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urban thorium), Clamber 1?. 1853.
gepOrt of the Secretary of War.
The Report commences by stating that the au
'tied strength of the Army, as now posted, is
S2l—officers art.l men—but the'actual strength
Ity 10,417. Of this number 8 378 are employ
, the frontiers, or on the route to them ; and
Secretary derives pleasure from being utile to
:hat the measures taken for the protection orthe
i bitams of our tiontiers of late have been more
successful. The Indian depredations
corriparrr 'rely untrequent, and, except
I Yrrrorri and o,egort: have not attained mere
o ppocance. In the Indian country, ittimedi
the Mississippi, but two or rtriee col
',shave occurred ; and arrangements are now
~ gres3 for the establishments of new posts in
inip,,rlani positions, which will eriab , e the
raent to dispense with many unimportant
I a. 1,1 give additional secutity. In Texas, the
depredations have diminished in ftequency
importance ; and in a majority of cases, as
Npartrnetit ilaS been informed, the depreda
,!!!ke been corrititi ted by Indians [min rslexi•
1/Iy. Ott the Rio Grande, the protection
.1 habitants and the enforcement el the fulfil
..1 neaty stipulations on the part of :he Mei'.
r; ;vein ment,have inade it necessary to strength
.,r positions and increase the number of men.
Pugh a peace has been obtained an that iron.
re is no assurance that it will be observed
a swing foce be kept stationedipere, aid
tiny it is the intention of the Darttnetit
! an additional [owe. It is the opinion oldie
r'a , y that an army three times as great as
!, a a oula be ittip,acticable Po 10 guard ad
nor extended . frontier .as entirely to pie r
l'lsLart ~epredations. it is, thereaoe, the iii
ion to post the troops in large barites mt impot
noiats, arid reduce the number at small detach-
, o 5 ro• the e'er Ism and ivnio , v , ..
w,orant:bi lurnficaions, tot titre >eat*
e, bet been tetio.ed or 'Dually ledured
11. 4 1 they (b•peo•ded ',pll o,e
8ks)%1•111 I I 11t:It1v.‘"1011%
1, itlß caw, alkl Irma' hint
ma) be.ht•iwelotili %ward, the alma
11l TONns . afiti on the Pact
be seal at the eatliesl peitud pt s
Alter r peakti..4 at 1t 1114:1‘ cotivetliwg Ine'eds
E i,n ice:1:111,1MII:01011 nllrteß, 1 .
inwed Inat 4 60 . 0 reciiirs vr.II
•e:vice u 1 •he ei,stilti.; year. Tt is itioegi,t That
e e-eat ra eof pay- t: tail to d,ftit It 1:, while
rt.p ty meats oiler higher iewt.ids,lu ~-ecum
,rc.l:-Ce number of men. altho' it is of the ut
.. Ihey rhnuhl be ha,f,
.6 .:.0.11: , er of Me raid: and tile shuuid be zne.
Ly an exan - 11.,,0n of 11le statistics Of
e .irr• horn 1525 to lite commencerhtutt'ol the
'Mexico, Ilia the ntennze excep. r,f thr
e acluel b:length of the army' wars 18
tr: ilor trier that the averaws 1..5" by de
h heel) 121 per cent.; 0) dtsettArgeo. for
a•hl "titer thtuAe- : 7 per cent ; And hy d ed l l ,4
) 1 rr C ali .--()c that the to intleperd,n•
,;4„drays. by expiraitou ul t.ervice, ll.an or?
ot ute actunl sureut2th
termitiallori.of the W:if Nit•XiOgo. the
, 1 n. Intl (lye:arrt~_ rh t,
ceio ; the average loss 1.) de-einoo, 16 poi
by disc hAtges for debility anti outer causer , . 8
ten! ; by deaths 4 per to mit , or a total lota, iti
eA.,!eht of discharge by expiration of st.rvice, of
?et cent. A part of the desertion is due to the
covety cl goid ur Cshfunta. The Fame cause
;etxed the number of re-etdo..imeras. the p.m
'Ann during the , last five years was 17 per cent.,
'Ate during the three years immediately preceding
War wok Mexico, it was 25 per cent of the
mber of ,li-charges by expirathto of service.—
, (null the Sectotary traces to two pram' at
The d,sparry between the pay of lhe .soldier
va;Le of tit civil life.
Tire.ract .ttat lerrig tr t, rer vigre carries with ►t
rewa:d, either in increabed pay, rank or privi•
Boh these causes are the fruitful source pl
usioclion and desertion, and they prevent the re•
enligment of the most valuable men. Thus in an
000 men, which is about the actual
•. of our military establishment, as at present
or,; , a4zed, there will be annually, under exi•ting
;Iteunisiances of pay and service, 1.200 disohargei
expiration of enlistment ;726 discharges for dis
ii•e••; 330 deaths, and 1,4.0 des,. mons ; or
) , 11 vacancies annually, of which only 219 are
l'ed by re etili.tmen.s. The actual annual loss to
Army, to be supplied by the enlistment anew
m, will tlierelfire be 3 592 Or, in oilier words,
)re than one.ihitil of the Arirny must evety year
recruited and minsferted from thedepots to their
'llents In-view of themes-per:once!, the Score.
ry recommends the adoption of such measures as
prevent desertions and keep the ranks 101 l
lag such, ha saggeats-T.
An increase•of per cent. of the-present pay
= An additional incream., for each successive pe•
of Lvie )0a41., MI he ehall remain ilt
Provision forth l Wpmmotion to the Inwesfgrade
, aninissionedfriftgere suet ? oldie 11011.COMMid
eiled officers (;( ate army as may be found qualified
° I, and, by their conduct,'charadier, and services,
Iltrled to such advancement
I its also suggeaied that, the soldier, honorably
t •lttar;,.ed, who shall're•etolist wilbin one moth
, tm:l be entitled to $2 per mentb in ed.
. .. .. . ..
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• :. ,V.. t, Li i) (. _‘..- .
• ~ .
. ... -
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dit , iott to the ordinal! pay of his grade, for the fi rst
period of five years, and a further increase ot 51
per month for each successive period; and that
Itm4e now is 'he army who have served more
Mail one period of five years shall be entitled
to the provisions named above; and also, that
those who received a certificate, of merit for per.
vices in Mexico shall have the additional per
With a number of other recommendationscalcu
fated to render the army more efficient and capable
of enduring the hardships of active service, the Sec•
retary proceeds to speak of the necessity of encour
aging regularity and uniformity in the militia; and
in connection with this subject, he recommends
providing the militia with proper books for tactical
instructions The condition of the Military Acade
my t• favorably spoken of, arid the academic term
la, by the Boa;d, recommet.ded to be increased io
An interesting history of the various exploring
expeditions is given in the report ; but as the pro
minent features of each have been already publish
ed, we forbear a synopsis The document is quite
lengthy, but not, perhaps, beyond necessity; and as
a history of our army and it.; condition, will be read
with no stnall degree of interest.
Report of the Secretary of the Nary.
The flirt part-of the Secretary of the Navy's Ile
port k taken up w•nh tl,scribing the force engaged
et the several sqoatltotts —the Home Squadion, un
tier CollonodoreiNevente a he i‘letittert anew Squad
ron. Wider COMITIO imp ; the EISi In
dia Squadron untier Commottote Perry ; the Pa
chic Sp] 'duet wider Colotttorlttre Delany, and a
speet.tf Stiodilotit under Currimodore Sirubrick, in
the fkhettes ou thi Coast cif the Brekh Prover
Mention is made ot the failing of Dr Kane iuE
search ot Sir John Franklin, and in cornier:6o4
complaint is wade th tt certain rieW
chute of the Brit-h Admiralty give credit to offt
eels of lie 8.1.1-11 Navy for discoveries male by
the former Arneiican exiedition, under Lieut. De
Ha% en in the Arciie Seas.
The operations of the Naval Observatory, under
Lieut. 1%1.111ry, are spoke'. of in complonental
'elms. a1.,1 tr- results ot tas, v0;1( 1 0 B to
'ee the re,,tei.erita ices of vat roils European g,:tv
erements for scien.tfie purposes are spoken of as
I.k ey t prove tasrly beneficial to commerce and
C on,liendatory allusion in rt ade to letters front
Pion-spur Espy iespecring his theory of storms and
meternolooic..l otp‘ervation ; to a letter from
I,.eir. Chit , H. D.k vv.; ur reaard to the Nautical Al
iin.ack ; and to a later from Prof. Alexander,
k.uulttniz the scient.fic hives:lL:anon and expert
ep..n the vital:toter of alimentary s..bs , a- ees.
rite (hetes (.1 ',lent. Gillis tit Chili, of Lients. Hern•
don and Gdytion on the AMaxon, and of Lieus.Dal
gteeti inlet - Lola to improve ihe gunnery andordnance
of the Navy. are briefly commended. Allusion is
made to the contract 'mule wi li Robert L. S.eph.
ei.ens fur tie enlist' action for a war weamer, be
-hot and shell Nool, and the Secretary sa)s, that
having come to a proper undertearitlirut in regard to
Ire law authorizing the contract, lie shall proceed
%% ill it- t-txt rigor
Hie Nat ai Academy is highly commended for
It contains now 116 students, arid
he li r I.ir-, under the reautatiou col 1850, will
iadu in June next. Capt. S ribling, who has
-lye, ',tended the Academy most efficiently for
, i•ee )eat.. is FUCCeelleil by CommodoteGoldsho
etta. The Secretary says that he has visited the
y at Kt iery, Charlestown, New York,
P“iladeiptiiii, Wti luiugcon and Portsmouth, Vs.. arid
tie -.peaks totality rut their condmon. In reiVird to
the new 'Crty Dock, Bain and Railway at Pensaco•
li , the first te,t of which resulted id an unfavorable
report, he saves that he has consented to suspend
action until repairs can be made and a new test ap
plied at the expense of the contractors.
Reference is made to the law for erecting build
ipgs at the San Francisco Navy Yard, which work
%%las suspended in consequince of some climb:
about the title to the land, and the report states that
efforts aye making to perfect the title. When this
is dune, lie will proceeed to the execution of the
contract The sale of a portion t f land to the Brook
lyn Navy Yard, directed try an act of Congress, ii s
been pos . poned for reasons stated in 4 letter accon
pan) mg the report. The erection of a Navalestio.i.
fishmeal at New &leans, is recommtideil ; proviol•
pit it is ascertained that t fin bar will admit of the
approach of yes-els id war.
Further legislation in regard to the, Rules and
Regulations is recommended, and it is suggested
that there should be a law adjusting the differences
in regard to rank between the sea and civil officers
of the Navy.
An increase of the Navy is urgently advised. It
consists now of about seventy vessels of all class
es. many Of which are unfit for service and trot
worth 'repairing There are now forty vessels Mat
could tie brought into service in ninety clays, it
needed; there is no steamer in the Pacific or Afri•
can squadrons, only one or two suns in the Brazil
sqnadron, and we have on steamer of more Man
ten guns. The law only authorizes the erilis . lllelll
ull5OO men, which would not man a fleet of fift)
vessels. Our Navy is less Mare one-fifth Of those of
several European powers. The necessities fur a
large force are pointed odi much in detail. The
importance of steam in the. Navy is strongly dwelt
upon, and the report recommends the construction
of at 'Wirt six first-class steam' frigate propellers,
'Which may be built in our several yards. in addition
to the work now going on in them. The 'regales
Santee and Sabine, on the stocks at Kittery and N.
y:, since 1819, he recommends to have altered, to
conform with moitern iinprovements. such ahem
Boris now in progress with the old ship of the truer
Franklin. •ShOutil these recommendations tee adopt.
ed, our naval force will be matenially strengthened
by the addition of two first-class sailing frigates,
414 of seven first class means frigates, capable of
meowing !thy gone each.
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY >AT B
Derrumiunos moil ars -46;awrsa."
The repeated failure of our war steamers are re•
ferred to, aed the results of ata investigation, as to
their causes are said to be on file. Reference i.
made to the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, and
to the Marine Cot p 9.. and the reports horn each are
commended to Congresk
The present organization oldie Navy is descrits
ed as not only defective and unwise, but miechiev.
uus In its operation. The great evil is that neither
merit, nor service, nor gatlantry, nor capacity, but
mere seniority of commission regulates promotion
and pay. The diacreiionary power in the
dent or the Secretary in regard to promotions and
hirloughe is not euffieient, and their eflorte at dis.
criminntion are continually embarrassed. A Re-
tired List, on reduce I pay, for the infirm ; the dis
charge of the inefficient; Promotion regulated by
capacity and merit - and not mere seniority of corn•
mist.rion, arid pay to E ome event controlled 1 y sea
Pe r v ices, are reforms urgently needed and recorn
mended by Congress. '
Th'e Secretary throws out a few suggestions
touching Me " modifications" of our system in re
gard to seamen, with a view to encourage'' more'
prompt enlistments , ' to" indentify them more tho
roughly with the navy, and elevate their character
by a plan of rewards as well as punishments.
Wi , h a population approaching thirty millions,
full of enterprise and adventure, the difficulty of
pruCuring sailors to man our ships of war, more
particularly the difficulty of enlisting young men
of our own country, is not only attracting the alien•
lion of the public, but seriously embarrassing to the
Dspartntent to Mal lam even the small naval force
now allowed by law
IVlty du our merchant marine find comparative.
ly so hole dtElcuby in procuring seamen? IA it
because they caw more for them, encourage them
more, pay them better? While I ant far, very lar
from proimsing to relax (11,47191111 e, to toletu e in-
subortlwation, to tteoltate at atitntiostefing pono,ll
- Bore patii-hineto, to coiled the offender, and
deter the innouelii, I do propose some reform of
our try,tem, PO as to reward the meritorious, to ele-
vate the chat meter of our seamen, to give more re
”pectatolity , 0 their pursuit, to cause them to be
come indewified w IM, incorporated into, and a part
of the Navy tisfilt; In pay Mom better, to enemy-
age them to love,the fiai under which hey sail,
and whee they walk the deck of the -man-of-war 1.1
a toreigh port, and compare their condition with the
sailors of other Governments, to teel some pri le rn
being American sailors under American colors.
In the first place, I deem it indispensable that
some plan be adopted by which our seamen shall
become more distinctly and permanently a part of
the Navy, and attached to the service. Where a
ship of war• now returns from her three years'-
cruise, the officers are detached and granted leave
of absence for three months—with leave of absence
pay; but the seamen are peremptorily discharg
eV—dn.-connected fi cm the set vice If they have
been meritorious. 1 propose that on their return they
be granted an " honorable discharge," to be con
sidered'a leave of absence on pay, it within a cer
lain time they choose to re.eidist in the set vice ;
this would possess q two-fold virtue of fair and gen,
It may ako he well worthy .of consideratton
whether it would not be wise, ve:y generally, and
not beyond a reasonable limit, to increase the pay
of seamen in proportion to the number and contin•
on. el ui.ez , he makes, thereby creating an addi•ion
al incentive to remaining in the service A nother
change, indispensable to the prompt secntement of
the services if first-class seamen, is to pay them at
least as much as their skill, experience and charac
ter will command in the merchant service. It is
the Wort of Deli:win...nil to regulnue the pay of the
hondrents of niectionSra and laborers in the various
Navy Yards, so as to correspond wilt the pay ‘ of
sail liar employees in private establishments outside
of the Yards. Such, however, is not the case in
tri seamen—the appropriation will not per
mit i'. My opinion is, that the pry should he in
crearred—bot perhaps the"most practical and im
portant reforth to promote the :efficiency in the
corps of marines is the blending together a system
of iewards and pnnishrnents—to entourage the
meritorious and to subdue the disorderly.
The abolition of punishment by flogging.:winhoOt
legalizing some rubs.iinte, has already occupied the
attention' of Congress and the country, and -evere
ly tested the forbearance and ingenuity of officers
arid the character of our seamen. This subject has
engaged my earnest and anxious inquiry, and I
have no hesitation in expressing an opinion against
its iestoration. Having recently visited many of
chips in commission, conversed with the veteran
sailors, and listened to the narratives of officers
who have had the command- of lar4.e crews since
the law of 1850, my deeded conviction, concurred
in, Inn, by many officers who originally opposed ins
abolition,is that its res!dration would create discon
tent and desertion, and prove positively prejudicial
to the efficiency °Mat branch of the public sor
vice. Etnit at the same time I. Cannot too seriously
I u rge the policy of legalizing some substitute there
for. 11 the' good sailor does the Work of the indif
ferent, punish the la..tuttid by the forfeiture of pay,
not to the . Government, bot to the faithinl sailor,
and he will do-th 4 additional labor with additional
goodwill, and without a murmur. If the " deser
ter" leaves his shipmates, overtasked with increas
ed bdrdens by his detiartion, change the present
regulations; let' the 'deserter's pay be forfeited and
portioned artiono the crew, and not as crow, to
Instead of investing - the commander' of the - ship
with this resprmsibility, in cases involving eitheka
lorfeitore of pay or a discharge from the service,
let a commission of a aerial!, number of the officers
of the ship be detailed; and constitute a ' Court,
whose decision -shall be sribjeef to the' approving
power of the commanding officer. •
.Let This minor court of every ship, with the ap
proving, reversing, or mitigating pnciter of the ot
fic'er in conimatidi have plenary power to confine
the offerdere,' with s redaction of ration., with or
ADA:MD COUNTY, PA., BY E. OIikARA GOODRICH.
without pay. Empower the commander, with a
re-commendation of this commission, to discharge
offenders with forfeiture of pay. Let the accruing
frdm the forfeiture of pay by the imprisoned, the
discharged and the deserter, constitute a Merit
Fund," not to be distributed until the termination o
the cruise, and then be distributed according to the
judgment of this commission, based upon the con
duct of the crew, to those who are by them adjudg
ed on the homeward bound passage to have been
meritorious, fuithful and loyal to their flag. The
fund thus accruing Irom various sources, at the end
of a lorig cruise, would constitute a prize sufficient
to stimulate the crew to win a share by fidelity to
the end; and the forfeiture of pay, with confine
ment and reduction of rations, would diminish of
Report of the Department of the Interior
We are necessarily obliged- to confine ourselves
to a short abstract of the Report of Mr M'CLELLAND,
Secretary of the Interior It is an interesting State
paper, filled with important matter and valuable
suggestions. We briefly give a few prominent fea
During the year the stu'vey of the public lands
has been steadily prosecuted, large bodies of new
:ands brought into mat ket, the wants of the em igrant
fully met, and choice selections offered to the hardy
The Land System is nearly correct in principle.
Tis details need but little modification. During the
year, 9,819.411 acres have been surveyed. 10,363,-
801 acres brought into market, and 1,083,495 acres
sold. The number of land warrants isaued up to
the 30. h Sept last was 266,042, of which there were
then utuatanding 66,947.
The (mine area of the public domain is estimated
at 1 584 000 000 of acres. its purchase was eflec
ted at the (did of 14 .14 cents per acre, amounting
to $67,999,700. Add the Indian Reservation, valu
ed at $4.250 906, and adding the cost of selling
lands sold previous to June last, the entire cost ex
cluding surreytng, amounts to $88,994 . 015. The
whole amount accruing hum sales up to June 30,
1853, was 5142,283,478, being $53,299,465 Inure
than the cost of the whole. It is estimated that the
nein 11110Uql which will hare been realized for them,
is the sum of $331,181,369.
The policy of bringing the lands into market at
the earliest possible day is urged. Early attention
is called to the disposition of the mineral !ants of
California, the unsettled btisiness of the Pension
Office, and the frauds upon the same. The clerical
lurce of the Bureau of Patents needs to tie increas•
ed The Indians have been unusually peacefu
through the year. The present number in the uni
ted Siates is estimated at 400,000-19,000 East o
Postmaster General's Report.
The Postmaster General's Report is a long, able
and bus.ness-hke document. We make the fulluw-
the abstract :
The whole number of Post Offices in the United
Sloes at the close of the last official year, ending
June 30, 1853, was 23 320. Of this number 255 ate
01 the highest claw, the Postmasters of which are
of pointed by the President.
At the present dale, December 1, 1853, the total
Lumber of P t Offices is 22.588. During the past
year, commencing July 1, 1852, 1,898 Post offices
were established; .479 were discontinued, and
there were appointed to office during the said year,
besides the 1 898 Postmasters to' the newly estab
ltshed offices aforesaid, 3.000; 850 upon resigna
tion, 225 on death, 182 by change dente, 91 where
the Po•itmaster had moved away ; and 2 321 on the
removal of prior tocumberit ; being 8 567 Postinas
' revs appointed dining the year ending June 30,
AI the close of the fiscal year. ending on the 30:11
June last, there were in operation within the United
States, 6,692 mail routes. The aggregate length
was 217,743 mars, and 5,583 contractors employed
The annual transportation the mails on those
rnutes were 61 892.542 miles, and the annual cos,
thereot, St 595,961qbeing about seven cents two
mills per mile. Of these 61 892.542 miles of an
nual transportation, 12,986.765 miles are required
in he performed on railroads, at a cost of $1,801,-
821, being i bout twelve cents three mills per
mile ; 6 685 065 miles in steamboats, at a cost of
$632,368, being about nine cents four mills per
mile; 21 330 320 miles in caach-s, at a cost of
$1,206,958, being about five cents six mills per
rile; and 20 890.446 miles in modes riot specified,
at a cost of $1,055,313, being about five cents per
The following passage relating to Calitornia ex•
penes and revenue, shows the disadvantsges pe
culiar to the mail arrangements in that section:
Our local mail service 011 the Pacific is strong
ly marked by two peculiariites, especially in Cali
tornia—very high prices and great difficulty giv
-nig that people the mall facilities which they re
The present cost of transportation In steamboats
in California is abnift thirteen cents eight mills per
mile ; in coaches, about twenty cents per mile; and
in modes not epecified, about thirty lour cents six
mills per mile.
These mail prices, however, are not out of scale
with those of labor, living, and commodities genet-
ally, in that region of country.
The meet striking discrepancy appears on com
paring these prices which the government pays in
California with those which it receives for the saints
work—l mean the rates of postage. The one is
graduated to the highest malt of prices, and the oth
er to the lowest. row single letter of an ounce
the department receives six cents when prepaid,
and ten cents when unpaid, and ler each pound of
printed matter, which comprises a very large pro.
port ton of the contents of the 'milli, about five cents
a pound . ; the cost to the department for transporta
tion across the" Isthmus alone being twerkty-td6Cts.
a round. The necessar y cadisiqueoce rs that Iber
cost of mail service in Cahfopt;p•greatly exceeds
the revenue it yields.
The expenditures of the Deparimenl during the
last fiscal year, as stated by the duditor, amounted
to 87,982,756 59. •
The gross revenue of the year
amounted to 149.4724 70.
It apperas horn !he loiegoing
gross revenue of the year ending
short of the expenditures during t
of 82.042 ; 031 89.
The foregoing Jeficiercy ohm
by the sum of $53 504 48 due
the 30th June, 1853, under the
with Prussia, and increased by ti
res due to Great Britain up to
amounting to 5128,550 79. Thil
deficiency in the revenue of thel
$2.117 078 20
Tu supply the deficieney lest rinentlonell, the de
partment had at ins di4posal 51,571,632 57,1eaving
the further burn of i'545.4-15 63 to be provided by
Congress tur the eel vice of the year ending July 30,
The amount of postage stamp ' s sold during the
year ending June 30, 1852, was 1,3113,653 39, and
the sales timing the year ending June 30 , 11, 1853,
amounted to 51 629,262 12. leaving in the handsel
postmasters unsold 8108,605 71
During the quarter ending 30th Sept., 1853,'here
were ,sued to pubirnaAters for te
-464 350 note-size 3 cent sta ped,envelops,
8,116,250 letter-pa° " AI
150,000 " 6-cent "
181,050 official-Size 6.cent
amouriling in all to 5295 . 292 69
is estimated that the experali.ure, of the cur.
rent fiscal year will amoutit to 58,715,601.
The means of the deparlinebt applicable to the
expenditure, of the plesent are as eaoinated as 161-
Bslance on the auditor's books on the
Ist July, 1853. consitleted 44 tri.ti
mately available," • - 3104,726 46
Revenue ruin pt.-gages, foreign and
ittiehd, iticludottg sates eel tsrup4
and stamped etoriopes - 5 244.133 24
Letter earners' 'eery's, • • 120,000 00
;Miscellaneous recelph-, 40,0110 00
Annual oat upitatiotts ul corniensa
two NI mat; bervicus rendered the
Xpitropriticion to supply deficiencies
iii tins present year, 81,800,000
Deduct amount dravku to supply deft•
cteuctes fur the past year, 500,000
----81 ; 250,000 00
To the estimates ace added wee
, Ments rhOWing: -
5,7/6,601 00 • 1. The appropriations for the final
7,558 859 70 I yell eriJilis 30 h mane. 18 55,
made by former acts o f Lou.
Deficiency June 30, 1851, • 51,157,741 30 sz ii e l7e s, c u h f a a ,a p e e e r i n , ta:vt iu tt il a o n vr d ,: inde.
Of the deficiency above stated, the sum u 15545- finite character ,
445 63 belong to the fiscal year ended June 30,1 al collecting revenue from eus
-1853. and the remainder to the present year. torn 4 and compensenon .o Post!
The estimated expenditure« for the
year ending 30,h June, 1854, as al
ready stated, amount to .
The estimated means as alsove,
Thus we find the Cneap Postage System creating
. . .
an actual deficit ii the revenue of the Department $1,511,910 14
A:111112, and equipping the miaaa, 200,000 CD
of nearly $3,000,000. The last Cheap Postage Act Ctvil,za ion of lildiaits • - 10,000 00
gives Postmasters, in cortam cases, alt erra COin• Pen biu i,: p 358000 60
MidAltgl Ut 20 per cent , which costs about f i a',l a lt.terest on the public debt, - 3,145,806 00
million a year. The European Nlttil Service has
cost vr.tnensely more than the receipts amout.t to,
and the Cal,fornia SarV:,:e cost t
ihan Post Ages on newspapers, Under last
reduction, have fallen off $400,000. But what of all
this? Better the Ticasury should pay, than the da•
fusion of intelllgmce be euTe.icled.
Report from the Treasury.
The revision cl the Custom Duties is the subject
of first in , erest in the annual lieportot Mr. Guthrie.
His plan of revision is briefly and very clearly set
lorth. It is not complex in riot detail, though by
what ditfieulties it is likely to be surroonded in
practical execu.ion, th^ public will best judge atter
the publication of the Ii of free articles, and the
schedule of ordinary and extraordinary du ies The
whole system of levyinv, the revenue from imports
is to be reduced to three : '
1. The present Free List is to bo so enlarged as
to take ham the presort antival resources of the
Department sB,nuo 000.
2. The dutiable articles are all to be bronght an
der 25 per cent ad val,,rem, 4r 100 per cen. ad txr•
lorem. The arricles bearing the highest duty, and
all articles in the f,ee.list, to ;be specified ; all oth
ers to boar 25 per cent.
3 lie ad vilorcm s ystem to ba adhered to, un
less Congress slion:,l deem t wise to make an ex.
ception on favor 01 weedies ct i n Iron; with a view
to give more steadiness to th t great interest.
The modifican..n will redUee the revenue, first,
by the $8 000,000 un tuna fietdist. coil also 54,500,-
000 by 'lie readpiatment of the maximum and min
i•num dunes. Together, $ll 500 000, which it is
thought will still leave the Trea.my an in:ome 01
$45,000 000 a year from the 'Cir-tom Rouse
The modification of the Teiriff are not deigned
to go into effect owll after the Ist of January, 1855.
~Much of the Report is given to the Erbium/ties awl
brisinesa detail of. the Departicent. The total Im
Ilona and Exports of the Erica! year ending the 30:h
of June last, Were:
Lets Foreign Spools
Of which Specie
Nonce is taken of the atiranoement and condi.
tional purchase of property n New York City for
the Assay Mee. The De' rtment is to pay $53 0 ,
000 a year for Bank propett in Won s t r e e t, f or the
term et ten years, unless i e'Governmeritl should
determine to purchase it within two years, at
$530,000, and simple inter ‘liom the . beginning
Odle contract—the rents p al, to the meanwhile,
to be credited on account. i
The Secretary makes reference to, and, tempo
striate against, the claims of Abe tare officers ed the
Custom House of New York, to share in the pen
alties recovered on false or fraudulent entries. ilk
suggest* a resistance of the claims now in fitigetion,
to the Court of last resort, and also a change of the
a w on the subject as a guard against furthetabuset
The strict enforcement of the Sob-Treasury act
he has endeavored to adhere to Allusion lamed.
to the practice of his predecessors in purchasing
tilt Public Stocks, arid transfering the public feuds
through private Brokers and Agents, end in placing
large sums in their hands for this object. These
accounts were early closed by Mr. Guthrie, without
loss, except $lOO,OOO at Columbus, 0.110, and the
prac ice discontinued.
The operations of the Mint are favorably referred
to, and the unsettled indebtedness to the Govern
ment wider lbe credit systrui of revenue prior to
1842, made the aohject of a suitable suggestion foe
bringirg these old claims to early and final ad
justmaitt. They amount, Iron the commencement
of the Gnverintnent to tine adoption of the cash sys
tem, to over twenty one million.
from all sources
atemente that the
June 30, 11353,1e1l
le year by the sum
ild be diminished
ilts Coiled States to
tie quarterly balan-
Min same period,
ia would les% e toe
3 ear to stand at
For the tix al year ending 30th June last, the
purchase of the Public Stocks amounted to 86,394;
538. This swelled the actual expenditures of the
year to $53,025 818. Fur the cut rent fiscal year,
the revenues are calculated to be $56,572,079 ; the
ordinary expenditures, actual and contingent exclu.
Siva of the public debt, $46,203,325. During the
first quarter oldie year, arid to the 3d Dsemter
the puiclisses of the public debt am rated to
$9 670 121, or $l6 061 929 from l,t July, 1852, to
3,1 December, 1853, of which the present Secretary
her purchased $12,772,779 since 4th March last.
Estimate of Expenses of Government.
_ TRERRORY DEPARTRIENT Nov. 23, 1853.
SIR: Agreeably to the joint resolution of Congrete
of the 7 h January, 1818, I have the honor to *ratio
n:lt tut the ittfurtria.ion of the Huttfiti 01 Itepresen•
prittled estimates of the appropriation* pro
po-ed to be made for the fiscal year ending 30th
June, 1855 as follows, viz:—
Civil lo.t. foreign inldicourre, and miscellaneous,
includin.; the eapense ut collecting li.e revenue
horn paler of putil.c lands. public buildingP, ex
pense,' ut cougo.paod drficoon:y in revenue of
Post Office Depailment, • $lO 264,182 9U
Pien•ions, 853,500 00
lodiao Dep.:sr:meta, • • 1 009,162 50
Army imoper. . - • 10,151.458 95
academy, . . • 166.281 00
Foo.ticaoot.s, urdnatne, &c, - 1.734 334 00
Na%al est.ibtoptimenr, - 10 235 265 19
,se:ori wad sessice, • - 1,496 250 00
2. The existing approptialions not
required for 'lie service ul the
present year, and which may be
acyliel to the service of the year
ending 30 h June, !854, as fol.
Civil list, foreign it.tercouree, and
miscellaneous, - • -
Pensions, - .
Ind an dep4itment, • •
Arn y mope/. &c, • • •
Naval establistitneut, • •
There is also added to the estimates a statement
of the several appropriations which may be carried
to the Forplus fund, amounting to $690,497 16.
Accompanying the estimates, there are sundry
papers furnished by the several departments, con•
raining explanations in regard to them.
1 am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JAMES GUTHRIE, Secretary 01 Treasury.
Clz:r There is an o!d lady in Virginia, who be
lieves n to be Bible doctrine that, for seven years
before the end of ilie world, no children are to be
born . and that gives her comfort, at every fresh
birth that she hears of, she says to herself, " Well,
the seven years at least have riot began."
()'- No Woman ever loved to the full extent of
the passion, who did nut venerate where she los.
ed, and who dui feel humbled, (deligided in that
humility) by her exaggerated and everweeninges.
urria'e of the superiolity of the object of her wor
ship. What S.ate could fall, what liberty decay,
if the zeal of man's noisy patriotism was as pure is
the silent loyalty of woinati's love ;
Dun't attempt too much. Knives that con
( in 90 blades, 4 cork screws, and a bootjack, am
eery seldom brought into action; and for this tea
lon, in attempting too much they have become so
cicm.y arid ponderous that men of small patience
can't " get the hang" of them.
office Department for mail aer
CO* Gentitiry la neither in birth, weihh, Manner
o faahlon--but in mind. A high erase of honor--
a determination never to take a mean advaatiro
of another—an adherence to troth—delicacy and
politeness towards those, with whom we have deal•
ings. are the ( emendsl characteria sea of a gentle-
At, A, man whom Dr. Johnson rsprove4** - 101-
lowing a useless and demoralizing bosinese,said
In excuse, " Ton know, Doctor, that 1 Masi live."
To this the brave old h4ter of every thing mean and
hateful, coolly replied, that "be did not see the
lesneesssl, of the,"
$2. 355 243 06
664 572 95
765 309 34
1,983 157 55
981 843 51
$6 865 126 41