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NoAT!' pRANCH CANAL
ByteUs on 2popoo tow; for 1852, •
Interest as same one year;
Dedact lulls for 1853, on 350,000 tons. : 4110,4100
Interest on sinne,One year,
Deduct tons. 41)0:1X00 loos for 1 8 5$,
Interest on same one year,
Deduct tolls, 450;000' tont for 1855,
Balance rive Nov. 11555, 21.399
By toils on l6fiff,o6ff G.ns for the year IRSt 470,000
To balance doe Cominonweatth in Iftss,
with one year's interest ow U 4,399,
One year interest„
Toth on 550,000 tons-coal for die year 1857, 517,000
bitereat tocsins year,
Tolls on 575,000 tong, fur (SU,
Interest °De year,
To)la on 600,000 torus for the ycar 1859, 564,000
Interest one year,
Tolls on 625.000 tons in 1860,
interest one year,
Tolls on 700,000 tons for 1061,
Interest one year,
Balance due Nnv.
AO tolls for 750,000'tons for 1862,
Interest one year,
Add tons for 1100,809 tons . for 1863,
Interest one year,
COST or COMPLETION AND PRESENT CONDITION OT
'TH P. WORE.
An experienced engineer,
(Wm. B. Foster,) who
had charger of this late for four earsbefore the
work wassupeltdmi, and who intbftAuently super
vised it as one of the Canal ComrniStioners of the
State for three years more, was employed in the
spring of 1847, by some public spirited individuals
of the northern
. counties, to re-survey the whole
line, with a view to report upon its present condi
tion and probable cost of a substantial and econom
ical completion ; such as _consisted with the less
ambitious views of private enteprize. Re gives
the following as the result of a careful examina
i dam across she Chemung at Athens,
2 dams across the Susquehanna,
Total estimated cost of dams, - 122,019
0 aqueducts. 9of whkit are partly built, 109,718
27 locks and 2 guard gates; 3 of t e former
completed, some work done on 6 others, 148,625
31 culverts, ranging from 2to 24 feet span, 35,220
2 towing path bridges over Chemung. 11,028
1 over run at Towanda, 500
84 road and farm bridges over the ca
nal. 24 either finished or partly so, 27.690
Total estimated cost of bridges, - 39,128
27 I - -ck-houses, 13,500
19 wasie wiers,s of which are partly finished 10,000
18 miter ways around locks, , 5,400
Making roads, where destroyed by canal, 8,000
Making fence, 15,000 rods, - 11,700
Removing buildings from he line of canal, 2,400
gectionp comprising excavations of anti
and rocks. embankments, vertical and
slope walls, itning, piddling, &e,
Total estimated eost of completing 1ine,31,108.037
ftiregdng estimate euntempfates a 'perms.
!tent anti useful work, dispensing with all ornament
and only providing for what is necessary to make
St regard to the present condition of the well,
he states that be finds it in a remarkable state of
preservation, The walls and embankments stand
firmly, and the only injury the work has sustained
Joy its-suspension, consists in the natural decay of
those wooden portions of the loose, waste weirs
and bridges which were wholly nr in part complet
eil; and at :hree points on the line, where bind
slides hare broken from the mountain sides, and
partially filled the worst This latter source, of
difficulty foes not exist to near as great an extent
as he had apprehended; and makes but a small
lie* in the estimated amount of work required to
complete the fine: The points at which these
sluice are likelrtwoccar ant a* now well devel
opedand by proper care in construction, the line
2 be se arranged as to avoid, for the future, all
interrtiptirm• or difficulty %inn this cane. The 10t...11i0n.
t...Ilion. of this mild is upon a bier level, and unlike
altruist all tither canals in Pennsylvania, 'trill not
be liable to injury . from the periodical floods iii the
11 ' 1 :er. Oh thi 6 Met be witapined particularly with
rlllerence to the Hood of ,March. 1846, which had
proved aollestructive )40119. the Delaware, .gatapte
banns, and North and West branch divisions of the
Stare canals; and fouhd, with' the exception of the
feedt,irfuvets, that this, the. greatest Hood which
taiocAortetifor %inns *SWUM*• ii ceritrey, hued not
in general above' the pkeie of noel bot
tom; and in. no single instance bad Tie - Witter' pars.
ed over fifetairlie.ok the carpi) where they were
Jrnius4 to,their litlf height. I Teel, says Mr. Foster,
eritink.cppadenCe in. the epinitin, that if this canal
Enisheitapit icr wie, it VIF linitt not hove
kwinktineil damage, by this extraordinary food in
Iliestimer t iothe amount, ofr hundred dollars,
ihrogght sakeetire length. an impooant
.teetia refoomemt o. the Tellico( this isniertv,enKin.
While Ate &I aware thsision ; 'sixty miles Img ? was
damaged to the amount twenty-eight.thousand
theStamomearannaramal, 'Welchem, eraejumaLreit
and stighty.retr - emilea r to near- laxly. =ilmontand, and
era bandiedirtikis'of this Eastern. pottiest of the
wittiwfisie,titthe tueitunteflttilly thou:aura (Whirs,
here we bare a line of ninety - our miles, allocated
aretAtiefaseratstneuelotte ashilicaeeunr , tretc.the
Ifigheitt thickfilettitam tmeoefentirishitt theparbir4-
otkeritripfatit Eictiteliretimice totheflam'l of
eßr a PLe t i44., graiietr.,firtfal *reit *if be
jettlecrut the present view 'Melanin to be oc
cupied have nearly all been released to the Cern-
Illenweldth, for the use and occupancy of a canal.
to bs constructed by or under the authority of the
itisteof...Piemsylvania. This item o ft en a Testi-
Aims armicastly one in the constriktican of public
wvocka,isseadyoot of thequestiouso far asconcerus
this wo r k. The few remaining cases" where re
-learies were not obtained, present no - serious °bate
.l6lll6 thir way of its Pmgrees; m • thiS desire of
lensed**, ',weenie! 'horde-along the tine-of
4ialfdifttentitt felmemtleici• for its -- vienpletion,
we n t' tve iiktfrteles embarrassment-or
ditllchliyoveed "be -apt &herb ed frotieth is source.
Tun qiittmon or DAMAGES.
C n the other hand, if therir'eAßeliblite.bleette;;.
Meted, and that speedily, this kietation ordiunages
bee:ernes one of great tempera. ' , ..iltis t xipaiti t tlele t i
spirit of liberality evinced by of the
' thin valley through which this canal lot:tiled, in
surrendering without reserve the freerigia of
to the Conamonvveabh, and allowing their fame . to bedi.ideal t and beaeet - t dot beitabi- lends atktlit-'4 l "_
river to„bel cut up, Wiese be -..mekittKii*Miellef*
Mode by the Legislature. For toiviiiirds of seven
years they have forborne to press teeir•cliiiniiiipois
gits.Cominonwealth for specific dariteiges,f-Arnits(
be admitted that in des tes t y-et,
been patient and unobtrusive. At-lbeptititent.Siets ,
item, however, numerous petitioner and WOO. fee
-seeh damages have been pre-entild
along the North Branch of the Seriquehmrra f pethe
unfinished portion of the line. ;Every principle of
justice and good ,faith requireii. that *lee I:10m
should be met; in this light, they caintbilieriesist
&l. To:those citizens, the ceftal is.notinerely a
useless and unsightly ditch. Itl44.fell' ro.risa.Pvb•
be roads, it has divided fiumet end faits buildings;
rt has absorbed thousandeof*Marcif soh site land
as the State possesses; - • ,
They consented to this. in vie* of.the many
promised advantages wich wilitlii . reindi limo being
contiguous to a great chain of inland 141040019.--
t NMI' upon, the plainest principles of common right
and common justice ( eitherthe State must eemplete
this work and car. y out its original' zontiact, or it
most compensate those of citizens whose property
it has destroyek and whose' privileges instead of
extending, it has-abridged. The coninzinee • have
no data from which to estimate with' preeisioti, the
amount of eaMages to which the Conijiteertresdth
may thus become liable. .
From the best light we can obtain,,,tliostsafaine
would scarcely tall Awn of half .thet *air which is
required to filish the canal. Surely these'. deo be
no hesitation %chic+ of these alternatives ibe LiegOir :
lature should adopt. By resuming and en . inpleting:
.tile work in question, we avoid all claims fer„tilm,
ages; we render our facilities for commmutileinitan
more, complete; we extend their benefits to regions
no* wholly or partially secluded, and thus remove
the inequalities of advantages, produchig harmony
and kind feeling between different sections of the
23 5 ;000
2.4 1 2 706
I.—Thc North Eranell Canal was one 2( (he eadiebt
projected improvements of the Stite.
If antiquity may be allowed weight, in consider
ing a projected public improvement, the friends of
the North Branch canal might urge, that the work
wakone of the first to which the attention of the
people of Pennsylvania and New York wwskiiirected.
The union of the valley of the BusquehrriTia with
the great western Lakes—the opening nra conve
nient avenue for exchanging the rich mtheral pro
&scums of the two States—entered into the earliest
plans of internal improvement, vbich enligetened
enterprize conceived in this country. It was shad
owed forth in the project of Dr. Smith and the sci
entific Rittenhouse, as early as 1762. The public
spirited Duane gives 0 a prominent place in his
pamphlet on "Roads and Water Transportation,"
published in 1810; and points out the "practicabil
ity of a canal between the head of Seneca lake and
the Tioga river." In 1811 and 'l2, the measure was
discussed before the. Legislature of Penisylvania,
and , continued to in public favor until 1 0 ;7; when
Me's'srs. Brooke a d T
authorities of the tate to explore the route. Theserezuyliny, were tby the
gentlemen, it that t inc. - actually surveyed and de
fined, at the expense? of Pennsylvania. tire eery line
upon which the Sted4of New York subsequently eon
structed the Chemung canal! All: this, was before
the discovery that anthracite coal was the cheapist
and best fuel in the world: and when the trade lin
New York, gypsum and salt, was comparatively,ln
3 806 41R
c . 4,739.804
B. It has always been a fzuorerl project of the State
of New York—ana why
In 1828, Governor Clinton, in his annual message
to the New York Legislature, refers cursorily to the
project of uniting the faes of that State with the
valley of the Susquehanna; but in 1828, he enfor
ces its propriety in the' most emphatic terms. Al.
ter enlarging upon the necessity of some substitute
for wood for - fuel—the expense of whichy in places
of concentrated population, he states, had even at
that early day become "enormous"—be points out
expressly the valleys of the
go, as " proper avenues for reaching the coal fields
of Pennsylvania ;" and characterizes them as "great
projects of communication. which ought to receive
the most favorable notice" of the legislative body
he was addressing. All the subsequent discussions
in the New York Legislature upon the subject of
the Chewing and Chenango canals—all the plans
and surveys of Inc canal board of that State, in
reference to these works, had in view a supply of
coal from Pennsylvania, by way of the North
Branch of the Susquehanna. In 1839, an extension
or the Chemung renal to the Pennsylvania line.
connecting with' the North Branch improvement,
was actually, surveyed and located by the million
ties of New York. The next year, Governor Se
ward of that State, in a communication to the Leg.
/stature, remarks, that "the laws authorizing these
lateral canals, looked forward to tkeieeennedims troth
similar improvements beyond the State." " This
connection," be continues, " must eventually take
place; their constntetion will then be vindicated, not
only by the promotion , of the rneral prroperity, but
also by their fiheeed contributions to the !while treas.
tery." Again, in his annual message of the next
year, 1841, among the many causes for public grat
ulation, he enumerates the facts.- that "the iron
from the banks of the Au Sable, hi exchanged for
the salt of Onondaga ; and the gypsum of Madison
and Cayuga fertilizes the fair fields of Pennsylva
nia; while the foal of that Stole is mooing to supply
the plate of the owneklering forests of hie nest." to
the month of May, subsequent to this message, the
work on the North Branch was suspended.
The Chemung canal, from the Seneca lake to the
Chemung river at Elmira, twentrthseemiles, was
commenced in 1830, and cost, including the late
icemiscructiowof the locks, six hundred and forg
one thousarrd six hundred dollars. The Chenango
canal. from the Susquehanna river at Binghamton.
toth Erie Canal at Utica, ninetrseven miles, cost
two million filar hundred - and seventeen thousand
dollars. These works ;eking their whole period
of operation, have not as yet paid expenses and re
pairs. Nor will they do so, until connected with
the North Branch line. Now, if that Tilled states
man, De Witt Clinton, urged these two works tote
undertaken; and if, as must be manifest, they Were
undertaken by the great State of New York, main
ly for the Torpose of the coal trade. why shall Penn
sylvania Ismitate about the qoatpletion of her single
half finished line, whit* trade and ton
nage to both t Can any one doubt,. that it must
becnme eminently productive!
The people In the upper reglons:or,thi ettagne
henna, think the abstract question as to the._ merits
of this improvement, was settled-many. Teats ago.
To them' it waft ungrateful task to vindicate now,
the original piumietrof an andertaking-more than
half completed; and which, in its present condition
mom, for its hundred milei in. length. a fert i ilti
dividing. their .:fields, destroying. their, public
'vuads, while they continue to he taxed to pay interest
oss eipendittiteorhich ets thus proved &terse!
.C.-drise North Broach -cowl wilijorna a part 4. the
longest chain iThhiierrnatiettion in the model t.
are - tradaittaedlr eurroctivad.josfifpitteinatatjl
lolkindik. Ther ' Xiietcadahofehlown,Tfork s .lia - i
i lVii - rilikk7eXle/tdclrarff ,P:rturs
fairs'un thee...l4ld; the" ivnaequoii valley on. the
WOW- -1' tilicattided the highlands that settarafe
it-frOtn the Ontario 'aileron • the - north; and frtpn
the - Susquehanna on the South.
Oswego rites. the outlet of fifteen igkes,is the
only stream which penetrates the northern moon=
tain barrier; it breilrit over this at an elevation of
one hondreilitst above -lake Ontario. The South
ern range is not intersected by-i Single important
stream: These highlands; Are neatly all of the
'same althtidcfarod have dontetons depressions.--
Thelirdest and moerreutarkable 'lone inithe, south
•ern.nmgii is that la whieb the Cbeinang tranal.is
lotiatedii between - Senses lake and.l.3bentung river.
The ittmtitittere;islour htindeed:and sixty-fivefeet
From the Cayugalake to Hodson river, the low
ealdeineasion is the Oriskany valley, now occupied
by theChenango canal. This ridge bounding. as
we•lrave said, the long valley on the math, Walesa
eirittlitty in an undulating line. lilisftwinati3
geoehilli•from twelve to fourteen milst A dianint
from theHrit canal p is far west of OnanderaszAt
the Pori Wilson 'smonnit, the rise is almoir
aildttitalitdhstinmeof free miles. Troth
the surigelvre 'are prrsuingi sweeps in
..tititdirectilitioindd becomes the southern'hoppdary
of thitilki6iratile4 the Seneca, the Cayuga,alietbe
.1*:'1 8 **1 111 0 1 a river, aid nearly all the streams
flowi*Litilesit, firm near theasummit of the ridge
fte WASllibeett '•OeologisiCirould term tie-whole
cannily - betiveen this sitaiiiiit and the_Susque
henna valtey, bilde /and—inn - 1i by the actinetirsia
,ter, thrriugh successive aros, into numeiviturVa
and nearly parallel ravings--having, einr 11f; a
course ttotth-east and sttilltirest'.• Thsteglroshese
ravines, or valleys, Bow the rivers of the -country
with a - gentle current on *belt tray to die. Atlantic,
through . the *alley of the Susquehanna. Nu one .
viewing this part of the State of New York, and
tracing the numerous fertile valleys wlttflifebeh
northwardlyfrom that of.the SusquebrmwW, -- tritt
terminals neat...lung navigable rivers, tirdittbirt a
few miles of the Erie canal—pan alvizid • being
strongly impressed with the simplicity and b;riiity
of the geological structure of the, country, and the
numerous facilities for internal trade.
No_rilrer of tbe Atlantic states, and none but the
Mississippi in America, can bear any compariatin
with this noble stream. Its Nonfarm btatiac ... hes„.es
we have seen, penetrate the State of New-_,York
through its very centre, to within a few miles of
the great-Erie cainilLthey run into the region of
.bikeir;_tiind touch the sources of the
:Debilitate; Its via= tributaries, itifermlible
*Lib the foomainiiirthe Ohio. ln.tbe Wirihrefahe
lt o ako o , (so justly the pride of Niw Yorke)- - thete
latsornprebended an area of fourteen thousand six
biindretV square miles.' The Delaware basin-ex
ceed* ,ittis, by about one thousand square miles,:—
Ting of the Sttsqnehanna, contains upwards of
twenty thousand; even if we consider it as termi
riating at tide water. But it has been very proper.
ly said, that this is a singular caprice of custom.
"-In nature, what is known ar Chesapeake bay, is
merely a continuation of the Susquehanna; and. in
strictness, James river, York river, Bappahannoc
river,pnd the Potomac, are its tributitielt.t• In this
view of the subject, the great basin' drained by its
waters, comprises as area of at least sixty-fire
thousand square miles' including a portion of the'
richest lands, and the most populous, and best rulti
rated in the United Stales. The present resources,
and productive capabilities of this great, fruitful
and interest n; region, defy calculation. There is coal
and iron a long. its shores in Pennsylvania sufficient u.
supply all America! And yet, there are professed
statesmen amongst us, who cannot comprehend the
importance of uniting this magnificent region, and
the immense confluenee of navigable waters we
have described. with the great inland seas of the
north, and the nourishing toiletry on their borders !
Ent let as look at "the vailt vet-wtirk of canal.,
and railways in each State," to he be united. A
resort to the map will aid the reader. Havre de
Grace, on Chesapeake Bay:—At this point commen
ces the Susquehanna, or Tide Water canal, which
extends to Columbia on the Susquehanna nver. •
distance of forty-five miles. Here it unites with
the central division of the Pennsylvania canal,
which continues up the-river to Duncan's Island.—
At this place it branches off; up the Juniata to the
Ohio river, at Pittsburg, in one direction, and as
tends the valley of she Susquehanna in another.—
The latter is the route we are considering. A wide,
well constructed canal is completed, and, in opera.
tion along the Susquehanna to Pittston, at the
mouth of the Lackawanna. From Pittston to the
northern boundary line of Pennsylvania, as we
have before stated, the canal is more than two thirds
finished. Thence to Elmira, seventeen miles—also
unfinished, which will be unquestionably be provi
ded for, either by the State of New York, or by in
dividual enterprize, as soon as the wbrk on the
North Branch of the Susquehanna shall be resum
ed. At Elmira. we reach the Chemung canal, con
strutted by the State of New York, to the head of
the Seneca lake. Here this beautiful lake, "narrow,
deep and never frozen, is navigated by steamboats
at all seasons," down to the out-let at Geneva.—
Thence partly through the out-let of the lake, and
partly by a State improvement, we reach Molllcau •
ma onlhe Erie canal. Thus, it will be perceived
—when the section between Pittston and glrnira is
completed (and the work is already more than half
done)—" there will be through the heart of the taw
weal Slates of Penstrylvanta avid New York, an no.
broken line of internal navigation—uniting Chesa
peake bay. lake Erie, lake Ontario, take Champlain
and the Hudson Ricer
Now, let us trace again the line we have pointed
out, and mark in detail, is numerous confections
and inlets, and the immense space over *lnch they
spread, like arteries in the human frame, diffusing
life and energy throrighoat a ereat and prosperous
country. From Havre de Grace dp the valley of
the - Susquehanna, to the northern boundary line of
Pennsylvania, is about three hundred miles. From
this, through the Seneca lake and by fbe Erie canal
to Buffalo, two hundred iltuf sixty more—making in
round numbers, this line of communication between
Chesapeake bay and lake Erie, Sift ktondred and
sixty miles. Intersecting' and !atm,. tO this line,
on our way northward from the bay, we have, first,
at Colombia, the railway. to Philadelphia, eighty
one miles in length. Then, at Middletown, we find
the Union canal connected with the Schuylkill riv
er at Reading, eighty-two 'miles. From Reading.
the Schuylkill navigation, extending smile sixty
Miles farther, makes the line complete from the
Susquehanna river to 4'hiladetphia. TO resume
our route; from Middletown. up the valley, of the
Susquehanna, we next have. at Harrisburg, the rail
way through a part of the fine old country of Lan
caster, to the city of Lancaster, thirty-five
Crossing to the other side of the Susquehanna
from Harrisburg, is the Cumberland Valley railway
(partly finished) to Chambersburg, fifty miles.—
Still upward, at Duncan's island, is the line extend
ing up the Juniata, and across the Allegheny to
Pittsburg, two hundred and fifiyeight miles. Here
the Pennsylvania railroad alto takes the Fame di
rectiOn. At Northoruberladd diverges the West
Branch canal, running almost to the geographical
centre of the State, seventy-three miles. At
Wilkesbarre, we meet with the works of the Lehigh
Navigation company, which extends to the D la-
ware river at Easton, and make the chain perfect
from Wilkesbarre, on the North Branch of the Sus
quehanna. to the city of Miladelphia; one hundred
and fifty-two miles. At Teiwanda,bradford county,
* railroad near twenty Miles in length, penetrates
a rich bituminous coal field, with extensive
beds of iron ore intermingled, like those at Pitts
burg. At the Stitt line, »bore Athens, Crossing
the fine of navigation we .have been • pursuing, is
the New York and Erie railway, four temdred and
forty-six miles. This • peintis about equidistant
'between the two extremiliem of that great work—
Dunkirk, on Lake Erie, add Tappan bityvoirr Hod
ion river. •
At Elmira there is a connection be canal and rail
way, with the -bitutninints coal fields of 'Plop,
county, Pentsylvania,llly miles. From Elmira.
our route proceeds by the Chemung cabal, (whiCh
shonld be enlarged accommodate the immense
trade that watcritred throne, it when the remain
' der of the line ii'vompleterl) to the SeneKa lake:
twenty-three This deejlotifrine lake stretch
es some roety through - a bealitiful country,
.requisite •difectitin ;'anti boats are
easrty trateilipitel tipan - ieblis Mittel at Geneva ;
thencepardp 'brines thiwoinfei asid partly:through
an artificiii , reiiii.:(wisidh , -Isicatincatifittected with
Protteldesittimnik to= - Albanyilt two liindred and
-- eve miles--4n Buffalo, one •Irendred - and , fifty-nine.
These two distances,.-make -- up' the. entire
line-of the Erie Canal, connecting - lake Erie anal
. the - Hedsont and may - also be embraced in the later
al and minute survey.we are taking. Between Ai
banji and'Beffelo (tiotoverlooking the fact that Al
bany is suited to Boston by an exeellent line of rail
ways) we first tneetmine miles anmAlbany e sin our
way northward. ilia Champlain canal, extending to
White Nall, on lake Champlain. seventy-sis mites
Thee at Rome. the-Black River canal unites with
theErie—ranning eigluy.six miles intorhe north
ern interior of 'Jew Y6rk. At Syracuse, the Os
wego canal- diverges to. lake-Ontuio..,thirty-six
-mites.- Passing Manama.. the point -where the
elate h i . C hellaPesktilsTrit" w i,., it s IhPlj_iP canal next, at Rochester, nd iltessettesee rt miry ca-
nal, extending to Olean Point. on , the Allegheny
river, one hundred and twenty-tato: . miles. When
veil at take Brie. the most eldlesa
titin of e 'great northern:lnkno fa hefore us.l We
eab rtta itte . ocean throtigh the Oultof Stadia
re ce. or proceetEinhi t ornOkielhilLof :Mexico.
, Where, in all the w4i world beside, can such an
eithibition be found? Mire. a country . so inter
laced With such an extent of satifiCial internal nav
The Barth. Branch canal fit, only unfinished
link, that too, near /he mitre of this great chain of
improvement; which passes two of the finest an
thracite and bituminous coal regions in the Udion,
and through, also, large deposits of gypsum and
Mite. The rich salt springs of New 'York are by
its side, and its whole distance is through a thick
ly populated and fertile country.
D.—lniTerise of Coal Trade of Pennsylvania.
In order to show the astonishing increase of Ibis
trade, we give the following tabular statement, com
piled from the most authentic sources—commenc
ilfo4ll tKe iiallB2o=--Witellltielrst anthracite
stoat sent to markeri " • •
Traps,. No. of Tons i Years.
1850- 365 .1834
1821 1,473 / 1835
1.540 t 1836
1R26 , 48.047 1940
1827 03.484 1 184 1
1828 77,616 j /842, r,1•30.000
lora 112.082 ; 1842" r 268,852,
1830 174.794 t 1844
178,820 , 1845 .2412,742
373.871 ; 1184e* 2,343,994
437,648 1847 2,9824,309
The increase in 1847, it will be perceived, is six
hundred and thirty-eight thousand three hundred
and seventeen tons—more than two thousand trios
for every working day in the year! If we take the
first twenty-seven years of the above table, and dt
vide them into. three 'periods of nine years each;
the result will be—total number of tons - marketed
up to 1828 two hundred and thirty-nine thousand
eight hundred an. forty-him. Flecond period, ending
in 1837, three midair's eight hundred and twenty
nine thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine.—
Third period, ending with 1836, eleven millions
live hundred and forty-nine thousand and sixty.one.
This would give an annual average fur the first
nibe years, twenty-six thousand six hundred and
forty-eight tons. Average of the second period.
four hundred and fifty-four thousand five hundred
and thirty-four tons. Average of the last period,
one million .tts.o hundred and eighty-three thousand
and twenty-nine. !Showing that the quantity con
sumed during the last nine years. was three tunes as
large as during the preceding eighteen years!
The committee of Ways and Means have adopt
ed a very moderate estimate tor theann nalconsum p
non of coal in western New York: with Its five cu-
ICS and innumerable villages, two hundred thousand
tons. Why, a single iron'mannfacturing company
in Pennsylvania, consumed sixty thousand' tons of
anthracite, and one hundred thousand bushels of
bituminous coal in a single year! What man in
his senses, who gives due consideration to these re
sults, can doubt the productiveness of a coal-car
rying canal !
E —Siniement showing the distances from the mines
below Lackawanna, to various points in the State
of New York, where markets will be-found for An
thracite; and also the estimated net value of a ton
of Coal delivered at these several p4ints.
Mllns. Val.nt coal ton.
From coal mines to State line, 100 . $2 55
do do Elmira, 117 2 77
do do Seneca lake 140 3 00
do do Geneva 125 3 84
du do Montezuma 206 3 60
do do Palmyra 241 400
do do Rochester 270 4 30
do do Lockport 331 4 , 91
do do Ruffdlo 365 5 25
do do Syracuse 210 •4 00
do do Oswego 278 438
do do Rome 286 4 46
do do Utica 301 4 61
do do Little Falls 323 4 83
do do Schenec'dy 381 5 41
do do Albany 511 5 71
F.—Progress of Me Iron Trade
The importance of the iron trade, and its proba
ble influence upon the financial destinies of Penn
sylvania, justify additional details in regard to it, at
The first iron .made in America, we find by the
interesting "Diary of Colonel Byrd," written be
tween the-years of 1728, and 1736, recently publish
ed, was made by Colonel Spotswood, in 1715, in
Virginia. As early as 1732, •four furnaces were in
opention in the eastern pan of that State. In 1750
the mother country, although she repealed the du
ties on pig and bar iron made in the British colo
nies of America, prohibited in the same law the
"erection of any mill or engine for slitting or
rolling of iron, or any plating forge to work with a
tilt-hammer, or any furnace for making steel."—
It was even then feared the colonies might interfere
with the manufacuires of the mother connto.—
In 1765, there:were shipped eight hundred and Oren
ty-two tons of bar iron.
Statistics in regard to the early mannfactnria of
this country. are difficult to obtain. The eailiest
connected view of the mabuficture of iron within
reach at this time, is furnished in Tench Core's
" Review of Lord Sneffietcrs Observations on the
Comm"rce of the United gtates." That nobleman,
in the true spirit of the English statesmen of that
day. (a spirit which seems to
. have been faithfully
transmitted to their posterity , ) was very anaiona to
demonstrate to the American people, the futility of
their efforts to manufacture for themselves. He re
marked, in reference to iron'and steel," that what
ever is made of ,them. is made at much greater ex
pense than they can be imported from Europe."—.
This work was published in 1153. "Mr. Coxe's Re
view was written in 1791,trhile he was a Commis
sioner of Revenue inifer' the government of the
United 'Stater, and enjoyed superior facilities for
obtaining statistical information. to regard to the
extent of the iron mannfactare at the time bervrote
he states, "the iron works of Massachusetts Colony
of them small) are twenty-six in number. In Vir
ginia the amount produced, five thousand three
hundred tons per annum. In Pennsylvania there
are simeen furnaces and thirty-seven forges: in
New Jersey, eight furnaces and seventy-nine forg
es; besides a 'limber in Maryland, and several of
the other States. •
In 1810, Dr. Beybertmakes thenumber of iron fur
naces in the United states, one bundled and fifty
"three. Tons of iron manufactured, fifipthiee thou
sand nine hundred and eight. Number of forges,
' three hundred and thirty: producing twenty-four
thousand five hundred and forty-one tong of bar
Iron. lfe derived this information from th e Census
returns of that year. Core's tables, prepared for
Mr. Gallatin, then Secretary of' the Treasnry, and
in obedience to a resolution of Congress of the 18th
01 March, len, glees the panther of furnaces in
Pennsylvania;—blast furnaces, forty-four; air for
naces, six. Precinct, twenty-six thousand eight
hundred and evenly-eight and a half tons.. ,-
The llvn. lotto Mitchell, in 1828, on Isis ,exami
nation before it eonajnittee of - Congress, stakes the.
following * estimate of the iron inantifaetn , red in
Pennsylvania, at that period :— bar iron, twenty-one
hottoand etgAiehtti — dred tons j cast metal, fatty sev
en thousand- and cliventy-fiie tuns=of which.latter
ainountethiety-twq thousand iieten hundred toad are
used in ilie making of bar iron ; the remainder is
converted into castings.
A committee of the friends or domestic industry,
which assemblid in the city of New York in 1831,
in a. very able report on the subject of the manufac
ture of iron and steel, give, a carefully compiled
estimate for the previous year, 1830. The two
hundred an&two furnaces then is operation, pro
duced one hundred and fifty-five thousand eigt hun
dred and (any-eight tons of iron, which was con
verted into ninety thousand seven hundred.
end aixtreight tons of bar iron, and. twenty
eight thousand two hundred and seventy-two tons
of castings. The -, aggregre-value , of the produc
tion for that yenr,.was estimated at eleven millions
*Coal triedla tufectirefirly mfr. would go free of 101 l from
Maim ovelyturom: end Me row for Mit object would be
thrcedeltartr el kverny-6F cots per lon.
four hundred and forty-four *naiad four hundred
and ten dollars. ' •
In 1840., by the, census., relinVlN the,,ctimber of
furnaces is-stated at eight heindrid *and 'four ; tons
of rfolii.titaNOW** hondreitisfteightptili*thow
sand 'Wu hodiedAnd thrie.'"atliimfterseil,listges 4
and rolling„snills, nine bundred, and .seventy-eve;
all of whichAfron/edone hundred amt4 l .thetT 4 e,YrD
thousand two hundred and thirtrdtree-Ndla of' unA.
slit.and hoop iron, Aggregate sralue.ofthefrudEle•
Lion .d that year. twenty-two millions seven. bun
deed and seventy-eight thousand •six hundred, and
tbirty-fire dollars.. These returns, with a want of
accuracy, •characteristie of tbis species of informa
tion, do not distinguish between blast furnaces pro
ducing pig metal, and thooenuinnfiicturing castings.
Pile committee of the Coal and Iron association
of Pennsylvania. reported in July.4l49;ita estimate
of the iron manufactured ill this State, from which
we derivethe (Wowing summary : •
Number. toe. atAZ
Furnaces operating by the use of ciarcoat:l74 .
t• employ - on astihracttr i . 1110,4e7
Increase in the number of furnaces — in the last
foils years, one hundred and four; in the number
of tons produced, two hundred and sixteen thousand
one hundred and seventy-one, being ar the rate of
one-bundred and forty-two per cent. for thatperiod!
Minharthe anthracite &ore, there are employed. 4 979 miners.
In making charcoal. . 124.93 vericaten
Dependent on them (or subiuhtenee, OM. persons.
No. of Tema
Persons cmployed and deriving ibeir
from tie ronelreion et iepo, may be cell‘, •
inateit the mot, at lean • • RA%
This, without estimating those employed in the
transpotkation or salt of iron, or the business of rail
Ways and canals.
With scarcely as exception, the mercantile sup
plies of all these are derived from Philadelphia.--
If the Wyonsiog region be opened, to a profitable
market (as it will be when the North Branch canal
is made,) what an important and beneficial increase
will follow in the trade of that city with this region
Will she not thus derive a per tentage upon every
ton of coal and iron sent northward 1
Carbondale, situated at its extreme north-east end,
is now the must important working point of this field.
The Delaware and Hudson canal company have ne
cessarily, a monopoly of the trade at this point,—
Their canal and railroad extends to Iloundout, ott
the Hudson river, one hundred and twenty-three
miles. It cost about two millions five hundred thou
sand dollars. Carbondale was a rude, forest soli
lade in 1828. Iu 1833, five years after, it contain
ed a population of two thousand souls ! At this
time it contains at least, seven thiiiisand; having
some thirty mercantile establishments, and seven
convenient churches. fiarrison, (you will look in
vain for it on the maps,) is about midway between
Carbondale and Wilk - esbarre in the valley of the
Lackawanna. This village was commenced five
years since, and now contains at least two thousand
inhabitants. Open this great coal and imp field to
a northern market and the same spirit of enterprize
would be exhibited throughout its whole extent.—
Philadelphia now has, and would continue to have,
the mercantile supply of this region, except at Car
bondale which trades with New York. Has our
commercial metropolis, then no interest in this
measure independent ails beneficial result to the
resources of the State 1 Has the State at large no
interest in increasing its revenues, and enlarging
its sources of wealth and prosperity 1 The answer
to these important inquiries, will be found in the
adoption or rejection by the Legislature, of the bill
now before it, for the completion of the North Branch
Removed to north side Public Square
.... 11•10 - I] AS just returned from the city
- i..:- Xi of New York with a large
..gik supply of Watches,
7 Silver ware, comprising in part,
I . . ,(.. the following articles :—Lever,
.., I_l L'Epine and Plain Watches, with
vs•-__.%)6-:„--- -•••, a complete assortment of Gold
- Jewelry, Porch as Ear Rings. Fin
ger Rin ;s, Breast Pins, Bracelets. Lockeu, Gold chains,
Gold Pens. Keys, etc. Also, all sorts of Silverware,
and any quantity of Steel Beads-=all of which he offers
for vile exceeedingly cheap for CASH.
Wa•ches repaired on short notice, and warranted
to run well, or the money will be refunded, and a writ
ten agreement given to that effect if required.
N. B.—MAPLE SUGAR,' and Country Produce
taken in payment for work; and also. karn now, and
forever, that the Produce must be paid when the work
is done—l war against credit in all its forms. •
W. A. CHAMBERLIN, Agent.
Towanda, April 28, 1848.
41:0,00 , 0 MIME 11)M' I
GREAT Rai tQLUIION IN FRANCE,
Merely for Ike wantsof cheap Clocks. Watdtes anti
Jewelry ! Great flush at the
NEW CLOCK AND WATCH STORE!
JAMES P. BULL respectfully informs the citizens
of Towanda and vicinity, that he has lately return
ed from Philadelphia, and permahently located in To-
wanda, one doer below the Brick Row, in the room for.
merly occupied by Afercur'a Hat Store, where may be
found gold and silver watches, gold, fob and guard
chains, gold and silver pencil!, gold pens, breast pins,
Anger rings, rte., cheep for cash, and-every rotiele afire
ranted. A large supply of CLrICKS, of the latestim
proved patterns, running from 30 hours to 8 dspe and
a month, with one winding.
CO - Particular attention paid to reterirlug CLOCKS.
WATCHES de, JEWELRY..otevery diiiiription, and
from the long experience whichler,haaltad in the bu
siness, work left in his care will he done in the heat
workmanlike manner. Old gold and silver taken in
exchange. Towanda, August I 6,1818. y .
BOOT & SHOE ItiAIIUFACTORY.
Ndhlik..k . .4i;ililid '
J OHN W. WIT.COX, has removed his establish
merit to the chop between Kingsbcry's and Bart
lett's store*, and. where he stilly solicits a share of
public patronage. He intends, by a careful selection
of stock, and by attention to the interests of his custo
mers to make as neat and durable work as can be ma
nufactured iu this,patt of the country.
He will keep constant'y on hand, and mannfactnre
to order, Morocco. Calf and Coarse Roots and Shots ;
Ladies' Gaiters, Shoes and Slips ; Children's do. ;
Gent's Gaiters and Panspa i .4e.
0:7 Conetry Produce, of mast descriptions, taken in
payment for work; at the market price.
Towanda. April 26, 1647.
NOTICE is hereby
PORTER, as Drtiggist
mutual consent. Thei
- M.O. - PORTER, who
lute firm. Towanda.
New Tailori4. :Establishment,
In No. 2, Briek ROte,lover the store of E„77. Fox,
:third story .
- Do lEreUitVibUll4l2l24 - -
RESPECTFULLY informs the eitiseas of Tower'.
da, and the public generally. that he has- removed
his Tailor shop to No'. 2, Brick Row. over the store of
E. T. For, third story when he solicits those in want
pf Tailoring, to give 'in a call.
Having been ern* In the most faahionable,estab
lishments in Phiiidetiribil apdelsewhece, and being de
termined to spare no 4ina to please, customers may
depend upon having their work done promptly and in
a good style as can he had at any shop in torn). All
weirk'werratited well"Meide and to At.
Car Cutting done cheap, - and - warranted. ..
r' qoulur- re- ~/: i taken in pap merit for work.
it 4. Chamber/in,
given that the co. partnership
og between CHANDARLIN &
ui Sc iT i., I.
eßesitttew r til ia lltis ifsy d
nuied e . ..ed oernibh h y y e
I n. 6, 1819. • -
.... _ _
IM,AVOIIIihrOVAS OR PILE,
ISTZIMAL A IIX1'S111:11:1.. P1piA1111ITLI"
By Dr. 11.phalli's Vegetabfetleetuary.
A II INTERNAL REMEDY.- whack if" seed ea
4 7 1. carding to Aim:dan s , a cars fo‘ guaranteed.
lIWOOTOUS OW TOO 112SWAII:
•A emennos arnsequence of this affeetiamiira kind e
einesuma, oc im ating:downsensatitel,mtik is fimiliarl 7
Called ; there is also hest. 'ension and throbbing in the
pert, varying from a moderate degree of these seise.
lions to the most mierariating suffering :—these an
mead by the great flow of blood tithe pinta. Bones
dines the inner cost of the bowel protrudes at every
oraataticn, forming-whatie adled.Prolepons at falling
of the bowel.; this is the effect of tong conti uoe d irn.
;anon and weakness orthat-organ, la.a aeme
the patient experiences - nervous, pains, wire, aft wi g ,
cribable, and known only tuba sufferer, which cons.
merino immediately sair an evacuation, and cantons
front thirty minutes b screrathoura ; theie sensano tte
are very annoying and sometimes very' disisseim.—
This disease, when of long atidinuatice, is attended by
pain and weakness in the back, irritation of the kid.
net's and bladder, and other organa in the vicinity,p e e i
and numbness' in the leguand led; • sense of straight
nee about the chest, and unnatural - fullness of th e s i,„
down s ' viscera, accompanied with palpitation of the
heart and oppresorion, individuals sometimes expesience,
previous to en attack of dm Pile, symptom denoting
great derangement lathe circulation ; there is a sense
of weight and pressure in the abdomen. with' a pecan'',
feeling of uneasiness in the bowels, eonstipition oe Vie
drumlin, attended with pain bribe back and loins, naa
sea, and slight pahts in the stomach; pale countenance,
confused sensations in thibead, weariness, and s n it,.
bte and duscairmenteJ state of-trie mind. and a sense 0y
fullness and oppression in theregion- of We stomach.—
The circulation on the morfacesie.fieble. and Moment
of blood determined inward and. downwards'. roe
Of TOIL AZOV". 011IZAISCO AO 0 coartainTs.
tpham's ligelable Nahum.
Cures Effectually andllierefare eventl' Ales
lionsow. December 11. 1848.
Gswirs.-1 have used Dr. Upbeat's Vegetable Pile
Electuary which 1 prircheiell of you. and hod it ooe
the best medicines in use for the piles, and also for4ll
billions affeciiani, arising from an impure state of th r
system. Yours, dm. E. A. Cuts, Marble Dealer.
Uarrzo STATES MRIUSILieII 01171C11., ?
New York, Dec. 8, 18411. S
!Osman., Wrtra• dr. KeTctrax--Gentletnen
derstandirratbat you ire the general agents for the sale
of Dr Upham's" Vegetable .Eleetmull, for the cure of
Piles, I have deemed it my duty to volunteer a reams
meodation - in behalf of that invaluable medicine. I
have been afflicted for many year. with piles, end b are
tried various remedies but with no beneficial- effect s -1
began to consider my case utterly hopeless. But about
the first of September last, I was prevailed upon' by a
friend to make a trial of the above named medicine.
took his &detee and rojoice that I ern not only relieved,
but. as I believe, perfectly cured. I most earnestly
recommend it to all who may have the misfortune Lobe
afflicted with that annoying and dangeroosdiseige,
Very respectfully, your oh't serv ant .
REMARKABLE CURE OF PILES!!
THIRTY YEARS `.STANDING 11 -
MOUNT W *SRI NOTOX.
Berkshire Co. (Mass.) Nov. 29, 1847.
- 11.1FARIRS, Wr A ref& KETCUIit---6ents : For thatr
years I have been afflicted with piles, general debility
and Inflamation, causing tumors and prolapsus of the
bowels, and which had resisted all the medical trot.
meat Dr. Chapman and others could give. The last
three years of that time my suffering, defy descriptio s
I was confined to bed, unable to help myself, and at ha
given tip by , my phisiciens and friends in despair of
cr gaining my health ; in , fact f.ethree days ticket I
was entirely speechless and ma gf burial clothes wen
made. But under Providence, and the use of Dr. lip.
ham's Electuary,though an OLD DAN I have the plea.
are of stating the TACT to the public that my health
now goon , and hope to Jive many years, if, it is Godi
will, to make known the virtues Of Dr. Vpham's
nary, and to recommerpi it to my afflicted fellow cas.
tures. It helped me beYond the expectationi of in tim
knew eny case, and I drily say to others that it is,in my
opinion, the beat medicine in the world for Piles, onus
other disease of the bowels; and if they witless it in.
cording to the directions, t will myself inerrant a tart
in every case.
Yours, with the utmost eipressioo of thankfolh,
Eau swami% Meek. Co., (Mass.) Nov. 1,9, 1947.
The above certificate tells a simple and . truthful' stu
ry of suffering and relief, of which, ses physicist' sal
evilness in the case, I cheerfully - emlorse.
NOTICE. —The genuine Upham's Elerthatrk"
his written simulate, thus ii*" Upham; M. D.)—•
The hand is alone, done with* pen. Price ¢1 a bor.
whole Bele and retail, by WYATT &
KETCHAM, 121, Fulton st..; N. Y.. and by Druggigi,
generally throughout the U. S. and Calin4ax.
HIRAM MIX., Agent for Towanda, Pa. 45y
M. NYE & C 0.,. weolde
Ily inform the citizens. of Tor 4
Ind the public generally, tti
have on hand & manufactory
ceder all kinds of CABLNEr
',NITURE, of the best main
and workmanship that canal
rpassed..in addition to the usus
assortment in country shops, we will keep on hand ra
Make to order SOFAS, of various and most approve r . l
patterns ; • Sofa Rocking Chairs, upholstered in supers _
style, and for ease aml durability cannot be aurpassa
even in our large cities. Also, the half French lb
hogany Chair, beautifully upholstered, with curled to -0
which never loses its elasticity, and finished with 144
best hair seating. • We flatter ourselves that bribe
had much experienee irt the htisinseiq we shall be ase,
to satisfy all who may fee/ disposed to call, both I , I 1 %
quality and - price, and by airier attention to been' ;
hope to Intuit and receive the patronage of a liberal rat
triunity. • 1.. M. - NYE' &
Towanda. September 1. 1E147. -
Cans., Er - ruft.riTußE
'IIAY BE HADA our shop much lowerfthe
has ever been - sold in Towanda. Goods r,
Cheap, and wheat am ickeefed, and that it the reason
can afford ail for to do it. AR kinds' of produce
be received in pay t. Mao, LUMBER of all kina , ;; : •
Sept. I . , • -L. M. NYE 4. CO.
tkir r , TI.I. be Kept on hand a large assortment. o ' .
‘._/ made to order on ationer notice and for-Wiz°
ncy then can be produced at any other eatablishoeilli
ther land. Those who ire under the nectwaity 41.
miring that ertichrwill and !hall be satisfied. d tat
heartland pall may - be had in attendance when deo%
September I. t 847 L. Et. NYE ;F'
BOOTS AND SHOES
. , • - - -
What, re yowebont beret Arketni."lts, f guasq
TFIQCz3ANDs a time , th_Aite*tite has been sari
Where On earth ''aie al l tlio.-iftsit4 R ua shoes v .- ,
nufsetured thsksuppl, the 'continual rush at the edro'
of Main and Heitiatiriaisetal otlianyansiserstbruli',
is the 'place; oaths.' ass-thy ibitip 'we do it with'
Seventy-eleven new fark o l
every two seconds! 5.
.Pl4l on th e SI ea s e! 11
Bear ye !-Awair ye! and.,Onderstand. that °Tam°
the comer of Main and Bridgestreets, will ,wll HO`
this soma. 39,751 pairs of Boots, Shoes and One
at a leas ptite than ever was or probably ever wil/ bto
feral again in-Towanda.
The Ladies'. Department in this estahli.hotent*
richly furnished with fashions. Ladies', m mirs
children's fincy and common boots and shoes, eves I s
the extremity of thelatest fashions. Mistake nut
place —Coiner of Main and Bridge streets. the
ShoeSlore iw irradford County. Half caNh and
'tradefor Butter. H. O'lLttti
Towanda, June .16, 1847.
READ THE TESTIMONY