The Scranton tribune. (Scranton, Pa.) 1891-1910, March 09, 1894, Page 7, Image 7

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40,000,000 MILES AWAY.
Where There la Perpetual Day and Per
petual Night Speculation us to the Plan
et' Inhabitants Another of Our Neigh
born I Jupiter.
Vonus Ih tho twin of the earth, ber dl
meter being about 7,700 miles, or only
some 200 miles lesHtuau that of OUT globe.
Jupiter is tho Goliath uf planets, being 80,
600 miles in diameter, or about 1,300
times as grvat as thu earth in volume.
Jupiter makes a less brilliant appearance
than Venus, because it is teu times as far
When a telescope is directed ni tho two
planets, tho dillereuco Iwtwoen them bo
comes much more striking. Venus looks
theu lifeo a crescent moon, dazalingly
bright, with faint shades that cun only bo
detected by a practiced eye aud a good
glass. Jupiter, on tho other hand, is mag
Jiilled into a huge globe, perceptibly flat
tened at the poles, streaked with irregular
belts of various colors on each side of its
ec,nator aud accompanied by its four
moons, the shadows of one or mora of
which, as bluck as drop of iuk, may occa
sionally bo seen slowly crossing its vast
cloudy eurfaee.
Since Venus is much nearer to theearth,
its distance being 40,000,000 niilue, while
that of Jupiter is 400,000,000, it would bo
natural to expect that the surface of Venus
should appear more clearly deilued in tolo
scopea than that of Jupiter does. As a
matter of fact, however, we cau see very
little of the surface of Venus. The fea
tures of the planet are hidden in its own
brightness. Apparently its atmosphere Is
filled with clouds, or else that atmosphere
itself reflects so much of the sunlight that
it become an effectual veil, coneeuling the
face of the planet beneath. Tho best tinr."
to look at Venus with a telescope is In
broad daylight.
When best seen with a powerful tele
scope, the surface of Venus appears shaded
with lighter and darker regious, recalling
the lands and seas of Mars. Uut these ap
pearances are so falot'and ill defined that
great uncertainty exists in regard to them.
Yet as long ago as Ku'7 Bianchlni made a
globe of Venus based on his telescopic
observations, and gave to certain dark
spots on tho planet such names as the"Sea
of Columbus," the "Sea of Galileo" and
the "Sen of Marco Polo."
Most of the earlier observers of Venus
thought that tho planet rotated on its axis
onco in about 04 hours, so that its dayj
wero of similar length to terrestrial days.
But in 18M tho famous Schiaparelli. the
discoverer of the canals of Man, made tho
surprising announcement that Venus prob
ably turns only oncu on its axis in revolv
ing onco around the sun. The year of
Venus, or the time required for it to com
plete a revolution around the sun. is about
of our days. If Schiaparelli is right,
theu one side of Venus enjoys perpetual
day while tno other side is buried in end-
less night. Between the lightand thu dark
hemispheres there is a narrow region,
broadest at the equator, over which the
sun slowly rises and sets once in tho course
ef every 2'2o days.
It is cot scientific to speculate concern
ing the possible inhabitants of Venus, but
it is interesting. Do those of the sunlit
side ever pay visits to their neighbors of
the dark side Can men indeed livo and
can plants grow where there is no light
but that of the stars? Yetstarlight is but
a faint sunlight sent from millions of (lis
taut suns and faint only because they are
ao tremendously f;ir away. And what, on
the other hand, are the conditions of life
under a never setting sun? Do the inhab
itants uf that side of Venus, blinded by
perpetual daylight, think that the universe
consists only of the world they live on and
the sun that lights it? Have their philoa
ophcrs learned that by goin round tu the
other sideof their world they can see a sky
ablaza with other suns, among which,
brighter than Venus looks to us, shines
-their neighbor the earth? Are the inhab
Hants of the dark hemisphere of Venus
concerned in any manner with the aurora
like Illuminations which terrestrial astron
omers have beheld there?
In short, it appears that Schiaparelli -discovery
about Venus Las disclosed a new
world for the imagination to disport in.
In France, where they do everything
dramatically, even in science, M. Kugene
Antonindi recently conceived the idea of
making a "tour " of the planet Jupiter. Ho
accomplished it with the aid of a telescope.
Ttnmense as the bulk of Jupiter is, it
makes a completo turn on its axis In a
trifle lesa than 10 hours. By watching it
continuoosly for 10 hours, then, M. An
toniadi was able to see every part of it in
Of course tho same result could be ob
tained by studying different parts of the
planet art different hours on different
nights, bnt tho Frenchman's artistic sense
of unity prevailed over considerations of
onvenience, and so be made his "t ur dll
mondc do Jupiter en dix heures" (tour of
the world of Jupiter in 10 boon), At in
tervals of an hour he drew pictures of the
planet, showing all tho details that were
visible with a telescope 0J inches in aper
ture. An inspection of these pictures gives
one a very vivid idea of the appearance of
the great planet as it swiftly rolls under
the eyes of the observer.
There Is evidently something very Im
portant going on upon Jupiter nt Urn pres
ent time. We probably do not sou the real
surface of Jupiter any more than we see
that of Venus. Jupiter, too, wears a veil,
but it isofquite a different character from
that of his petite sister planet. Venus is
a cool and solid globe, like the earth,
purrounded by a transparent atmosphere.
Jupiter la a heated and liquid or partially
vaporous globe, more resembling the sun
than the earth, except in its power of rndl
ntlon. Although Jupiter is 1 ,300 times as
large as theearth, it is only .".HI times as
heavy. In order to become as solid ej the
earth It must condense to one-quarter of
its present sizv. Kvidently such a process
of condensation Is now going on, and that
is the cause of the disturbances which tho
telescope pliinly shows are afflicting tho
big planet. The. effects of these disturb
ones wero very Imposing whn M. Antoni
ndi made bis "tour." Garratt p, Servlss
In New York Sun.
barrister, liko Sir Charles Kusaell, hus an
income variously estimated nt from $75,
000 to tlou.OUO a year, while it is said on
good authority one of themselves that
SO er cent of the barristers muke nothing.
Those who make anything make $1,200 a
year, thoso of thu next grado $8,000, then
$10,000, which is the top score for the
great majority, and then a very limited
number who make $25,000 n year. Prac
tically thu same figures hold good for thu
mudical men, with the exception that thu
percentage of those making nothing Is
smaller, mi indication not wholly without
significance us implying that the Briton
would rather pay to have the gout than to
havo a quarrel where lists are bared. Con
sider the following list of incomes:
Annuities to 14 members of thu royal
family, 18, 000,000 per annum; miner with
family estimated by one of them fi!"-0;
archbishop of Canterbury, $75,000 a year;
average clerical income, $000 a yeur; at
torney general, $05,000 a year; average
barrister making anything, $1,200 a year;
Sir Andrew Clark, physician, $S0,000 to
$100,000 a year; average medical man,
$1,200 a year, head of great public schorl,
$U0,000 to $40,000 a year; Milmwistcr in
small school, $500; editor und part owuer
of great newspaper, $25,000 or more n year;
hack writer, $S00 or less a year; Macau
lay, "History of England," $750,000;
Scott's novels, etc., about $1,000,000; es
sayists, poets, majority of novelists, noth
ing; dissenting minister, very popular,
$.1,000 a year; dissenting minister, not
popular, $450 a year.
Judiciary well paid: Lord chief justice,
$4",000 a year; lord high chancellor, $50,
000 n year; judges In county and city
courts, $5,000 to $10,000; cabinet minis
ters, $35,uoo a year. Forum.
The Strangett of the "Trao fairy Tales
Modern Science.
Among the well know n diseases whos.
bacterial origin is already placed beyond
reasonable doubt are erysipelas, tubercu
losis, diphtheria, tetanus, typhoid fever,
croupous pneumonia aud influenza. The
facts dlaeovered regarding gome of these
during the past 15 years are umong the
strangest of the "true fairy tales" of mo 1
ern science. Forexample, the micrococcus
of croupous pneumonia, ns discovered by
Dr. Sternberg, lurks in the mouth and U
harmless there, awaiting, as it were, an
optKirtunlty when a condition of lowered
vitality of the system, as fromexposuro lo
cold, shall enable it to take up its active
abode in the lungs and begin n develop
ment whose results will be manifest in an
inflammation of those organs. Again, it
appears that the bacillus of tetanus, or
; lockjaw, is abundant everywhere in the
soil and may rest on the surface of the
. human body or be taken into tho stomach
without producing injury. Even ou the
surface of an open wound it cannot devel
op, it being one of the bacteria that can
not grow in the presence of free oxygen.
But If introduced into a deeper wound
nway from the air it may develop rapidly
and produce the painful and often fatal
disease tetanus. Thus is explained the
fact, always before a myttcry, that even
slight and seemingly insignificant punc
ture wounds are more likely to produce
this disease than are open lesions that
otherwise are far more serious.
It is an interesting and highly suggest
ive fact, as show ing thu power of resist
ance of the human body under normal
conditions, that a bacterium capable of
producing such a disease as this may be
so abundant all about us and yet so infre
quently llnd opportunity for malignant ac
tivity. But the same thing appears to be
true in greater or less degree of all tho
other bacteria that may develop in the hu
man body. Even when introduced into tho
body they are harmless, unless they lind
the conditions there favorable to their de
velopment. Thus there are probably very
few persons who have not at one time or
another inhaled the bacillus of tuberculo
sis or its spores, but the lungs of only the
relatively few furnish a favorable soil for
its development. Thtsu susceptible per
sons develop the disease. The others are
said to bo immune as regards this partic
ular bacillus. But susceptibility and im
munity ure relative terms, and a person
whose tissuisatone time resist the mi
crobe may at another time succumb to ir
Tho exact nature of thu "inherent vital
ity" which we are accustomed to speak of
as giving the tissues power to resist the
micro-organisms we understand as little
as our ancestors understood the real cause
of the contagious dlsee"s. Perhaps the
microscope will h'jlp to enlighten us in
this regard in tho next half century.
Harper's Weekly.
Fanes That Danglo From tho Top and
Bottom Hounds of the Ladder.
Every roan, profi ssional or otherwise,
Who gets to the top of his purticular lad
der In England is paid not only in money,
but in comforts, in homage and in admira
tion out of all proportion to those below
him. The heads of the great public
schools, such as Eton end Harrow; the
great prelates of tho church, the archbish
ops of Canterbury and of York, tho bishop
of Ixmdon and Others, tho lord high chan
cellor, tho lord chief justice and the attor
ney general, tho popular physicians, tho
eminent barristers, solicitors and civil en
gineers, mako what in a democrncy would
be deemed fortunes every year. On tho
other baud, the professional ragtag and
bobtail receive less notice and less money
and aro far more restricted In their social
opportunities than with us. In giving llg
ure. relating to professional incomes In
England, this chasm, impassable except to
the strongest, between mediocrity aud suc
cess becomes at once tho moetstrlklng and
depressing featura of the discussion.
In the church the archbishop of Canter
bury receives 15,000 a year, which Is
equal to $80,000, or probably more, while
the avcrago income of tho clergy is well
tinder 11.009 A IMr. A Yery successful
The Old Southern Gentleman Still.
"There ure some touches of nature to bu
found among the decayed gentility of the
south that to me arc peculiarly sympathet
ic," said L. E. Buford of Charleston. "I
was in Augusta, Ga., some time ago, and
I will relate an Incident that illustrates
w hat I mean, Greeu street In Augusta
constitutes the principal business street,
and at either end of the business thor
oughfare Is a market in the center of the
street. I was stroll Irg through one of these
market houses when I noticed a very old
man w ith an antiquated hat frorn which
all the hap except few strangling threads
of silk had been brushed, a wide shaker, a
broadcloth suit buttoned to the. throat,
and carefully darned nt the elbows and
around tho binding, and carrying a gold
beaded Cane, He walked with an air of
dignity, While at his he i i trotted a bare
footed, ragged pickannlny, Ha went u a
meat stall, and In tones of unconscious
patronage said, 'Give me 8 cents' worth
of round steak, sir.' The meat was wrap
ped up, and the old man iej FChtd his
pockets, thu expression of hia 'face show
ing the greatest rnortillcat Ion VI y'A have
n dime, sir,' he said. The dW'c.ffas found,
and after receiving a nickel in ulfShge the
old man handed the meat and the nickel
to the little darky, who trudged homo be
hind the (dil man. It was a little thing,
but It contained a whole biography of that
man's life to those who knew the customs
of Mm old time southern aristocracy." St.
Louis Globe-Democrat.
Frew the K V. TWMiiWi Ko t, ism.
The Flour
"Chicago, Oct. 81. Fhe first official
announcement of World's Fair di
plomas on Hour has been made. A
medal liae been awarded by the
World's Fair judges to the flour uianu
factureil by the Washburn, Crosby Co,
in the treat Washburn Flour Mills,
Minneapolis, The committee reporte
the Hour tlrong nnd pure, and ontitlee
it to ronk as first-clues patent flour for
funnily aud bakers' usa."
The above brands of Hour can bo bail at any of the following merchants,
who will accept Tin: TuiiiiNK FLOUR 00PPOM of 80 on each ono hundred pound
of flour or SO on each barrel of flour.
Taylor Judge A Co., Oold ttedali Atbertos
A; 00., Siiierlstlvo.
Huryou- Lawreie'o Storu I'd., Hold Modal.
Moomc John Mil! Quid Medal.
Pjttston M. w. O'Boylo, uoM Medal,
(.'lurk s Green Praoe Parker. Superlative,
Clark's summit- V. If, Young, Oold Medal,
llaltoii -8 E. Finn & Son, Hold Meilu: llniu 1
SI 1 1 1 "li I 1. I KM II
U'averly-M. w. Dllss Js fs.m, (told Meihd.
PsctoryvUle Ghtrlee Gardaer, Hold Medal.
rtopboltoUV N. M Finn A Sou, Uu!d Mulul.
ToDTbanna Tobbanna. & xtiii Lumbe r
I n Hold Modal Hruii'l
( lull (lnb .ro S A. Adams, ltd 1 M 'lal llniu d
Moscow -Guitfo tfc Clements, OuM Modal.
Like Ariel James A. Bortree, Oold Medal.
Forest City -J. L. Morgan Co.. Hold Medal
Upholstery Department
William : Sissenberger
Opposite Baptist Church,
Pei in Avenue,
Is repleta with line and
medium Parlor Suits, Fancy
Rockers, Couches and
Lounges for the Holiday
Trade. Prices to Suit all.
Also Bed Room Sets, Din
ing Room and Kitchen Fur
niture. Parlor Suits and
Odd Pieces Re-upholstered
in a Substantial manner.
Will be as good as new
S!cranton-F. P. Prleo, Washington avonuj I
uoiu ueua liraml.
Dunmoro-F. P l'ricu, Oold Mo.lal Iliund.
DumnoreF. D Mauley. Superlative llran I.
Hyde Park Carson St Eluvla. Washburn St.
Oold Medal Brandt J.suph a. m- .i m , .
avenue, tSunerlatiVS Brand.
Oreea Ridae A LHpeneer.Qol 1 Medal I'.rand.
J. T. McHale, Huperlatlve.
Provideueo FenuL'r A ObapPelhK' Main avo
mi.'. Superlative Brand ilS J wUluplei W.
Markot atreet. Qol d M.-l 1 1 Urnnd
Olyi hunt -James Jordan, Superlative Brand,
Pe It vi1 e lb ltt K. Is r Suporbxtlr i.
Jemrn O, U. Winter AC0 hupnraiatlvn
Arehnald Junes. S nips n Oo , Bald fod tl
Carbondale-E 8. Clark, Oold Mrdal brand.
Hunodale-I N. Foster & Co. Ooli Moil.
Minooku-M 11. Uvelle.
A Curloua Hello uf the War.
Walter French has a curious relic of the
war. It Is a watch with a bullet firmly
iuiliedded In one side of thu rase. The
watch belongs to Captain McfJunnlnlc,
who was g member of thu Ninth Maesa
chusctls Infantry volunteers and now lives
In East Boatan, in ihih atth battle of
Laurel Hill, daring the battles of the
Wilderness, Captain MeGunnlgla was car
rying the watch In his breast pocket when
he was struck by n bullet. Tho bullet
could Dot penetrate the watch, and Iii9 life
was saved.
When the watch was shown toO'Fei rall
of Virginia, ho became Interested nt onco
and told how during the war he was car
rying an old fashioned daguerreotype of
his sweetheart in bis pocket, and o bullet
struck It nnd glancrd off, saving his life.
It wus tho plcturo of a Baltitnoro girl, but
Iho end of tho rumnnce was out of tho
ordinary run. When the war cndM and
O'Ferrall looked her up, he found ber mar
ried to another man, nnd thus sho lost the
chancoof becoming tho wife of tho govern
or of Virginia. Boston Advertiser.
Thu oldest mathematical hook in the
world Is culled the "Papyrus Bhlnd." It
I in manuscript, of course, and was writ
ten by one Ahmes, an Egyptian who lived
in the year 2000 B. 0, The hook Is now In
tbc British museum.
There was only ono complete die made
for the purpose of coining money by tho
Confederate States of America that for a
1 cent piece, which was made by Lovstt,
tho Philadelphia engraver, Ju 180U
Auction! Auction!
133 Penn Avenue.
A CHANCE to buy at your own price
Hardware, Saws, Hammers, Tinware,
Lamps, Hosiery, Gloves, Notions. Fancy
and Other Goods.
Sign Red Flag.
City Music Store,
H :iAM( I! & HACK
H I I 1.1 & BAUUll
JliKSlargs flock of fjmt-olM
an sk ii:n:HANDisii
ut sic, ura, Kxa
Valuable as a Souvenir of the Fair.
QUITE i:ahy vhi:n YOU know HOW
.jam .cwM-scm'j
Nt'W (llflrnier T Will knee n.n nnln wuab fl.,: A ,t I. U- n t r U
' if A RAN KR to (urn NirT m tVhtlii I ., nret.nmt MMft i .
' 1 ' ' ' 1 1 r I ' i h l " i j i t n i 1 1 - , i 'if DfgJvrterl. such UiiuMhs l i l'
vmsiiminii'ii it Hum ay, vi lX till, G hoirs Inr With err f.
For el bv JOHN II. PHBLPS, l'hai uiacint. i'nr. Wvomlna Ave. mil Rnrtiut
Rrmntdli. Pa.
Tblt wmrWfM rnrr-l? cmr
tntvr'l tn ran all li nmie dll
tpr'. "nvh ns WAnk Mpitiory. I.osncf train I'nwpr. IlcnilBcbn, Waknriilnpni,
i.oht .viiuiimon. Mfiuiy MnlMlons, nrrroQfMMMllfl10lina 101101 i '
in i in ml I vp ( vrirftttA of flt)n r MtymuMd hy ortertlon. ouOilil rrrvn.
' ' mIm' d' of lohBCOO, opium or stimulant, which MM to I mi i : i--. n
'"tuiiDtlon or Inan nil j-. I'nii t- cnrrlPd In tput porkPt. VI ptl bni, for tft.
Ij... ejerLie 3 ll.&Muei NmhUi fu ij. .i.t Cm .11 XeMMate a .1 it lal!
"LruntunUNr ItMUdlRb Kothur. AiiilresH KEUVi: Ml f lMO., Aiaouie Toiupio. (JBICAOU. lUb
For Sale in Hcrunton, Pa., by EL C. SANUEUSON, DrufflBt, CM WaghlngtoD
Vkl Snn:co ytroots.
illit UKli AUD AKT1.K UBINU.
Tho ttrunt VMMdff for nrrroua prostration nnrt bI l nervou ttlMMM
i aw tuMirnuivp iirvrins 01 maavr IU. puvu ns Pfrroui rrimiraiH n. ISLr
liiH or lost Manhood, Inipotpncy, Nlyhtly KmlsnlotiH.Vonthful Krrors,
Montal Worry, ero-sslTo ua of Tohivt'o or Opium , which load to Con
aumptlnn and Insanity, with o?ery Sft order w plvo a wrlilon uar
hiiU'p to euro orn'hmil tliu money. Hold nt 81. OO per hox. O boxes
M W...OO- UK. JMO'l 'i 'M 4 Id KM l AlilOu t ltwluud. If htu
M l!l I HIM'.
lurttulo byC. M. II .Ml K I , Urugulst, 147 1'euu Avtuuti,
Atlantic Refining Co.
.',:... '.:..";.'! mid iXM'.cre in
Illuminating and Lubricating
Llnaeed Oil, Napthai and 0.110
lirii'd nf nil radei. Axle Qr"ase
Pinion ( irense and (,'olliery Com
pound; nlao, a lario lino v! Par
iiifnue ax Caudles.
We nlso handle the Ffttnoni CR0WY
ACME OIL, the only family safety
burning oil in the market.
offiro: Coal Exchange, Wyoming .v
W urks ut I'me Bruuk.
Muuuf aetured at 'ii Wapwallopm Mills, l.u-
leme county Pw.. uii.I ut Wil
luliiKtoii, Ixluwaru.
Qeaeral Acent lur iiit Wyonilaa Diatrietb
118 Wyoming Ave., Scranton Pa
Ibird National Bask Umkluif.
Tlins FORD, Plttat a, Tn
JOHN 1! SMITH & SON : I'lymouUl. Pa.
E W.ltULLIOAN, Wllkee -Harre. Pa
Apcnt for tbo nepauao CbemloaJ Cuiu
I'any'u High Bapleelfea
Oily, 'iniwr niatnlT. mrkr.1 b I'w.'i" , w I
mititi1 nmF,.iu) iw imr noc. , Mrilirniff.1 iron.
lllhfniro i..pUfiiml.ftnt mull Whim Hot Sl'tinii I
Ita4 mutjfui, i,.T Mnelo Remedy win I
lliaaull 1111 n"i RKm TO, ra-ir. III. I
BUT KB smii: CO.. toe'p. rajiltal. fl,ooo.fl00.
"A dollar Hfift 1 i ihllar tamtd."
Thli ! mil. MM Frrnrh lnn(olii KM flul
ton Hoot ilcllvt're.l fr.-p where tn Ihe I s..
rt i'l'l otUeea, Money (inlr,
or nelal No" 'or l.So.
KoiiaIa every Waf Iho bools
rolil In nil relull itorei (or
BiMQi Wo nuuke tbit 1 1
oiirwlve, therefore wo guar-
aafei im ft, tite ana trtar,
ami If any ono la not MlliiUeil
wo will reiiinu tno money
neiiilnnolherjialr. Opera
Too or Common Henae,
vMtai ', i, E. BE,
1 tn . and bull
ilzr. Stud your
tee witt tit yon.
Dexter Shoe Rffi
Sptctul Umi to lu i.!.
Iii the snip of the shears,
The bondholder hears
The Bonnd of his money enhancing;
Why nol copy liis way,
And clip every day
To get something that's quite as entrancing.
You Can Do It!
Just to think of the delights of a trip alt over our own country,
from Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico!
Being able to do it in easy stages, at
TEN CENTS "a stage," inclucl
ing the services of a guide! Yet,
that is just what we do for you.
Realistic Pictures from ever part of
America, done in NEW process
indelible typogravure delineate
the journey.
The incomparable world-famed traveler and lecturer, PROF, GEO,
R. CROMWELL, is the guide. Journalistic enterprise is the conductor
of the trip.
"From Alaska to the Golf of Mexico,"
will be jmblialieil in weeklv eeriee of eixteen views .ich tiew 1U13J inchea,
fully worth $1 60), and will embrace tbe pbyaical and ecenic woadere o(
Our Own Land,
the whole edited by Prof. U. H. Cromwell. Each serifs will be enclosed in
handsome covers.
The CftplfOl, WtshinBton.
1 in' otnmon, Kotton.
Printing iiouf Sqimri, New VorU
Hfven Mill- Cheyenne CMtOB, Colorado.
Chrstnul Mi'i'i i 1 hlledetphla.
rllnwftoiio I nil. iin)n.
Brenton! (ovn, Nrwpoit,
Central Turk, Mluiit'fipolU.
Audftorliim Hotel, Clilcnpo.
Long Nult KapttU, St. Lwrnc River.
Temple Square, salt Lttk lly,
Mnuntein Houiee. Cieoton Surlngt, Ta.
ValitnEton Mnnumrnt. Baltimore.
Hi-, shoe Falls, Niafcara.
City of Victoria, II. 0
Mtkii. Alaska.
Each Series Lasts but one Week, See That Yon Get Them All
I s
Send or bring two of these coupons, differently numbered, s
S wiih Ten C'culs, and get the llrst series of sixteen magniticent
S photographs.
This Coupon, with two like it, but of different
I dates, and with Ten Cents in cash, will secure one g
I part of the World's Fair Art Portfolio in four
parts the one announced before.
This Coupon, with another like it, but of differ-
ent date, and with Five Cents in cash, will secure
i the "Trip Around the World" portfolio of photo-
graphs, a rare and interesting glance at noted
a spots in all climes.