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PUBLISHED WEEKLY IN THE CITY OF READING, BERKS COUNTY, PA.---TERMS: $1,50 A YEAR IN ADVANCE.
J. LAWRENCE GETZ, EDITOR.]
rIJBLISKED EVERY SAIIIRDAY ILORNING.
ape, 3 - ort/Y-11'ot errner of Ann and Firth aired, ad
jotaing the 151rnutre Bawl qf.Reading.
TEEMS OF SUBSCRIPTION
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To Cans : Four coplee Tor sa, in advance.
Ten copies for •
n- 411papars discontinued at the expiration of the
tine paid fur
Sian OF ATOTERTISTSO ix THS OAzBITE.
It. lmo. Smo. Saw 17
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10 " BO 1,00 1.25 3,01 6,00 8,00
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(Larger Advertisements in proportion.]
Trecolers' and Administrators Notion., a Insertioaa 112,00
Auditors' Notices and Legal Notices. 3 1,50
Special Noticed', as reading matter, 10 eta, a line for One
Marriage notices 33 cents each. Deaths will be
WT sit Obituary Notices, Resolatious of Beneficial and
eche , Private Associations, Will be charged for, as adver
ii„neents, at the above Mien
eA , " Advertises:mats for Religious, Charitable and Ban
rational object', one- half the above rates.
gir All advertising will be considered payable In cash,
ao the first interned.
ve.oly advertisers shall have the privilege tlf desired)
o f renewing their advertisements every three weeks—but
nor e 1..: Any additional reileWaill. OT advertising ex
ceeding the amount contracted for, will be charged earn
at one-half the rates above specified for transient ads sr-
Toady advertisers will be charged the same rates as
I:sapient advertisers for all matters not relating strictly
A. their &urinate.
PRINTING OF- EVERY DESCRIPTION.
a rotated In • myertor manner, at the very lamed
Oar assortment of Jon Tire in large and huddonabi=
oar Work speak. for Itself.
BLANKS OF ALL HINDS,
. . .
luclaalug PAaOIIaZIT and ?Alas Damns, Moaroeose,
Bahl" Altrtnen or A.segetott, LIMNS, and a Toilet,' of
JCbTICKI klotkise, kept constantly for sale, or rioted to
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
OFFICE WITH A. 13. WANNER, NORTH
IUP Sixth Street. (above the Court House,) Iteadiug, Pa.
WrlLux H. LIVINOOOD, ATTORNEY AT
A LAW, has removed his *See to the north side of
Cout street Mat door below Meth. Ides 2241
JESSE O. HAWLEY,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
FMB WITH 8. L. YOUNG, ESQ., PENN
Street, above Sixth, Residing, Pa.
or WM best PrieiSeeidoirg, ovary Thaniday.
tA..TTOICITET AT LAW—HAS REMOVED HIS
OM* to the 08leo lately otespied by the Hon. David
_ Gordon, datesaid, in Edith asset, opposite the Court
Rods& Eapril 14
ATTORNEY AV LAW—OFFICE IN NORTH
Sixth street, corner of Court alley. fututl3-ly
WHOLESALE AND ItETAIL DEALER IN
W Foreign and Dominate DRY GOODS, Do. eri East
eon street, Reading, Pa,. March DOM.
United States Bounty, Back Pay and
• Pension Office,
COURT STREET, NEAR SIXTH.
110FAVING BEEN ENGAGED IN COLLECT
ire claims against the Government, I feel confident
Mos all who have heretofore employed me will cheerfully
endorse my promptness and Odelity. My charges are
moderoteand no charge made until obtained_
MILL/AM H. -LIVIHGOOD,
oetlS-tf) Attorney at Law, Court St., Hooding, Ho.
ASA M. HART,
(Late Start *. "layer')
pEALER IN FOREIGN AND AMERICAN
DRY . GOODS, CARPETING% &c., Wholesale and Rer
at Phlladelphis prices. Sign of She Golden Bee Hive,
No. 14 East Penn Square. [april 11-If
P. Bashong & Sons,
;IIANUFACTURERB OF BURNING FLUID,
Absolute, Deodorized and Druggists' Alcohol; also,
13.9 011, wide, they will cell at the lowest Wholesale
Priem, as Reeling. Pa.
der Orden resperAhdly solicited.
DR. T. YARDLEY BROWN,
• • GRADUATEOFPENNSTLYANIA
Dental College. Teeth extracted by Waft
-4 4 A c i s' El e c tra
xtraeted with much less pain than the uses! way. No
sutra charge. °face in Fifth street, opposite the Presbyte.
nau Church. [awn 2-ly
Dr. G. M. MILLER,
SURGEON DENTIST, FROM THE
, College of Dental Snrgery, Philadelphia.
4 1 ad so , 011 ice: At his residence in Main street,
*Jr- Teeth extracted under the influence of Ether, or
by the Eleetro.Magnatie Machine, without extra charge.
/fir He bass's° Patent and other MEDICINES for sale
at hie office. [may 31
DR. D. LLEWELLYN BEAVER,
United States Pension Surgeon.
rXAMINATIONB OF INVALID 'PENSION.
.1;# ERA and applicants for Pensions, from any Stale, and
ofboth the Army and Navy, made at the cornerof Fifth and
Walnut greet. Reading. gir Office benre—from 12 to 2
P. N. Dec. 20-3m0.)
Fourth Street, above Penn, Reading.
/man' 24 . 186341
BOUNTIES & BACK PAY.
APPLICATIONS PROMPTLY ATTENDED
to. Terme moderate and no dung until obtained.
A. 0. GRIM Attorney at Law,
Jan al-limo] Office in Court Elmer, Treading.
3301TAFTY-SON3Yr. SACK-P 64
AND PAUESION CLA.UNIZEI
PROMPTLY ATTBNDED TO BY
A. H. STAIIFFEtt,
Attorney at Law, Office tai Court Street,
Jaaffi-d) BELDING, PA.
O. M. PETTENGILL & CO.,
N 0.37 PARK ROW, NEW-YORK, & 6 STATEST., BOSTON,
Are Agents for the Bending Gazette, to those aides. and
are authorized to take Adaertisameata and liabseriptiona
ter no at our established rate.
WATCHES, GOLD AND SILTED,
CLOCKS AND JEWELRY
RELIABLE IN QUALITY AND AT LOW
Priem Woven Revaterno.—Welokee pat In pers
feret order and every one warranted for one year.
21 North Fifth Street, Reading, Pa.
F. P. HELLER,
WATCHMAKER, JE WELER ,
ARD DEALER IN
WATCHES, CLOCKS, JEWELRY,
SPOONS, SPECTACLES, GOLD PENS, &c.,
Grief the tt BIG WATCH," No. 13X la Penn
West, above Sixth, north Ode, Reading, Ps
sap livery &dole warranted to be what it is sold for
Watehes, Cloeka, Jewelry, Am, repaired with particular
attention, and guaranteed. END 1-tf
A PREMIEN. WILL BE PAID ON
cm.cozia34 comae) 091X11T3311..
EXCHANGE AND BANKING OFFICE
G . W. GOODRICH,
Aogut 10, 11031-til
1 0 4.4, WES POTS, AT TEE JAIL
W. 1111041/ OLD
BALTIMORE LOCK HOSPITAL
EV' ESTABLISHED AS A REFUGE FROM QUACKERY.
.Only Place Where a Cure Can be
DR. JOHNSTON HAS DISCOVERED THE
most Certain, Speedy and only Seminal Remedy In
the World for alt Private Diseases, Weakness of the Back
or Limbs, Strictures, Affections of the Kidneys and Blad
der, lavoluntary Discharges, impotency, General Debili
ty, Nervousness, Dyspepsia. Languor, Low Spirits, Confu
sion of Ideas, Palpitation of the ileart,Mmidity, Trembling,
Dimness of Sight or Giddiness, Disease of the Dead,
Throat,Nose or :Ain, Affections of th e Liver Lungs,
Stoma c h or Bowels—Hum Terrible Disorders sitting from
the Solitary 'labile of Youth—those Demme and solitary
premisss more fatal to their victims than the song of Syron
to the Mariners of Ulysses, blighting their most brilliant
hopes or anticipations, rendering marriage, ite., impossible.
Especially. who have become the victime of Solitary Vloe,
that dvmatnl and deatrnetive habit Which annually owoopo
to an untimely grave thousands of Yong Men of the moot
exalted talents and brilliant intellect, who might other
wise have entranced listening Senates, with the thunders
of eloquence or waked teectstsay the living lyre, may call
with full confidence.
Married Pennine, or Young Mon contemplating marriage,
being aware or physical weakness, organic debility, dolor
aa, speedily cored:
He who places himself under the care of Dr. J. may re
ligiously confide in Ms honor as it gentleman, and confi
dently rely upon his skill as a Physician.
Immediately Cored, sod Fell Vigo Restored_
This Distressing gfiectiou—which renders Life miserable
and marriage impossible—is the penalty paid by the vie
time of improper ludulgenees. Tcung persons are too apt
so commix exeessee from not being aware of the dreadful
consequences that may ensue. Now, who that undenstande
the subject will pretend to deny that the power of procrea
tion le lest loaner by those falling into improper habits
than by the prudent? Besides being deprived the plead
ers) of healthy offspring, the most serious and destructive
symptoms to both body and mind arise. The system be
comes Deranged, the Physical and -Mental. Functions
Weakened, Loss of Procreative Power, 'Nervous Irrltabill
try, Dyspepsia, Palpitation of the Heart, Indigestion, Cote
eliffiatiegal Debility, a Wasting of the Frame, Cough, Con
sumption, Decay and Death. - •
Office. No. 7 South Frederiok Street,
Left hand side going from Baltimore street, a few doom
from the corner. Fail not to observe Bailie and number.
Letters must be paid and'eontaia a stamp. The Doctor•e
Diplomas hang in his Mantis
A. CV& MITAIAZIANTNIZO IN
TWO DA M.
No Mercury or Nauseous _Drops.
Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, Gradu
ate from one of the most eminent Colleges in the United
States, and the greater part of whose life has been spent in
the hospitals of London, Paris, Philadelphia and else
where, lee effected some of the most astonishing cure* that
were ever known; many troubled with ringing in the head
and ears when asleep, great nervousness, being alarmed at
sudden sounds, bashfulness, with frequent blushing, at
tended sometimes with derangement of mind, were cured
T. I'ALWLICIPSAR NOVECIL
Dr. J. addresses all those who have injured thenmeivee
by Improper indulgence gad solitary habits. which ruin
both body and mind, unfitting them for either business,
study; society or marriage.
Taus are some of the and and melancholy effects produc
ed by early habits of youth, Weakness of the Back and
Lithlie, reins in the Mead, Dimness of Sight,-Loss of Diner
enter Power, Palpitation of the Heart, Dmpepsy. Nervous
Irritability,Derangement of the Digestive Functions, Gen
eral Debility, Symptoms of Consumption, dm.
MENVALLV.—The fearful ethers on the mind are much to
be dreaded—Loss of Memory, Confusion of Ideas, Depres
sion of Spirits, Evil Forebodings, Aversion to Society, Self-
Distrust, Love of Solitude, Timidity, kc., are some of the
Tirousaans of persons dell ages can BOW f edge what is
the carets of their deolining health, losing 'helve - Igor, be
coming weak, pale, nervous and emaciated, having a sin
gular appearance about the eyes, cough and symptoms of
Who have injured themselves by a certain practice indul
ged in when alone, a habit frequently learned from evil
companions, or at school, tbeeffects of which are nightly
felt, even when asleep, and if not cured renders marriage
impossible. and destroys both mind and body, should ap
What a pity that a young man, the hope of his country,
the darling of his parents, should be snatched from all
prospeets and enjoyments of life, by the consequence of
deviating from the path of nature and Indulging in a Ger
tain secret habit. gash parsons Mist before contemplat•
reflect that a Bound mind and body are the most neeeeeary
requisite/ to promote connubial happiness. Indeed, with
out these the journey through Me becomes a weary pil
grimage; the; prospect hourly darkens to the view; the
mind be comes shadowed with despair end filled with the
melancholy-reflection that the happiness of another be
routes blighted with our own.
Fll7l ' ,; , l * Trr.
When the misguided and imprudent votary of pleasure
dude that he has imbibed the seeds of this painful cheeses,
it too often happens that an 111-timed sense of shame, or
dread of discovoey, deters him from applying to those who,
from education and respectability, can alone befriend him,
delayingtU/ the constitutional symptoms of this horrid dis
ease make their appearance, finch as ulcerated sore throat,
diseased nose, nocturnal patine in the bead and limbs. dim
ness of sight, deafness, nodes on the shin-bones and arms,
blotches on the head, face and extremities, progressing
With frightful rapidity, till at last the palate of the mouth
Of the bones of the noes fain., and the victim of thin aw
ful disease becomes a horrid object of commiseration, till
death puts a period to his dreadful sufferings, by sending
him to " that Undiscovered Country from whence no trav
It is a maascholy fact that thousands fall victims to
thin terrible disease, owing to the unskillfulness of ignor
ant pretenders, who, by, the nee of that Deadly Poison,
Mercury, ruin the constitution and make the residue of
Trust not your !fuse, or health, to the care of many Un
learned and worthies. Pretenders, dast:into of knowledge.
name Or character, who copy Dr. Joimeton's advertise
ments, or style themselves, In the newepapers, regularly
Educated Physicians, Incapable of Curing, they keep you
trifling month after month taking heir filthy and poison
one compound., or en long as the smallest fee can be ob
tained, and in despair, leave you with ruined health to
eigh over your own galling disappointment.
Dr. Johnston its the only Physician advertising.
Hls credentiale or diplomas always hang In his ofireil.
His remedies or treatment are unknown to all others,
prepared from a itle spent in the great hoapitale of Europe,
the Irat in the country and a more extensive Private Prac
tice than any other Physician in the world.
.T.DIDOSSZOMINT OF 'TEE
The many thousands cured at this institution year after
year, and the numerous Important Surgical Operations
performed by Dr. Johnston, witnessed by the reporters of
the "Ban," "Clipper," and many other papers, notices of
which bare appeared again and again before the public,
besides his standing as a gentleman of character and re
apanalibilit7, tea salliclent guarantee tp the tuillmed.
Skin Diseases Speedily Cured.
[.ir No letters received unless poet-paid and containing
a stamp to be used on the reply. Persons writing should
state age, and send portion of advertisement describing
3OHN JOZINSTOIS. SS. Th e
Of the Baltimore Look Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland.
ON 'INN 31117310PNATIF PLAN.
CITY OT NEW YORK.
Single Rooms Fifty Cents per Day.
City Hall Square, corner Frankfort St.,
(OPPOBITE CITY HALL.)
BALE AS THEY MAY RE ORDERED IN
the ectors; refectory. There le a Barber's Shop and
Diftßo 'v ome attached to the Hotel.
Mir Beware of RUNNERS and HAMMEN Who say we
Jan 17-Iy] R. FRENCH. Proprietor.
(LATE WHITE SWAN.)
Race Street, above Third, Philadelphia.
ruttlS ESTABLISHMENT OFFERS GREAT
Inducements, not only on account of reduced rates of
board, but from Ito central location to am avenues of trade,
as well as the conveniences afforded by the several
Passenger BAllWays Tanning past and contiguous to it, by
which guests can pass to and from the Hotel, ehould they
be preferred to the regular Omnibus connected with the
House. lam determined to devote my whole attention to
the comfort and convenience of my guests.
Sir Terms, fle 35 : per y.
D C. SIIGRIST, Proprietor,
Formerly creel Nagle Hotel, Lebanon, Pa.
'P. Ir. RHOADS. Clerk. (marel, 15-0
READING, PA. •
THE SUBSCRIBER respectfully announces to
the public that he has recently enlarged his BREWS.
to a considerable extent, and introduced steam-power,
and is now ready to supply all demands for
1511712=0.11 nz.exr LIQUORS,
For home and distant conaumption. Ills stock of Malt
Wixom, warranted to keep In all climates, is no follow.--
BROWN STOUT/ POUTER, BOTTLING ADE, DRAIRUIT
ALE AND LAGER BEBE.
Jane IP-tf FREDERICK LAVER.
N.B.—Aliberal per eentage will be allowed to Agents
Corner of rifth and Spruce Streets.
Rua 1 al. EIPRBR a EWE.
THE POOR AND HONEST
Wben wild war's deadly blast was blswn,
And gentle peace returning,
Wi' moray a sweet babe fatherless,
Aad way a widow mourning;
I left the lines and tented field
Wben lang I'd been a lodger,
My bumble knapsack a' my wealth,
A poor bat honest codger.
A Mal light heart was to my breast,
My Land unstained wl . plunder,
And for fair Scotia Name again
I cheery on did wander.
I thought upon the banks o' Coil,
I thought upon my Nancy,
I thought upon the witching smile
That caught my youthful fancy.
AL length I reached the bonny glen,
Where early life I sported,
I passed the mill and tryettng thorn
Where Nancy oft I courted.
Wha spied I bat my Me dear meld,
Down by her mother's
And turned me round to hide the flood
That in my een wan swelling.
Wi' altered voice, qaoth I, meet late,
Sweet as the hawthorn's b/owom,
0! happy, happy maybe be
That's dearest to thy bosom.
My puree is light, I've far to gang
dad tata would be thy lodger;
I've served my Ring and country tang,
Take pity on a lodger.
Sae wistfully she gazed on me
And lovelier wee than ever;
Quo' she, a 'lodger once I lo'ed
Forget him shall I never.
Our bumble cot and bamely fare
Ye freely shall partake It,
That gallant badge—the dear cockade
Ye're welcome for the sake o't.
Sbe gened—she redden'd like a roes—
Syne pale like ony lily ;
Phe sank within my arms and cried,
Art then my sin dear Willie?
By film who made you sun and sky—
By whom trite love's regarded,
lam the man tt'Sl thus may still
True lovers be rewarded.
The ware are o'er, and I'm come hams,
And dud thee still trutrhearted,
Tho' poor in gear, we're rich in love
And matt we'll') neer be parted,
Quo' she, my gran'elre left me gowd,
A mallia' plenished fairly,
Then come, my faithful sodger lad,
Thon'rt welcome to it dearly.
For gold the merchant ploughs the main,
no farmer ploughs the manor;
Bnt glory ie the Lodger's prize,
The codger's wealth is honor.
The brave, poor sodger ne'er despise,
Nor count him as a stranger,
Remember, be's his country's stay,
In d4y and hoar o' danger.
The Captain of63' to his Men.
Come to the Held, beye; come!
Come at the call of the alining drum—
Como, boys, some!
Yonder's the foe to our country's fame,
Waiting to blot out her very name—
Where is the mart that would see her shame?
Come, boys, come
Form, my braye men, form !
Stand in order to " meet the storm"—
Form, men, form !
Sacred to no is our native land !
Shrivelled for aye be each traitor hand
Lifted to shatter so bright a band—
Form, men, form !
Charge, my soldiers, charge !
From the steep bill to the river's merge,
Charge! charge ! charge !
Think *four wives and mothers dear;
Think of the bopee that have led us here;
Think of the hearts that will give us cheer—
Charge, boy., charge!
Die wits me, boyo u dle !
There'c a place for all in you balm:Laced cky,
If me die, boys, die I
Think of the names that are shining bright,
Written In lettere of living light I
Rather than give up the sacred right,
LeVe die, hoy diet .
Gaiss sub Sittelvs.
PRIZE ESSAY ON THE CULTURE
AND MANAGEMENT OF
BY W. W. W. BOWIB, 884., OF PAWN OBOILOB'S
[The Publisher of the American Farmer having
offered a piece of silver plate of the value of 530
for the beet Essay on the above subject, the
Committee, oonsisting of Messrs. H. G. S. Key,
J. S. Hellman, Gee. W. Hughes, John D. Bow
ling, and W. C. Calvert, of Maryland, awarded
the prize for the following Essay.]
A Rica loam is the soil for tobacco plants.
The spot selected for a bed should be the south
side of a gentle elevation, as well protected as
possible by woods or shrubbery—a warm spot—
mellow ground, perfectly pulverized. After a
thorough burning of brush and tobacco stalks
mixed, dig deep, and continue to dig, rake, and
chop, until every clod, root, and stone be remov
ed ; then level and pulverize nicely with the
rake. Mix one gill of seed for every ten square
yards, with a quart or a half gallon of plaster or
sifted ashes to every half pint of seed, and sow
it regularly, in the same manner that gardeners
sow small seeds, only with a heavier hind. Roll
With a hand roller or tramp it with the feet. If
the bed be sown early, it ought to be covered
With brush free from leaves ; but it is not nec—
essary to cover them after the middle of March.
Tobacco beds may be sown at any time during
winter if the ground be not too wet or frozen.
The best time for sowing is from the 10th to the
20th of March, although it is safest to BOW at in
tervals, whenever the land is in fine order for
working. Never sow unless the land be in good
order, for the work will be thrown away if the
land be too moist, or be not perfectly prepared.
The beds must be kept free from grass or weeds,
until they are no longer needed, and the grass
must be picked out a sprig at a time by the fin—
gers. It is a tedious and troublesome operation,
therefore planters should be very careful not to
use any manures on their beds which have grass
seeds or weeds in them. After the plants are up
they should receive a slight top-dressing of ma
nure once a week, sown broadcast by the hand.
This manure should be composed of half a bushel
of unleashed ashes, (or 1 bushel burnt turf,) 1
bushel of fresh virgin woods earth, 1 gallon of
plaster, half a gallon of soot, 1 quart of salt
dissolved in 2 gallons of liquid from barn—yard,
and 4 lbs. of pulverized sulphur, the whole well
intermixed. Let a large quantity be got together
SATURDAY MORNING, MARCH 21, 1863.
early its the winter and put away in barrels for
, use when wanted. This and other such mixtures
have been found efficacious in arresting the
ravages of the fly,—both from the frequent
dusting of the plants and the increased vigor
which it imparts to them, thereby enabling the
plant the sooner to get Out of that tender state
in which the fly is most destructive to it. The
fly is a small black insect, somewhat like the
flea. and delights in cold, dry, harsh weather,
but disappearing with the mild showers and hot
suns of opening summer. If possible, the plants
should stand in the bed fromaati an inch to an
inch apart, and if they ere tod thick they must
be raked when they have generally become as
large as a dye or ten cent piece. The rake
proper for the purpose should be a small common
rake with iron teeth, 3 inches long, curved at I
the points; teeth flat, and three-eighths of an
inch wide, and set half an inch apart.
After culture, ;•c.—The soil best adapted to
the growth of tobacco is a light friable soil, or
what is commonly called a sandy loam, not. too
flat, but rolling undulating land—not liable to
drown in excessive rains. New land is far bet
ter than old. Ashes are decidedly superior to
any other fertilizer for tobacco. Theory and
practice unite in sustaining this assertion. The
latid intended for Whacco should be well ploughed
'in April, taking care to turn the turf completely
under, and subsoiling any portions that may be
very stiff and likely to hold water near the sur
face, and let the land be well harrowed directly
atter the breaking it up ; it ehould then be kept
clean, light, and well pulverized by occasional
working with cultivators and large harrows so
as not to disturb the turf beneath the surface.
When the plants are of good sire for transplant
ing, and the ground in good order for their
reception, the land, or so much as can be plant
ed in a "season," should be "scraped," which is
done by running parallel furrows with a small
seeding plough, (the Davis or Woods plough for
instance,) two and a half feet apart, and then
crossing these again at right angles, preserving
the same distance, which leaves the ground di
vided in checks or squares of two and a half or
three feet each. The hoes are then put to work
and the bill is formed by drawing the two front
angles of the square into the hollow or middle,
and then smoothed crt top and patted by one blow
of the hoe. The furrows should be run ehallow,
for the hills should be low and well levelled off
on the top, and, if possible, a slight depression
near the centre, so as to collect the water near
the plant. The first fine rain thereafter, the
plants ehould be removed from the seed,beds,
and one carefully planted in each hill. A brisk
man can plant 10,000 plants per day. The
smaller or weaker hands, with baskets filled gith
plants, precede the planters and drop the plants
on the hill. In drawing the plants from the bed,
and iu carrying them to the ground, great care
should be taken not to bruise or mash them.
They ought to be put in-baskets or in barrels, if
removed in carts, so that not many will be in a
heap together. The plants should never be
planted deeper than when they stood in the bed.
Planting is done by seizing the plants dropt on
the hill with the left band, while with one finger
of the right hand a bole is made in the centre of
the hill, and the root of the plant put in withit'ae
left, while the dirt is well closed about the roots
by pressing the forefinger and thumb of the right
hand on each side of the plent, eking care to
close the earth well about the bottom of the root.
If sticks are used to plant with, they should be
short, and the planter should be particular not
to make the holes too deep. The plants should
be very carefully planted, for if the roots aro put
in crooked and bent up, the plant may live, bet .
will never flourish, and perhaps, when too late
to replant, it will die, and then all the labor will
be of no avail. In three or four days it may be
weeded out, that is, the hoes are passed near the
plants, and the hard crust formed on the hills
pulled away, and the edges of the hill pulled
down in the furrows; this is easily done if per
formed soon after planting, hut if delayed, aud
the ground gets grassy, it will then be found a
very troublesome operation. After "weeding"
out, put a tablespoonful, or a gill if it be pre
ferred, of equal parts of plaster and ashes well
mixed, upon each plant. In a few days, say a
week or less time, run a small plough through it.
going twice in a row. This is a delicate opera
tion and requires a steady horse and a skillful
ploughman, for without great care the plants
will be knocked up or be killed by the working.
In a week after the tobacco cultivator or shovel
must be used. These implements are well made
by It. Sinclair, Jr. & Co., of Baltimore. Either
implement is valuable at this stage of the crop.
But once in a row is often enough for either
cultivator or shovel to pass. The crop can now
be made with their use by working tlte tobacco
once a week or ten days, for four or five weeks,
going each time across the former working. Any
grass growing near the root of the plants should
be pulled out by band. As soon as the tobacco
has become too large to work without injuring
the leaves by the swingle-tree, the hoes should
pass through it, drawing a little earth to the
plants when required, and level the furrows
Caused by the Cultivator and shovel. Let this
hoeing be well done, and the crop wants no
more working. Care should be taken to leave
the land as level as possible, for level culture is
most generally the beet. When it blossoms; the
best plants ought to be selected for steed t one
hundred plants being enough to save for seed to
sow a crop of 40,000 pounds. All the rest should
be "tole before they blossom—indeed, as soon
as the blossom is fairly formed. It should be
tspt down to the leaves that ere SIX inches long,
if early in the season, but if late, top still lower.
If the season be favorable, in two weeks after a
plant has been "topt" it will be fit for " cutting,"
yet it will not suffer by standing longer in the
field. From this stage of the crop until it is in
the house, it is a source of great solicitude and
vexation to the planter. He is fearful of storms,
of frost, and.worms, his worst enemy—they come
in crowds—" their name is Legion"—and the
.to be pulled off, and the "ground
leaves" are to be saved. The " suckers" ought to
be pulled off when they get three or four incites
long ; they spring out abundantly from each
leaf where it. joins the stalk. " Ground team"
are those leaves at the bottom of the plant which
become dry on the stalk, and ought to be gather.
ed early in the morning when they will not
2.71 e worms ought to be pulled off and killed as
fast as they appear, or they will soon destroy
the crop. Turkeys are of great assistance in
destroying these insects ; [ll4 eat them and kill
thousands which they do not eat, for it seems to
be a cherished amusement of the turkey to kill
worms on tobacco—they grow passionately fond
of it—they kill for the love of killing. There
are every year two "gluts," as they are called
by planters ; the first attacking the plants about
the time that they are one-third or half grown,
the other comes on when the tobacco is ready
for cutting. The first can easily be subdued
With a good supply of turkeys, and if then they
are effectually destroyed, the second glut will be
very easy to manage, for it is the opinion of ma
ny intelligent and experienced planters that the
greater portion of the first glut reappear the same
year as Horn /homers and breed myriads, When
the second army of worms makes its appearance,
the tobacco is generally so large that turkeys do
but little good. The only method then to destroy
them is to begin in time, start when they are
being hatched, and keep up a strict watch upon
them, going over the.whole field, plant by plant,
and breaking the eggs—killing such as may be
seen, and by constant attention during each
morning and evening to this business alone, with
the whole force of the farm, they may he pre
vented from doing much harm. When they dis
appear the secoed time, there is no more cause
of trouble. For a full entomological description
of the tobacco worm, and the easiest and most
effectual method of rendering them comparatively
harmless, I beg leave to refer the reader to a
letter written to J. S. Skinner, Esq , by the au
thor of this essay, and published in the Farmers'
Library in 1848. When the plant. begins to yel
low, it is time to put it away. It is cut off close
to the ground by turning up the bottom leaves
and striking with a tobacco knife, formed of an
old scythe—such knives as often are used for
cutting -corn. Let it lay on the ground for a
short time to "fall" or wilt, and then carry it to
the tobacco house, when it may be put away in
three different modes, by "pegging," "spearing,"
and "splicing. 4. Pegging' tobacco is the neatest
and best mode, yet the slowest. It is done by
driving little pege, about six inches long and
half au inch or less square, into the stalk about
four inches from the big end of the stalk; and
these pegs are driven in with a mallet, in a slant
ing direction, so as to hook on the sticks in the
house. IL is then put on a "horse," which, by a
rope fired to One corner, is pulled up in the
house, and there hung upon the sticks, which
are regulated at proper distances. A " tobacco
horse" is nothing more than three small sticks
nailed together so as to form a triangle, each
side being three or four feet long. Spearing is
the plan.' pursue, because it is neat enough and
decidedly the quickest plan. A rough block
with a hole morticed in it, and a little fork a
few inches from the hole for the tobacco stick to
rest upon, one end being in the hole, with a
spear on the other end of the stick, is all the
apparatus required. The plant is then with both
hands run over the epear, and thus strung upon
the stick, which when full is taken to the house
and hung up at once. There are " dart spears,"
likqthe Indian dart in form, and " round spears;"
either, however, will answer.
"Splitting" tobacco is admired by many who
Contend that it cures brighter, certainly quicker,
and less rtkely to house burn or injure from too
thick hanging: This mode is pursued easily by
simply splitting, with a knife made for the pur—
pose, the plant from the top to within a few in
ches or the bottom, before it. is cut down for
housing Care should be taken not to break the
leaves while splitting the stalk The knife for
splitting may he fully described by saying it is a
miniature spade. It can be easily made out of an
old scythe blade, inserted in a .cleft white oak
handle with its edges bevelled off to the blade,
so that, it acts as a wedge to the descending
knye. After the tobacco is split, cut. clown, and
carried to the house, it is straddled across the
sticks and hung up. The sticks are generally
supported by forks driven in she ground near the
heap of tobacco, for greater convenience to the
person putting on the plants,
Tobacco sleeks are small round sticks, or are
split out like laths, and are about one:inch square,
or one and a half inches square, usually larger
at one end then the ether, and they should be
eight or ten inches longer than the joists of the
tobacco house are wide apart. If the tobacco is
of good size, six or seven plants are enough on
a four—foot stick. When first hung up, the sticks
should be a foot or fifteen inches apart. As the
tobacco cures they may be pushed up closer.
After a house is filled, some planters put large
fires under it, as soon as it has turned yellow,
and by hot firm it is dried at once and does not
change color, unless to increase its brightness;
but "firing" gives a smoke, smell, and taste that
is therefore not much liked by buyers. The cost
of labor and loss of wood and the risk of losing
tobacco, and the house too, are great objections
well urged against firing. The better plan is to
have sufficient house room and hang it thin in
houses not too large, which have windows and
doors so as to admit light and dry air, and by
closing them in bad weather, exclude the rain
and dampness, which materially damage the to
bacco, besides injuring the color of it. After
becoming dry and well cured, the stem of the
leaf being free from sap, the first mild damp
spell of weather it will become soft and pliant,
and then be stript off the stalk. It is first pul
led or taken off the sticks and put in piles, then
the leaves are stript off and tied in bundles of
about one—fifth or sixth of a lb. in each. The
bundle is formed by wrapping a leaf around the
upper part of the handful of leaves, for about
four inches, and tucking the end in the middle
of the bundle, by way of confining it.
There ought, if the quality of the crop will
permit, to be four sorts of tobacco, "Fellow,"
"Bright," "Dull," and "Second." When the to
bacco is taken down, the "cullers" take each
plant and pull off the defective and trashy ground
and worm-eaten leaves that are next to the big
end of the stalk, and then throw the plant to the
next person, who stripe off all the bright leaves,
(and if there be any yellow leaves, he - lays them
nit one side until he has got enough to make a
bundle,) and throws the plant to the next, who
takes off all the rest, being the "dull;" and the
respective strippers, as they get enough leaves
in hand, tic up the bundles and thr . ow them sep
orate for convenience in bulking. Stripping
should never he done in drying, or harsh weather,
unless the tobacco is bulked up almost as him as
it is script. The beat plan is not to take down
more than you can conveniently tie up in a few
hours; but if the planter chooses he may take
down a large quantity atiii put it iu bulk, stalks
[VOL. XXIII.-NO. 48.-WHOLE NO. 1990.
and all, cover it with tobacco sticks, and it will
keep many days, so that, no matter how the
weather be, he can strip out of the bulk. How
ever, this is a very bad, wasteful way. Tobacco
should not be too moist, or "high" as it is term
ed, when put in the stalk bulks, or it will get
warm, the teaves stick to the stalk, get a bad
smell, and change color; besides, if left too long
it will rot To "bulk" tobacco requires judg
ment. and neatness. Two logs should be laid
parallel to each other about thirty inches apart,
and the space between them filled with sticks,
for the purpose of keeping the tobacco from the
dampness of the ground. The bundles are then
taken one at a time, spread out and smoothed
down, which is most conveniently done by put
ting it against the breast and stroking the leaves
downward smooth and straight with the right
hand. It is then passed two bundles at a time
to the man bulking. He takes them, lays them
down and presses them with hie hands; they are
laid two at a time in a straight line—the broad
part of the bundles slightly projecting over the
next two, and two rows of bundles are put in a
hulk, both rows carried on together, the heads
being on the outside and the tails just lapping
one over the other in regular succession. The
bulk, when carried up to a convenient height,
should hare a few stinks laid on the top to keep
it in place. It must often be examined, and if
getting warm, it ought to be immediately Chang•
ed and laid down in another bulk, of lees height,
and not pressed as it is laid down ; this is called
"wind-routing ;" being loose and open, it admits
the air between the rows of bundles, hence the
term. The next process in this troublesome but
beautiful crop is to • 'condition" it for .!packing."
The bright, yellow, and second, tobacco will con
dition best most generally in such bulks as I
have just described, but it is beet to hang up the
dull as soon almost as stript. If the bright or
seconds do not dry thoroughly in the bulks, that
should also be hung up in the house to become
well dried, To properly hang up tobacco to
condition, small sized sticks should be procured,
and each one nicely smoothed with the drawing
knife and kept for that purpose. After it has
once been perfectly dry either hanging up or in
bulks—so dry that the heads are easily knocked
off and the shoulders of the bundles crack upon
pressure like pipe-stems—it should be taken
down, or, if in bulks, removed the first soft giv
ing spell of weather, as soon as it is soft and
yielding enough, as it will become, to handle
without crumbling or breaking, and it must be put
in four, six, or eight row bulks of any convenient
length and height, the higher the better—laid
down close so that as little of the leaves or
shoulders as possible shall be exposed on the
outside of the bulks. When completed, put
sticks and logs of wood, &c. tto. on the top, so
as to weigh it down. Here it will keep sweet
and in nice order for packing at any time, no
matter what the weather may be; if it was
conditioned properly, it will not change a
particle while In the condition bulk. Mild,
soft, pleasant weather is the best to pack
tobacco in. The best tobacco prize is one known
as "Page's Prize," but was first invented by the
Rev. Mr. Aisquith, and improved afterwards by
Page, at the suggestions of practical planters.
It is very cheap, expeditious in its working, and
being easily taken down and put up, may with
convenience be move' from house to house.
As to the size of the hogsheads, the beet size
is the ultimatum of the law, forty inches in the
b e ad an d fifty two in the length. A..most any
wood will answer to saw into hogshead stuff,
the best, of course, is that which is strong but
weighs light. such as gum or beach, or birch or
poplar No hogshead ought to weigh over 100
lbs. and staves drawn out of red oak, or other
oaks, which make the best hogsheads, but are
too costly, ought not to weigh over 90 lbs.
Having now got our tobacco in good order, our
prize and hogsheads ready, the first mild day
that we can spare, we proceed to packing. Let
me here observe that while putting the tobacco
ill condition bulk, all the handles that were soft.
or had an ill smell, ought. to have been laid aside
to be made sweet and dry, by a few hours' ex—
posure to the sun. The same precaution must
he observed while packing In putting the to—
bacco in the hogshead for packing, a man gets
inside, shoes off, and lays one bundle at a time in
a circle, beginning in the middle, and each circle
is extended until the outer circle touches the
staves of the hogshead ; a single row of bundles
is then laid all round the edge on the heads of
the last circle, then across the hogshead in par
allel rows, the middle being always raised a lit
tle higher than the outer edge. This is called a
course, and theee courses are continued until the
hogshead be filled. The man who is packing
presses with his knees each bundle, in each
course, as he lays it, and often stands upon hie
feet and tramps heavily but cautiously, all round
and across, so as to get in as much as possible.
One receiving hogshead and two false hogsheads
five feet long, making fourteen feet four inches
of tobacco, will weigh from nine hundred to one
thousand pounds if well hand packed, and in
fine order. This concludes the almost ceaseless
round of labor that is necessary to prepare for
market this important staple of our country. It
will be seen that I have endeavored to be as ex—
plicit and plain as possible, and have studied
the greatest simplicity of style, supposing that
to be the most suitable to the subject under con
Planters in Maryland should grow less tobac
co, and thereby improve its condition and quali
ty. By that means they would require less
house-room, fewer hands, less land, and receive
more money for what was made. It is no un—
common ocourrence for planters to fall short say
15 or 20,000 pounds in a large crop, yet receive
more money for the residue than they got for the
additional 20,000 lbs. the year before. The
reason is, that not being pressed for room, it
cured better, and they managed it better
throughout its various stages, and consequently
got a greatly increased price for it. That too is
one reason why small crops invariably out-sell
large crops, by several dollars per 100 lbs.; the
other reason is, that small crops are rarely sub.
jot to drafts that must be met even if it be by
forced sales, Asa striking instance of the use
lessness of pursuing a practice of overcropping,
which too many of the largest planters are con
s.antly following to their great loss from year to
year, and to the detriment of their neighbors by
glutting the market with trash, I will mention a
; circumstance which. made an impression on me
the past year. Two gentlemen had each very
fin•- crops of tobacco, so equal in appearance
that there might be said to have been no differ
ence in the product per acre as it stood, just
when fit to top ; but one had 220,000 hills, a
small force in proportion to his elk soaroe
of room, having to haul some of it t ilea to a
neighbor's house. The other bad only 100,000,
plenty of room convenient to the tobacco ground,
and a large number of hands to manage it. The
latter gentleman made several thousand pounds
more than the first, and it will average a larger
sum per 100 lbs. taking the crop through The
reason is obvious, for in this orop every leaf was
saved, none lost by wortne, nor by "house burn
ing," (that is suffering, or even rotting from being
hung too thick,) nor loss by distant transporta
tion; nor by that unavoidable waste which is
the sure accompaniment to hurry and over-work
in the securing of any crop. To all these disad
vantages and losses the other crop was subjected.
One word more, by way of advice to the plant
ers, will not I hope he oonsidered out of place
here. Never draw a draft upon the tobacco which
you consign to your commission merchant. Fix a
value upon it yourselves, and refuse to take lees
for it than you think it worth, unless you are
necessitated to sell The chief rule of the buyers
of tobacco le, I believe, in fixing the price, not
founded upon the European demand, but the de
mands of the planters upon their merchants
through the batiks ; and by that mean, the buy
ers are constantly kept advised of the necessities
of the planters as individuals as well as a commu
nity, and they reduce the price of the article
according to the urgency of the wants of the
planters. I think it would be advisable, at least
a safe experiment, for a sufficient number of the
largest planters to establish an agency in some
European market, and charter a vessel annually
to take out their etcps. The agent. &lima be a
practical planter, and be also an American eiti.
ten. Nis agency should cease at the farthest in
five years, lest he become contaminated, and
commence speculation on his own hook, se is too
often the case with our commission merchants,
who both buy for the consumer and Bell for the
producer, yet maintain their integrity, although
no doubt it is sometinies inconvenient to the
eonseientione, who perhaps find it a stumbling.
block in their religious pathway.
I conclude with expressing the hope that this
humble essay may be favorably received by the
planters of Maryland ; and should any of the
suggestions it contains be found of value hereaf
ter to any individual, the highest gratification
will be experienced by the author; and he will
feel himself amply compensated for his labor and
trouble, by the delightful refection that he had
contributed a small share to the advancement of
the great planting interest, and thereby been of
some use to his countrymen.—American Farm
THE RIGHT TO SPEAK.
"It is the ancient and undoubted prerogative
of this people to canvass public measures and
the merits of public men. It is a 'home-bred
right," a fireside privilege. It hath ever been
enjoyed in every house, cottage and cabin in the
nation. It is not to be drawn into controversy.
It is as undoubted as the right of breathing the
air or walking on the earth. Belonging to the
private life as a right, it belongs to public life as
a duty, and it is the last duty which those whose
representative I am shall find me to abandon.
Aiming at all times to be courteous and temper—
ate in its use, except when the right itself is
questioned, I shall place myself on the extreme
boundary of my right, and bid defiance to any
arm that would move me from my ground.
" The high constitutional privilege I shall de—
fend and exercise, within this house, and in all
places; in time of peace, and at all times. Liv
ing I shall assert it ; and should I leave no other
inheritance to my children, by the blessing of
Gml I will leave them the inheritance of free
principles, and the example of a manly, indepen
dent and eanatitutiatted defense of them."—
LIBEL PROSECUTION WITHDRAWN —The prose
cution instituted by Col. Owen Jones, lath com—
mander of one of the renusyltanis Cargry
Regiments, against the publishers of the Bucks
County Intelligencer, for libel, and which was to
have been tried before the Montgomery County
Court last week, was withdrawn, the defendants.
having made a voluntary and unqualified retratt
Lion of the libellous accusation against Colonel
Jones, which consisted in the publication of an
article charging him with being engaged in an
" underground" mail arrangement fur forward
iog letters to persons in the rebel Staten. Of
course, there never was a word of truth in this
story. Like many others of a similar character
against prominent Democrats, it originated only
in political animosity.
• POLAND.—Those of our Statesmen who are
constantly preaching up sutinaation as the only
means of putting down the rebellion can see in
the history of Poland the result of that species
of warfare. Although nearly a century has
elapsed since that unfortunate country was sub
jugated and blotted out from the European map
by Russia, Austria and Prussia each taking a
slice of her territory, the ashen of revolution are
constantly smouldering and frequently break out
in fierce flames. At this very moment bellion
is raging in that ill•fated land, that r all
the power of the Russian government ell.
Let us guard against having a Pohni - 011 this
ser JOSEPH J. Lewis, Esq., of West Chester,
has been appointed by the President to be Com.
missioner of Internal Revenue for the United
States, in the place of Governor Bei:dwell, who
has been elected to Congress front his district in
Dip "Jolty," said an Arkansas .Tudge, 'you
kin go out and find a verdict. If you can't find
one of your own, get the one the last jury wed."
They returned a verdict of enielde in the ninth
IforA OOTEMPoRear inquires if the young ht
dies of the present day are fitted for wives. WO
think it a much more important question wheth—
er they are fitted for husbands.
THE SMALLEST BUSINESS this war has oo
°sainted is the speculation in nickel cents. Sat
there is no bueinese too small for emboss °sni
per cent creatures to engage In.