen. Pneu . u
Hrtk 1 1 he ofl' irially received by hi it. '('here
would have been less ground for taking this
step hd Gen. Paretics como into power by
i regular ertiisiiiuiional succession. In thai
fvent his administration would have been
eonsidered but a mere consiimtioual contiif
nance o( tho government of Gen, Iitirera,
ird 1'ie refusal of the latter lo teceivp, unless
oi inuttiatioa h id been given by Gtu l'.,-
redes ui his desire to icverta lhe dteisiou ol
Bui lhe government of General Predes
owes its existence to a military revolution
!y whieh the subsisting t onstiiuiiniial au
thorities had been subvtned. The form
of government was entirely changed, r
a ell as all lhe high functionaries by whom
it vi ;h administered.
United ihese circumstances, Mr. Slidell,
in obedience to my direction, addirssed a
nole to lhe Mexican Minister of Foreign
delations, under dale of lhe 1st of MmcIi
last, asking l be received by thai govern
ment in lhe diplomatic, character to which
'in oad been appointed. This iniowter, in
us reply, under date of the 12. h of Mart.li,
reiierdtcd the srgumenis ol his ptederrssor
uid in terms that may be cotisiden d as giv
ing just grounds &f offence to the govern
ment and people of the United States, de
nied the application of Mr. Slidtll. Noth
ing therefore, remained for our envoy but
to demand his passports and rmorn to his
Thus the government of Mexico, though
solemnly pledged by official acts in October
fused tho offtr ol a pedceful adjustment ol
our thfUculties. Not only was the oiler re-
j,r((d, but lhe indignity of its njection was
enhanced by the manifest breach of faiih in
rcfusit g to admit lhe envoy, who carno be
cause U.cy had bound themselves to receive
hint. Nor can it be said ihaithe offer was
fmitltss from '.he want of opportunity of dis
duRsing it; our envoy was present on thcit.
own soil. Nor can it be Bscribed lo a want
of sufficient powers: our envoy had full pow
ers lo adjust every question of difference
Nor was Ihere room for complaint that urn
prepositions for settlement were unreasona
hie, permission was not even given our en
voy lo mak any proposition whatever. No,
ca:' it be objected thai we, on our parl.would
not listen lo airy'reasonable terms of thcii
suggtstion, the Mexican government refus
i a all negotiation, and havo mad a no propo
sition of any kind.
In my message at lhe commencement ol
the present session, 1 informed you thai
upon the earnest appeal both of the Con
gress and convention of Texas, I had or ler.
ml an sflicienl military force to lake a posi
lion 'between the Nueces and the Del
Norte.' This had become necessary to
meet a threatened invasion of Texas by the
.)cxican forces, fur which extensive mi'ita-
ry preparations had bsen made. I'titiuva
sinn was threatened solely because Texas
naJ determined, in accordance will) a
oletnn resolution of lhe United States In
oinex heis-if (o our Union, and, nnilei
these circumstances, it was plainly our du
ty lo cx:end oui protection over her cliizsns
Tins force was concentrated al Cor
,itn Ciiitsti, and remained Ihere until af
ter I had received such inlormawon from
W' xico as rendered it proh.ible, if no:
ei lain, that the Mexican govtrnmcnl
v.nil I lefus.' to teccive our envoy.
M ,i; huh, T. x i, hy the fiodl actiot
;l uti i Cou HP's, hail become an integral
i r. 1 1 our Union. The Congress ol
l' x.i hy its acl ot Deeemb-r 19 1 83G
ad d dared Ihfl Rio Del Norte to bt
us hiiuodary of lhat ifpubiic. lis jo
. ndicnun had l.:en exifoded and exer
'.'d beyond t'm Neuces. 'I h" noun
iy lituveen tll'llliyt l and the DdNorit
i a. I l.t i'ii repr-'-ei.tt'd in coovt ni on o
I ' xa, hid I. us tiikeo a jnrl in I'm "C
i I XatiuO li.Si.'ll fillil 11 ll.'iv iittu
j'd inMiimi one of our Congressional clis
t'ct. Our own cong'es'i had, tuoieo
.it, '.villi gre.il iiiiinmtiy, by Iheaci ai
roved December 3Ht, rec'niztid the
; oiotiy beyond llie Nurccs as a part ol
"it t iritoiy hy inclu(liij,r it wiilnn on
i vv 1 1 I'bvcnui; system; and a revenue t.fii
:cr, to reside within that tlisliicl, ha.
been appoinled by and with lhe adyio
of the Senate. It became, iheroforp, (
urgenl necessity to jnovitle for 1 1 e tic
ence oi lhat poilion of our counli y. A
:ording!y. on the Ihirleenth ')f nuar)
iit-liu.,!ioris vveip issued lo lhe gnerai
n command i f ihese Iroopa lo occop
the lelt bank ol the D l Norte.
This river which is the Soul'me
em boundary of lhe Stale of Texas is
in exposed frontier. From this qijarie
nvas'ion was threatened ; upon it and ii
its immediate vicinity, in the j i lse
men! of high miliuty expi ici-ce, an
he proper siations for ll.e pro'eclirg
forces of the government. In addition to
his important consideration, fevrr.il
others occui red lo induce this movemen'.
Among i tie k are tha facilities cllordcd
ny the port al UraZ'is Sinn.tiio hiii! the
mou'h of lhe D I Nortft for the .ecep
ion of supplies by pes, the s'rong ami
nitiri? hcalihv mi!it".iy poj-iiious, tin
con veuiecc.0 for oh'aiiiiog a ready ami
i more ar.tMidant stippiy of provision,
.vau r, f.j I and forage, and the ndvanla
4' - which are efforded by the Del Norlf
in forwarding supplies to such posts as
nav be esubiishetl in the interior and
iijion ihe Indian frontier.
The movement of the troops to Ihe
Del Norte was made by lhe command
jng Geiieis', under positive itisti uclions
o abstain from all aggresfivo set low
tnls Mexico, or Mexican citizsns, am)
o rigird the relations between lhat re
public ami lhe United States as peace
ful, unless she i-hodd derla'a war, or
commit nets ol hostility indicative of b
stale of war. He waj specially directed
to proiecl private propel iy and refpcci
personal i igh'.f.
The army moved from CorpusChrml'i
on ine inn oi .uiicii, imki on ins xoiu
.1.- .1.1. t U.-.l 1 .1 rtrt.L I
if that month arrived on the left bank
if ihe Del Norte, opposite loMitsmoras
vhere it encamped on a commanding po
sition, which has since been strengthen
d by Ihe erection of field work.r7depot
oai also been established at Point Iiabe
near the Hi z is Satiii ijfj'o, thirty miles
in rear of the encampment. Tho s Ice
tin el his position ws otcesariiy cjn
fided to the judgment of the general in
The Mexican forces st Mslamoras as
sumod a belligerent aliinidp, and on ihe
12th of ,?pril, General ,?.npudia then in
commsnd, notified Gen. Taylor to break
up his camp within twenty fur hours,
tnd to retire beyond Ihe AVuces rivei
md in the event of his failure to com
,)ly with these demands, onuounced thai
irms, and aims alone, must decide the
question. 13 a 1 no open ci of hostility
vit committed until Ihe 24th ci April.
On that day, Gon. Arista, who had suc
ceeded to ihe command of Ihe Mexican
forces communicated lo Gen. Taylor
hat 'ho coosideied hostilities had com-
menctd and should prosecule them.' A
parly of dragoons of sixty three mcr.
and (fficets were on the same day des
patched from the American camp up the
Ilto delNuppjon its left ban U ,to asccrla n
whether the Mexican troops had cros
d, or were preparing to cros lhe riv-
r, 'became engaged wilh a large body
of these troop, and afur s shod affair,
m which some sixteen were lulled and
wounded, appeared lo have been sui
utindeti and compilh'd to stirrcndert'
The grievous wrongs perpeira'ed b
Mexico upon o,ir citiZ-ns Ihiouiiout -
g period u' year', icinaio Uillldless
; sod stileoni ir-aliis, p!eii,',iig hci
jhlic jith for (Ins rediess; liave beei.
Iisregarded. A govtromen', eilhci
inab'e or unwilmg to enforce the exp
iation of such trealiss, fails lo peiforn
me of its plainest duties.
O.ir cotnmerce wilh Mexict ha? been
i ,iK,l annihilated. It was furmeth
iiglily boneficial to boll) nation : bu
iur merchants have been detet ed fton.
iiioescutii'g it by the system of oolragi
lid exioriiori which (he M xicm at)
'hori'ies hvp p'trstied sgainst ihem,
whilst their appeals through (heir own
iovernmrnt foe iinl-mnity hav; beei
made in vain, Our forbearance hs
a,one to such an extreni as to be mista
ken in its chsnctfr. II id we scter
-vil'i vigor in repelling the insult" stir
e.liessmg the injuries inflicted hy.tex
co at the commencement, we shoulu
InubtVss havo escaped c!l the dilficil
its in which we are now involved.
Initead of this however, we havt
lien exerting our best e (forts to pn-piii-
tte her good will. Upnn the preiex'
hat Texa, a nation ss indepertdent fl
letself. tliiiogh ptopor to unite i's dfsii
oies with our own, she was affrctr-d to
oelieve that we have s vered her light
ful territory ,ind in offi :ial procltma'ioos
manifestos, hns repeaiedly thtaien
ea lo mk war upon u for Ihe pur
pose of reconquei ing Texa". lo the
tnean timr, we have tued eveiy Iiom
at reconciliation. Toe cup of f.obear
nice had been exhausted, even h. fore
the recent information from the frontier
of Ihe Del Norte. 1' f now, al' "f teil
eraled menaces, Met -o tug passed the
houndsiy of the i'tni .1 Stutps. ,.s inva
ded our terrivoiy, and she. I .Jneiicat
blood upon ..meii'xn soil. She h'
(iroclaimed that hoslihtief have com
menced, and that the two nations an
now t war.
As wsr exists, and notwithstanding all
our efforts to avoid it, exists by Ihe act
of Mexico herself, we are called upon
by every consideration of duty ami p
triotitm, to vindicate, witk decision, the
honor, llie rights, anil Ihe interest of our
.I., i .,-i:-- L. ri 'i-... e
.jiiih.iiuo uie pus.iiuiiiiy oi a crisis
like lhat which has arrived, instructions
were given in August las', 'as a precau
tionary measure,' against invasion. o
threatened invasion, authorizing Gen.
roylor, if the emergency required, t(.
accept voluntems not fiom Texas onl)
but from the Stale of Louisiana, .fa
liama, Mississippi, Tennessee and K n
'ticky, end corresponding It-Ht rs weit
addressed to the respective Governors
of thos States. These inst'octinns wen
epealrd, and in January last, soon afiei
the incorporation of 'Texas into our na.
ion of States,' Gen. Taylor was furtl ei
'au'horized by the President to make
requisition tipou the executive of tha
Si ate for such of ils militia forco as may
bo needed to rppel invasions or to secur
he country agsinst apprehended inva
On the 2d day of Msrcb, he was a-
ctain reminded, 'in the event oi the ap
proach of any considerable Mexican
force, promptly and efficiently to use
the aiithoiity wilh which he W3S cloth
ed in call to him such auxillery force as
as he might need.' War actually ex
iling, and our territory having been in
vaded, Gen. Taylor pursuant to authori
y vested in him by my tlirection, has
ailed on the Governor of Texss for
four regiments oT State troops two to
be mounted, and two to seiva on fom;
and on lhe govtrnor of Louisiana lot
four regiments of infantry, to be ten'
o him fig soon as practicable.
In further vindication of our lights
defence of our terttory, I invoke tin
orompt action of Congress to recognisi
he I'xistenc- t;f the wa',a. tl plac ? a ll e
o i. o-iliuii ol ihe Jlxe"ui ,ve Ihe mean
f pioeecutiug the war w th vigor, am:
bus hastening the reiteration ol peace.
To thij end I recommend auihoiitj
hou'd be given to call m'o seivice t-
aige body ofvolunleris to m-ivb for no
less than C or 12 monti.-, unless soonei
Jl volunteer force i", htyood ques'ior'
more efficient than any uih'ir descip'ioi,
if citiz-n soldiers; and it is not to bt
loub'ed lhat h number fir be-yooij that
tq'iiicd would inadily tii'h to th Ii I
ipor, Ihe call of iheir counliy, I further
erommond thai a liberal jrovision he
nade for sustaining onr en'iip military
)rr.e, and fit ni-hmg it with ntpplio
ind muuilions of war.
The most energetic alnl prompt men
urts, and the immediate appearance in
irrrm of a large and ovet powering foice,
tre re commnitit'tl to C'.:ng"ss as I tic
nos'C 'tlain aod t ff.cien'. mt.ms cf bring
ing the existing collision with Mexico
to a speedy ami succesf il Itrminaiion.
In making llieo recommendations', 1
leern il proper to declare lhat it is mj
ttixious tlpsiie not only to Ui minat'
oosi ilities speedily, bill t ) bi ing all in'-
lers in dispute between ihis governmnti
nd Mexico to su eily and soiicbh
il j 1-1 rtiL.nl ; sod in this vie', I shall
It" prepared to ien-w ro w nt-gotiaMon'
..vi.etievcr ixlexo-o -haM ne ready to re
. ive propositions or maki prcposit on
,f her own
I transmit lurewith co;y nf ihe cor
i pond en ce bt "ween nr phvov 'oM-x
antl th M xican mio.s r lvr foteigi
.lf'irs;snd so inich ol i c r-o (o.'.inci
iieiween lbs' envoy snd the ScreUn
of War snd thp G-neral in command d
hb Del Norte, tp necessary to a ful'
understanding of ihe subject.
JAMES E. POLK.
VVashinglon.May II, 1345.
Why is s mariner's compass like a dress
maker I llecauie il will not work withou
LKrom the VVailiington Union.
Hy the President of U. S. of America.
Whereas, the Congress of Ihe United
Siaips, by virtue of the constitutional au
thority vested in ihem, have declared by
their act, bearing dale this day, thai, 'by the
acl tif the repubhe of Mexico, a state of war
-xisis between lhat government the United
Now therefore, I, JAMES K. POU,
Presidsnl of lhe United States of America,
lo hereby proclaim the same to all whom it
nay concern, and I do specially enjoin on
all persons holding offices, civil or miliisiy
inder the authority of the United Slates,
hat they he vigilant and zealous in dis
charging tho duties respectively incident
thereto, and I do moreover exhort all the
ood people of lhe United StatPS as they
ove their country, s they feel ihe wrongs
vhieh have forced on them lhe last resort
f injured nations, and as they consult the
test means, under lhe blessing of Divine
Providence, of abridging its calamities, ihot
hey exert themselves in preserving order
m promoting concord, in maintaining lhe
luthority and the efficacy of the laws, and
ni supporting and invigorating all the mea
sures which may be adopted by lhe ronsti
tuted authorities for obtaining a speeds, a
just, and an hononble peace.
l s. n testimony whereaf, I have
hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal
of the United States to be affixed to these
presents. Done at the city ol Washington
he thirtp'nth flay of May, one thousand
eis;hi hundred and forty-six, and of the i
Impendence of the Limed SiaU-s lhe seven
leth JAMES K. POLK.
By the President:
James Buchanan, Secretary of Stale.
The followhg is the lateil of the seiies
if leiicrs from General Taylor which were
nmmnnicmed to Congrpss in conneclion
iihthe President's message on tho subject
.four relations wilh Mexico.
Mead crArin.ns Army or Occupation, )
'.'snip near.Vatamo,"as (Texas) April "6.1S-1B, )
Sn 1 have respectfully lo rrpori ht
fier.. Arista arrived in Malamoras on the
.'1th instant, and assumed the chief cotn
imnd of the Mexican troops. On lhe same
lav he addressed me a communication, con
eivf d in courteous terms, but saying that
is considered hostilities commenced, and
-hnnld prosecute them. A translation of
lis nole and copy of my reply will be trans
nitlcd lhe moment they can be prepared.
I despatched ihis by an express which is
I regiet to report thai a party of drngoona
sent not by ma on the xiin inst. 10 wstcn
ihe course of lhe river above on this bank,
became engaged with a vrry tor jet force nf
ihe enemy, ii after a short affair, in which
some sixteen were killed and wounded, ap
pear to have been surrounded and compell
ed to surrender. Not one of the party has
relumed, except a wounded man sent in this
morning hy the Mexican rommander, so
dnt I cannot report aih confidence the par
ieulars of the engagement or the fate of lha
officers, except tint Captnin Hardee was
mown to bs a prisoner and unhurt Cop
lain Thornton and Lieutenant Mason and
Kane were the other officers. The party was
Hostilities may now be considered a
commenced, and I have this day deemed il
tecessarv lo call upon the Governor of
rexas for four regiments nf volunteers
: tvo to he mounted, and two lo serve as foot.
Vss'ime delay must occur irr" collecting
ibee troops. I have also desired '.he Gov-i-rnor
el Louisiana to send out four regi
ments of infanliy s soon as ptaclicable.
Phis will consiitnie an auxiliary force i
nearly fi.e thousand men, which will bp
required lo prosecute lhe war with energy
tod catry it. as il should be, inio ihe er.e
I iiuaithe D'paitnvnt will appriv o
my couise in this mailer, and will give the
npefssary orders to the staff tlepartments
for lhe supply of ibis Urge additional force.
If a law could be paised authorizing tbj