Newspaper Page Text
Life's' Great Play,
JJm CiMtaiaiM tf fcrtt RMgi
ret Harte's West and betjtey, saperMr
An Interesting article by Joseph Hatton, the
author of "Cruel London," Trill appear In
ated, will be publlshe fa sect Sandaya
PITTSBURG, PEIDAT, NOVEMBER 29, 1889.
THREE CENTS 'T
Go Up in a Fiery Furnace, the
City of Boston Being the
A GREAT WALL OF FLAME,
Against Which. Streams
"Water Erom Seventy
WELL NIGH POWERLESS.
The Loss About 12,000,000, and a
If umber of. Brave Firemen
AS AREA OP 25,000 SQUARE FEET,
CoTered "With Great Buildings,
to be Fireproof; Swept
I5SURAKCE COMPANIES IN PEBIL
Boston was the scene ot yesterday's big
fire. At present the losses are estimated at
from 512,000,000 to 515,000,000. The in
surance companies are hard hit. The fire
swept a section of the city that was visited
by a similar bnt even greater conflagration
in 1872, the alarm coming irom the same
box. A number of firemen are missing, and
it is thought they were killed by falling
rSFECIAI. TELEGEAJI TO THE DISPATCH. 1
Boston, November 28. It was Boston's
tarn to fight fire to-day, and it was a fight
for very existence. For four hours TO en
gines, gathered from all parts of Eastern Mas
sachusetts, straggled against a mighty wall
of fire that was surging through the busi
ness district, leveling stone and brick build
ings as though they were built of straw. It
was on the same territory visited by the
great fire of 1872, and the same box, No. 52,
that sounded the alarm for that terrible
visitation, was rung in for to-day's peril.
It has been an awful experience, and
when the report was sent around at noon
list the fames' advance was stayed, there
was a season of more genuine thanksgiving
than Boston has known for years.
More Than Twenty Buildings Burned.
More than 20 noble buildings, reared
with a view to making them as fireproof as
modern invention could devise, which were
filled with valuable merchandise last night,
are to-night heaps of ruins, their contents
having gone up in smoke. The loss, accord
ing to the best information obtainable to
night, will be in the neighborhood of $12,
000,000. Two and a half acres of the most valuable
business property were wiped out of exist
ance, and that is not the worst feature of
the calamity. Several firemen and em
ployes of ruined firms are missing, and it is
feared that the loss of half a dozen lives
will be added to the horror of the situa
tion. Rittory Repeat Itself.
To-days fire was a counterpart of the his
toric blaze of 17 years ago, but it was
handled so successfully that the flames were
choked off just as they were apparently
about to sweep through the whole city.
Chief "Webber is the hero of the hour.
Only the presence of an abundance of water
saved the business portion of the city. The
present heavy tax rate was created by the
extensive system of water mains laid after
the big fire, and there have been many who
scoffed at the heavy expenditure. To-night
thee scoffers are blessing the foresight of
the city from their hearts.
The insurance companies are tottering
under the weight ot obligations entailed by
this fire, coming as it does so soon after
Lynn's visitation, and it is more than prob
able that many will go under.
A Very Gravo Situation.
The situation is a grave one, and the
worst will not be known until the wheels of
business are set in motion to-morrow. If
the insurance companies fail to meet their
obligations, several business firms will
probably be forced into insolvency; and as
some of the largest houses are involved, the
effect upon the general trade will be se
rious. It was about 8.30 o'clock this morning
when a letter-carrier saw flames burst from
a top-story window of .Brown, Durell &
Co.'s massive building, at the corner of
Bedford and Kingston streets. A violent
storm was raging at the time, and but few
people were upon the streets. Those who
had no umbrellas had their coat-collars
turned up and hats pulled down over their
eyes. They thought only of obtaining pro
tection from the storm.
How Such Headwny Was Gained.
The rain was falling and the wind was
blowing a gale. Oi course those who bad
umbrellas couldn't see the tops of the
buildings, anyway. This explanation is
necessary to show" how the hre obtained
such headway before discovered.
There was no watchman in the bnilding.
The letter carrier notified a policeman, and
kept on distributing letters. Tne policeman
rushed to box 62, the same which called at
tention to the big fire in 1872, but now
located one block from where it was then,
and in a minute engine No. 7 was on the
ground. The rest of the apparatus which
answers that call thundered up, and before
a line of hose could be laid, the flames
burst from every window on each of the five
floors. The heat was terrible, but the as
onished firemen piuckily held their ground,
while Chief "Webber ordered second and
third alarms to be run rung iuiat once.
Before an Awful Farnace.
Fourteen engines and other apparatus re
sponded, bnt the men could do nothing
with the awful furnace which covered an
area of 25,000 square feet for such it was
when they reached the place. The gale
lifted a solid body of flame SO feet into the
air, and then flung it down in an unbroken
mass upon the buildings on all sides.
They very air seemed ablaze. .Long, flam
ing streamers leaped out of the windows
and searched for a hold upon surrounding
structures, until it looked as though the
street was festooned with fire. The burnt
district was irregular in shape, but gener
ally followed Bedford street All the build
ings on the south side ot Bedford, number
ing from 35 to 93, were burned. On the
north side of Bedford street the burned
buildings numbered from 40 to 72. Chaun
cey and Kingston streets cross Bedford.
On the west side of Chauncey street the fire
swept from Gl to 75, inclusive, and on the
east side from 68 to 84, inclusive. On
Kingston street, west side, the buildings
numbered 37 to 69, inclusive, and 28 to 74,
inclusive on the east side. On Columbia
street, which runs out of Bedford, parallel
with Kingston, the buildings on both sides,
numbering respectively 1 to 9 and 2 to 10,
All the Water Turned to Steam.
The water which was thrown upon the
building did not pass the windows. It was
changed to steam by the terrific heat. "With
scorched faces and smoking garments, the
fire laddies bravely stuck to their work
until a cracking of the walls warned them
of danger. That was only 15 minutes alter
the alarm was given, showing that the fire
mnsthave been burning in the great'building
for several hours. The warning notes were
followed immediately by a swaying of the
walls, and then, with graceful curves, the
tall slabs of brick and stone fell with a ter
rible crash into the street, letting the roof
and floors tumble with brilliant effect into'
There was no time for the firemen to save
anything but their lives. Two steamers,
Nos. 22 and 25, Hayes Truck and Ladder
13, and the water tower, were located around
the building, and when the walls fell they
were buried beneath a pile of bricks.
Escaped With Their Lives.
Fortunately, the men escaped without
injury, but they lost everything with which
they were fighting the fire. Immediately
after the walls of Brown, Durell & Co.'s
building fell, the fire spread in all direc
tions. No human beings could stand with
in a block of the awful furnace.
The fire was in supreme control, and
jumped across Bedford and Kingston streets
with ridiculous ease. The waves ot solid
flames hissed as they surged against the
solid walls of Frederick L. Ames' big
brown-stone structure, on the southwest cor
ner of Bedford and Kingston streets. Fora
few minutes there was no effect, and then,
with a roar of triumph, the flames crowded
into the magnificent building and began to
reduce it to ashes. It was supposed to be
fire proof, but it burned like tinder. The
fire pulverized the mortar, and ate its way
into the woodwork, and then its ruin was
complete. The flames held high carnival
here for a very few minutes, and then tossed
the massive structure aside, while they took
hold -oi another victim.
The Entire E?rce at Work.
Although -the spread "of the fire has been
rapid, Chief "Webber had forestalled it by
sending out a general alarm. Then there
was a hustling among the suburban compa
nies, and all moved toward the center of the
city. Ordinarily some would have been
stationed at commanding points, to guard
against other fires, but tbe situation was so
cntical this morning thatChief "Webber or
dered every piece of apparatus to report to
him at the fire. Boston has 33 engines, and
in a very short time they were pouring tons
of water in the direction of tjie fire. Much
of it, however, went upward with the smoke
that rolled heavenward in black clouds,
which were seen miles away.
"With that large force at his command,
Chiief "Webber attacked the fire Irom all di
rections, but he could do nothing toward
staying its progress. The flames spread re
sistlessly onward, and they did not confine
themselves to any one direction. The wind
lashed them in all directions, and wherever
a fiery wave landed that building was
Calls for Outside Aid.
Bess than an hour atfer the fire was dis
covered Chief Webber sent out calls within a
radius of 100 miles of the Hub. The fire
was beyond his control, and was threaten
ing the entire business center. It reached
out for the leather district, while consuming
the wholesale drygoods houses, and was be
ing carried toward the great retail houses
that line "Washington, Tremont and con
necting streets. It was already feeding
upon some of the costliest materials in the
lhe response from sister cities and towns
was prompt The great black cloud that
gushed out from the heart of the city had
been seen, and when the call for aid went
out every fireman who heard it knew that
it meant business, and it did. Special trains
were chartered, and fire apparatus was
emptied into Boston stations from all the
surrounding cities and towns. There were
not enough spare horses, and tbe firemen
mauned the ropes as in the olden limes, and
raced toward the great fire, whose roar
drowned the noise ot the engines.
The Heavy Rain a Godsend.
Every time a roof fell great firebrands
were swept upward, to lall miles awav.
The heavy rain proved a Godsend to tne
firemen, for it prevented the sparks from
igniting roofs at a distance, otherwise there
is no knowing where the fire would have
been sent. The flames took hold of a
cluster of brick buildings on tbe opposite
side of Bedford street from Brown, Durell
Xr f e rtvii Iris. nr eimtlltiHBAnrl Mfi1. ii
& Co.'s building; simultaneously with the
Ames building. The fire thus had control
of two streets Kingston and Bedford and
the firemen could not approach near enough
to do effective work. The Ames building
was flanked on either-side by four-story
brick and stone structures, and in a very
short time they, too. were ablaze.
The excitement bv this time was intpnee
and it looked as though the whole business
center was doomed. The heat broke win
dows in all directions, and firebrands would
complete the work of .destruction. After
the Claflin building, which stood south of
the Ames block, had become filled with
flame, the Nevins block, which backed up
to it, caught fire, thus carrying the flames to
Chauncey street Tbe Nevins building was
another splendid five-story structure, and it
was heavily stocked with woollen fabrics.
There was a smothered roar, and the flames
burst through the front windows, driving
spectators and firemen before them in a wild
rush for life.
One Vast Furnace of Fire.
The flames made short work of that build
ing, and quickly worked their way toward
Bedford street The whole block, bounded
on three sides by Kingston, Bedford and
Chauncey streets, thus became a vast fur
nace, sending a mighty column ol flame into
the air. "With every gust the flames would
reach out across the street, and m less time
than it takes to tell the story, the buildings
on the west side of Chauncey street were
Then a great fear seized upon the spec
tators. Bnt a single block of bnildings
separated the flames from B. H. White'
.gigantic establishment, and but a few rods
further north was Jordan, Marsh Si Oo.'s
establishment. If the fire got a foothold on
Washington street, nothing could stop its
progress. -Chief "Webber knew this and he
watched'for the arrival of outside engines,
with as much anxiety as a general could
look for reserves when he knew that delay
It was at this critical juncture tbatBrook
line's fire laddies appeared upon the scene,
closely followed by others, until more than
30 engines were puffing and throwing their
streams upon the burning building on the
north side of Bedford street
Determined 'Work faa It Effect.
The flames reduced a dozen three-slbry brick
and stone buildings to ruins, but they fell
before the determined attack of the firemen,
without working further into the1 retail dis
trict The same result was attained on
Bedford street east of Brown, Durell &
Co.'s building. The adjoining structure
was of course gutted, and so was the build
ing on the opposite side of Columbia street,
but the firemen worked like Trojans to save
the leather houses that lie in that direction,
and succeeded. That left the body of the
flame at tbe four corners of Chauncey and
Again and again the fire swept across the
street and tried to get a hold upon' the
bnildings on the north side of Bedford
street, but the firemen piuckily held their
posts and won the fight Farley, Harvey &
Co.'s big granite building on the southwest
corner, was the. scene of the final struggle,
and the flames pave up the fight after con
suming the two upper stories.
The fight waged four hours before Chief
"Webber knew that the city was saved. It
seemed to him as though the fire had been
instigated by supernatural powers, in order
to verify a prophecy which he had made at
10 o'clock last night, in the presence of a
party ofgentlemen who were discussing the
fire at Lynn on Tuesday. Some were in
clined to criticise its management by Chief
A Prophecy Literally Fnlflllcd.
Chief "Webber cut short the discussion by
saying that a disastrous fire was liable to
occur in Boston at any minute, in a section
where there were high buildings and narrow
streets. His prophecy was fulfilled to-day,
and it is a singular fact that the only build
ing in the burnt territory that was guarded
by iron shutters was the Lawrence building,
at the northeast corner of Chauncey and
Bedford street, which resisted the terrible
volumes of flames in the rear until the fire
department had an opportunity to concen
trate and prevent a farther spread of the
During all this excitement there was no
cooler man in Boston than Chief Engineer
"Webber, who went from point to point and
studied the situation. His calm attitude
had an important bearing onhis subordinate
omcers and men, and during the most try
ing period ot the fire there was nothing like
a panic. It was a remarkable coincidence
that nearly all the former assistant engi
neers of Boston bad offered their services,
and the assistance rendered by some was
Searching for Sliding; Comrades.
As soon as the firemen got a chance to get
among the ruins they began a search for
missing comrades. Two members of Lad
der No.3 were not with their comrades, and
two Cambridge men were unaccounted for.
In addition to these, word was passed
around that1 two women were crushed be
neath the wall of the Nevins building.
Laddermen Loker and Buckley were seen to
fail beneath the front wall of the Nevins
block, on Chauncey street, and they were
given up as lost The others had
not been found at midnight, and there
is every reason for believing that they,
too, were under some piles of brick and
stone. Chauncey, Bediord and Kingston
streets were piled five and ten feet deep with
debris, so the exact location of the bodies
cannot be known until the streets are
cleared. ( The women were trying to escape
from the rear doors of their houses when
their back yards were filled with bricks.
The ruins present a very picturesque ap
pearance to-night Sections of broken walls
and chimneys remain standing, and their
shadows on the clouds of steam, as cast by
the young moon which always happens to
be around on such occasions, gave the deso
late spot a weird and ghost-like appearance.
The engines will work all night in order to
keep the numerous safes cooled down.
MANY BIG LOSERS.
SEVENTY BUILDINGS GONE, WITH VAL
Hard to Give an Extlmalo of tho Losses
The Insurance Companies Hard Hit
One Firm, Well Insured
Loses at Least a million.
rSPEClAL TELEGRAM TO TUX DISPATCH.!
Boston, November 28. As a result of
the flames' work to-day, nearly seventy
buildings were reduced to ashes. It is
almost impossible to give an accurate esti
mate of the loss to-night, but insurance men
say it will undoubtedly be in the neighbor
hood of $12,000,000, with the chances of
reaching $15,000,000. The individual losses
can only be approximated, owing to the ab
sence from the city of many of the property
owners in the burnt district
One effect of the fire will be a searching
investigation of tho work of the Assessors'
Department Many of the buildings de
stroyed were rated at such ridiculously low
figures by the assessors that the latters.
books are absolutely useless in estimating
the losses. Brown, Durell & Co.'s loss is
unquestionably the heaviest It is estimated
by those in position to know to be fully $1,
000,000. They had an immense stock on
hand, and earned an insurance of 673,000.
Of that amount $600,000 was placed in for
eign companies. As the stock was a total
loss, the insurance companies will suffer.
Claflin, Xarabee & Co., hosiery, gloves, etc.,
had a stock estimated at 350,000, insured
Some Other Big Losses.
"Walker, Stetson, Sawyer & Co., im
porters and jobbers in hosiery and gloves,
are losers to the extent of 300,000, insured
for 200,000. Davis, Pitts & Co.. in the
same line, probably had 200,000 worth of
stock, which is a total loss. It is presumed
to be well covered. Taylor Brothers, hats,
caps, furs, etc., lose probably from 150,000
to 200,000 and doubtless are well insured.
Ifewrence & Co., commission merchants in
sts., probably had stock in store worth 200,
000. Smith, Hogg & Gardner, in the same
building, commission merchants, had a
stock estimated at rising 200,000. Lamson
& Hnbbard, hatters, had a stock of 50,
000. Shaw Brothers, clothiers, lost 25,
000 worth oi goods in store.
Among other heavy losers are the follow
ing: Grant, "Warren & Blauchard, whole
sale dealers in woolens, lost everything.
They occupied a four-story building, 40 by
100 teet. They were also cleaned ont in the
big nre of 1872. J. O. Gardner
& Co., manufacturers of fine worsted
goods and Saxouy shirts, ore also heavy
losers. Allen Bros., trunks, bags, etc.;
Theodore Pearsali, carpets and upholstery;
.J. Etchem, furs and skins; Samuel Stack,
tailor; Kammler Bros., boot and shoe man
ufacturers, and B. Kammel, cigar manufac
turer, and the Patent Broom Clasp Com
pany are all bnrned out The general ex
press office was burned out, but most of the
goods were removed.
Insurance Companies Hard Hit.
The Insurance Companies are,hard hit
by this fire. It is easier with the informa
tion at hand to-night to give some of the
losses of the companies rather than specify
the insurance placed on the stock ot indi
vidual firms. Following is a partial list of
the companies and the amounts placed by
.Liverpool, London and Globe, $200,000;
Continental, of New York, 60,000; Michi
gan, of Detroit, 125,000; Franklin, of
.Continued on b'tz(A taac
EDISON NOW AHEAD.
Menlo Park Wizard' Wins the
Second Bound in Canada.
A BLACK: EYE FOR WESTINGHOUSE.
His Great Eiral Secures a Favorable J)&
cision. on His Patents.
A F0EMEB 11ULISG DIRECTLY BEYEKSED
The Edison Light Thus Costumes to Hold Its Monopoly
By a decision just rendered in Ottawa, by
the Minister of Agriculture, a former,
ruling whereby the Edison electric light
patents were quashed is reversed, and a
good deal of hard work by "Westinghouse
and the United States Company is made of
no avail. The principal points on which
the decision is based are given.
ISrECUX. TEX.EOBAH TO TBI MSPATCTI.l
Ottawa, November 28. The decision of.
the Minister of Agriculture in the applica
tion of the Royal 'Electric Light Company
of Canada for the cancellation of the in
candescent lamp patent owned by the Edi
son Company, has created unbounded sur
prise here. The decision, in brief, is:
First 1 find that Thomas Alva Edison, the
patentee of the patent in tbe proceedings men
tioned, did, within two years from the date ot
such patent, commence, and after such com
mencement did continuously carry on in Can
ada, the construction and manufacture ot the
invention patented, in such manner that any
person desiring to use it might obtain it or
cause it to be made for htm at a reasonable
price at some manufactory or establishment for
making or constructing it in Canada.
Second I further find that after tbe expira
tion of 12 months from the granting of the
said patent, neither the said patentee nor any
person claiming or holding underhim did im
port or cause to be imported into Canada tbe
invention for which the said patent was
I do therefore. In pursuance of the statute in
that behalf, declare that the said patent has
not become null or void, and I dismiss the' ap
plication of the petitioners, the Royal Electric
Company of Canada.
A FOBMEB DECISION.
In February last Mr. Pope, the Deputy
Commissioner of Patents, gave his decision
on this same application,' quashing the
patent, but subsequently it was discovered,
through a flaw in the act, that Pope had no
power to hear the case. On the rehearing,
Sir John Thompson, Minister of Justice,
was associated with the Minister of Agri
culture, and it is on the report of the former
that this decision is based. Former decisions
of the Canadian Patent Office were to the
eflect that the mere Importation of parts of
an invention was an infringement of the
statute, and rendered a patent nuU and
void. Sir Thompson brushes this ruling
altogether on one side, completely upsetting
the cherished traditions of the patent office
with regard to the non-carbonizing of the
filament in Canada, which was the main
point upon which the petitioners relied, and
chiefly for which Mr. Pope quashed the
patent in the first instance. Sir Thompson
As a matter of fact It seems that tho carbon
izing of the filament is a very difficult wort,
requiring; great exDerience and skill: it Jim
been principally d&ne by Mr. Kdison himself, I
and although perhaps sometimes done by L
others, has so often failed in the bands of J.-;
uuiBia bisu oi uuise wuo jtau rcropararuy
succeeded that the work is practically re
served for Mr. Edison's factory in New Jersey,
or was at the time under consideration. This
was the case as to filaments for use in Europe,
as well as for use in Canada.
NOT AX EXPENSIVE THING.
It may be also observed in this connection,
although it may not have an important bearing
on the legal view of the question, that the
filament is of a very trifling value, even after it
has been carbonized, and of very trifling cost
After being brought into Canada it is attached
to the leading wires, and dnrlng the process of
exnaustmg tne air irom tne glass bulb is sub
jected to an electric current for tho greater
portion of half a day. The carbonizing which
it receives in the United States and tbe treat
ment by eisctric current after it arrives in Can
ada before the final completion of the lamp are
what make the filament a high resistant
and fully carbonized. It could hardly
be said to be fully carbonized until
treatment which is giveii in Canada has been
applied. Before that the filament is a partly
carbonized filament which Would emit light
when the current was applied, bnt not efficient
ly, because, not being completely carbonized,
it would be of short duration comparatively,
and impair the vacuum. It would be a carbon
ized filament, butnot "a filament of carbon."
The production of tbe filament is not cov
ered by the patent at all. The 'Invention for
which, the patent Is granted" is a
lamp in which the filament is
to emit the light Tho lamp
was old, the filament new. The combination
was patented. Tbe patentee might have pat
ented tbe filament it would seem, but be has
chosen to patent only the lamp containing the
filament r the combination, and not the new
There are various descriptions in the evi
dence, of what was done in Canada with the
article of which the lamp was made.
WHAT IS CLAIMED.
In the production of the lamp, and In consid
ering what was so done, we must remember
at every step that the patented ar
ticle is not the carbon filament merely;
not the platinum wire, manufactured without
irregularities merely: not the brass bottom
pieces merely; not the glass bulb and glass
tubing, merely; not tbe joining of a glass bulb
and a class tube of the same meltlnir and same
quality of glass: not tbe carbonizing of tbe
filament; not the treating of the filament by an
electric current, but it Is first an "electric
lamp;" this lamp to give "light by incandes
cence, consisting of a filament of carbon, of
high resistance, made as described and secured
to metallic wires," etc
This lamp was made in Canada, although
parts thereof were imported, and he recom
mended the Minister of Agricnlture to dis
miss the petition, which has been done. Its
effect is to continue the Edison Company's
monopoly for five years longer. Had tbe
decision gone against them, by the Supreme
Court ruling in tbe Bate refrigerator case, the
.Kaison patent in tne united states would
also have been quashed.
The Boyal Company, the nominal peti
tioners, were backed by the "Westinghouse
and United States Companies, Mr. Kerr,
of Pittsburg, being one of the counsel, and
rendering efficient service. The companies'
are actively at work in Canada, and the
Edison Company has entered suits against
tbem in the Canadian courts for infringe
ment of patent Should the two companies
win. it will practically mean the breaking
of the Edison monopoly, so far lis Canada
In Pittsburg an effort was made yesterday
to see either Mr. "Westinghouse, Mr. Byl
lesby or Attorney Kerr, of the "Westing
house Electrio Company, for a statement as
to the effect upon their Canadian enterprises
as a result of the decision quoted above.
But neither of these gentlemen was at home;
and the lesser lights of their company de
clined, in several instances, to express an
opinion for them.
A THEEE-COENEBED DUEL
With Revolvers In Wbtcb Two or tbe
Ponies Were Faiallr Injured.
Silveb Cliff, Col., November 28. At
a small mining camp, near this place, James
Archer yesterday shot and fatally wounded
Joseph Parker and E. H. Waterhouse.
Both men. were working for Archer. They
became involved in a quartet. All three
drew revolvers and commenced firing.
N Archer came out without a scratch, and
claims be did the shooting in self-etaMue.
Parker &d WraooaB.9tliv..
A GEEAT ENTEEPEISE.
Tho Russian Government to Balld a Kail
road 4,000 Miles In Lenffth Pointers
Helm; Picked Up In Canada
Tho Proposed Roate.
rSFXCtiX TZLIOKAH TO TUB DISrXTOH.1
Otta-wa, November 28. M. Antoine
Zdiarski, a civil" engineer of St Petersburg,
Bussia, is" in Ottawa. Speaking of his mis
sion, he said that the Russian Government
had determined to push at once the con
struction of the railway across Siberia. The
Bussian Department of Railways, of which
he is one qf the engineers, sent him to Can
ada to examine carefully the construction
and management of our trans-continental
road In order to benefit by our experience.
The route has not been finally decided
upon, bntit will probably begin at Zlatoust,
in the Ural Mountains, the present terminus
of the road from Samara. Thence it will
run to Omsk; from there to Irkutsk, on
Bake Baikal, which it is proposed to cross
by ferry. Thence the road would run to
Srietensk. on the Amoor. This river would
be used temporarily as far as Boosa, from
wuicn piace the roaa wouia since across
the Vladivostock.ontheseaof Japan. This
port, which would be the Pacific terminus,
is about 4.000 miles from Zlatoust, or about
6,000 miles from St Petersburg.
From "Vladivostock a line of steamers
would run to Yokohama and connect with
the Canadian Pacific Railway and other
steamers. The only really difficult parts to
construct wbuld be through, tbe TJrol
Mountains, from the Amoor west to tbe
ocean, through the Stanovyi and Bureya
mountains. M. Zdiarski said the road was
primarily a military one, but much of the
eonntry through which it will pass ii level
The popular idea that Siberia is a frozen
desert, unfit for habitation, is quite wrong,
lar as the southern part is concerned.
The prairies watered bv the Tobel and
Ishim are extremely fertile, and from Onesk
to Irkutsk, a distance of about 1,000 miles,
the country is dotted with villages and the
climate well suited for grain growing.
EANyaMUCET WITH AN AX.
A Mad Negro Racing; Tbrtfngb New York
Streets Until Knocked Vottb.
rsrxcui. TXLxaiuit to tub dispatch, i
Tew Yokk, November 28. A negro
with high cheek bones, little eyes and
bushy hair and whiskers, looking for all
the world like a Zulu, ran out of a Houston
street tenement, this afternoon, carrying in
his right hand a short-handled ax, and in
his left a dishpan that he held to his breast
as a shield. On the sidewalk were Bianca
Salvatore and his nephew, and neighbor,
Flippo Lombardi. The , insane negro
brought the broadside of his ax down on the
top of Salvatbre's head. The Italian
dropped. Lombardi tried to flee. The
negro was too quick for him. Whack!
Another broadside hit The second son of
Italy fell and blood spurted, from his head.
The madman then ran to wird the Bowery,
with a big crowd at his back. A woman
with a child in ber arms, started on a ran
for the southwest corner of Bowery and
Houston street, but fell, and the frantio
negro was over her in an instant, with his
ax in. the air. Stones were flying thick
about the negro's "bead. One of them,
thrown by Sam Labas, hit him in the ear.
The blow stunned him, and the woman and
the child were whisked out of his reach by
the crowd. Policeman O'Brien broke into
tbe ring and rapped the lunatic on the skull.
Park Policeman Egan took away bis ax and
pulled an old-fashioned, double-barreled
pistol out of his pocket.
BESTMUTIffN ATSPE1NG YAILElv
The Leaders of the Recent Strike Will Not
Chicago, November 28. The following
letter from Spring Yalley, 111., has been
The Spring Valley Coal Company, to prepare
people here to celebrate Thanksgiving, have
refused employment upon reopening the mines
to miners who, during the lockout just ended,
took a leading part in the distribution, of food.
L clothing and medicine to the sick and starving.
This reliel xorcea tne company to mane terms
twice as good as those first offered, although It
did not save tbe men from severe reduction.
The Company also decline to re-employ officers
of labor unions, and has compelled all miners
to abandon unions. As there la no other in
dustry in Spring Valley except that of this
Coal Company, this refusal to employ ban
ishes tbe members of tbe Relief Committee
and leaders of the Union from Spring Valloy.
They are penniless, having had no work for
seven months like all the working people here.
Some ot these banished men haTO families
of seven and eight children. This action ot
tbe company has so intimidated the other
miners that they decline receiving contribu
tions for those still in want They are afraid
that if they are found distributing relief they
will also be told to leave. Distress will last at
least until midwinter, as the mines are ready
for only a few men. and the heads of many
families are away looking for work. Novem
ber earnings wllf.be small and not paid until
the middle of December. Relief will be needed,
but the Union has been broken up and the
miners do not dare form another relief com
mission. BOBBED FOE SIX GAMBLERS.
Details of the Santa Fe Train Robberr
Begin to Leak Oat.
rSPECTiX. TELEaBAU TO THXDlSrXTCH.1
Gainesville, Ind. T., November 28.
A posse of deputy marshals passed through
here to-day, with nine prisoners arrested at
Berwin and Ardmer, Ind. T., for the
Santa Fe train robbery. The officers
refused to give any details, merely
saying that he had a good casb against
the men. It was learned that the robbery
was the result of a gamblers' plot
Six gamblers engaged six desperadoes,
guaranteeing them a certain sum to rob the
train. The gamblers learned when the
heaviest shipment of money would be made,
and plotted accordingly.
Fully 40,000 was taken, and not a cent
recovered. The officers say that several
other arrests wOl shortly be made, and pos
sibly the bulk of the money recovered.
WENT DOWN WITH A BRIDGE.
A Freight Train Goes Through One of the &
and O. Spans near Huntington.
ISPICIAL TELIQIUM TO TUX DISPATCH. I
Paekebsb0BO, W. VA., November 28.
The west span of the Chesapeake and Ohio
bridge across the Guyandotte river, three
miles from Huntington, gave way under a
freight train at 4 o'clock this morning.(and
precipitated the engine and five cars into tbe
river, whicn was running out at high water
mark. B. V. Freeman, engineer, and a
cattle man, name unknown, were killed.
Conductor Stephens and Fireman Cundifl
went down with the wreck, and swam ashore,
though badly hurt
Freeman's body was recovered and taken
to Huntington, where he lived. The east
bound express had passed over but a few
minutes before. The unknown man's body
has not yet been recovered.
DEOWNED IN THE 0E10.
Two Persona and a Team of Horns Swept
Away by tbe Storm.
israelii, TKLEQBAK TO TUB DISPATCH.!
Benwood, "W. Va., November 28. At
noon to-day John McGoff, aged 30 years,
unmarried, and John Carroll, aged 9 years,
son of Michael Carroll, were drowned in
the Ohio river nt this place. McGoff had
been hauling coal aud Carroll was on the
wagon with "him. At 12 o'clock McGoff
concluded to- stop for the day and drove
down to the mill Wharf to wash off his
wagon. He drove out la the river beyond
his depth and the team Md eceapaata of the
,wgoa were Hre wjr.i- ' bih
Anticipated by the Terrorized Citizens
of Eastern Kentucky.
IT MAY 0CCDR AT AKI MOMENT.
AH the Judges Obliged to Make Mtrars of
Hundreds tr Miles.
IN 0BDEE TO HOLD TEEMS OF CQURT.
Another Awfal Chapter In the HllflelitHcCor Feud
Another wholesale slaughter is antici
pated by the citizens of Eastern Kentucky
when the attempt is made to take three of
the Hatfield-McCoy feud murderers to the
penitentiary. The origin of the celebrated
vendetta is retold by judges who have sat io
SPECIAL TXLXOSAX To TUB DIBPATCJ1J.
Cincinnati, November 28. The famous
Hatfield-McCoy feud that has terrorized the
law-abiding citizens in Eastern Kentucky
has broken out afresh, and another whole
sale slaughter is looked for at any moment
The information reached this city to-day,
through Government secret service detect
ives, who were driven out of the Common
wealth by the Hatfield gang. The detect
ives were in consultation all day with the
United States authorities at Covington,
across the riyer, and left last night to bold
another conference with Governor Buckner,
The stories as told by the Government
officers are almosr incredible. Judges were
driven, from tbe bench, prosecutors threat
ened with death, and other high officials
compelled to resign, in order to ayoid prose
cuting the members of the gang now in
NEWS TTABD TO GET.
The seene of the feud is 75 miles from
anv railroad or telegraph station, conse
quently information is hard to obtain, The
news bronght'by the Government officers is
the first reliable news that has been fur
nished for many months. Last Saturday
the Court of Appeals of Kentucky decided
that one of the Hatfields must hang. Since
the decision of the Court there are signs of
Judge Billy, of Estill county, is afraid to
take direct routes to the courts in his dis
trict, for fear of being ambushed by some of
the people who have threatened to
take his life on more than one
occasion. The Judge is now holditig
court in "Whitesburg, in Letcher county.
In order to escape bis enemies he went over
150 miles out of his way to reach that place.
The Commonweath's attorney, Mr. Marrs,
has also been threatened with death if he
did any prosecuting, and a few days ago he
tendered his resignation in. open court, but
the Judge declined to receive it
didn't dabe to hold cotjet.
Judge Lilly was afraid to bold court in
Knott county, and the bar declined to elect
a special judge to take his plaee. The
Judge alto declined to go to Harlan county
to hold court, owing to the numerous threats
that have been T made against him. A
special judge was elected, and the French.
Ebersole crowd broke up court with a gen
eral fight Tbis is only a sample of the
condition of affairs in that section of the
"The decision in the Hatfield case prob
ably meaar more, trouble, jafd on.ef the
detective wVTney are confiaed in jail il
Pikeville, and since tbe aarmance or t&e
case, threats have been made to rescue thea
trom the jail."
The persons' referred to as having been
sentenced for life are Valentine Hatfield,
Dick Mayhorn, and Plyant Mayharn, con
victed in the Pike County Circuit Court for
the murder of Tolbert McCoy. JudgePryor,
who delivered the opinion in the case in the
Court of Appeals, for the first time told the
inside history of the feud.
THE OEIOETAL DIFFICULTY.
A personal difficulty originated between
three of the McCoy boys and one Ellison
Hatfield, brother of Valentine Hatfield, in
which Hatfield was cut with a knife, and
died from the effects of the wounds. After
the fight the McCoys were all arrested
by a special constable named Floyd Hat
field, and placed in the custody of Oolbert
and Joseph Hatfield, two justices of the
peace in Pike county, all related to tbe man
killed, who thought it proper to carry the
McCnvs to the countv seat to be tried, and
had with them a guard to protect their
They had not proceeded many miles in
the direction of Pikeville before they were
overtaken by Valentine Hatfield, one of the
accused, Ellas Hatfield and others, who,
according to their own statements, wanted
the law enforced, but as a matter of publio
convenience thought they should be tried
in tbe district where the killing took place.
Valentine Hatfield was also a justice of the
-peace in Virginia, in a district near the
WANTED A CHANGE OF COT7BT.
The officers in charge surrendered the Mc
Coys to the Virginia justice of the peace,
who, in conjunction with a posse of armed
men, returned with their young prisoners
that they might have them tried in the civil
district bordering on the Vlrgiria line.
They had not gone far on their return be
fore tbey were joined by a man named Anse
Matheld and tnotwo jnaynorns, sons-in-iaw
of Valentine Hatfield The men were
armed with guns when they met the Ken
tucky justices, who had been divested of
their jurisdiction by the Virginia justice,
and alter proceeding to the residence of old.
Jerry Hatfield, the party obtaineia rope
and tied the three, and in this condition
carried them to the residence of Bev. Ander
son Hatfield, where they took dinner.
While at the house Anse Hatfield stepped
aside and told all of Hatfield's friends to
form in a line, and the prisoners were taken
across the boundary line of Kentucky and
confined in a schoolhouse in Virginia.
There they were guarded by the defendants
until they heard of the death of Ellison
Hatfield. They then took their boys to the
Kentucky Bide of the river, and cocking
their guns, blew the top Of the smaller boy's
head off; shot Talbot 15 times and Pbaraer
The Hatfield crowd are threatening now
that the prisoners will never see the inside
of tbe penitentiary, and there is a probabil
ity that the sheriff will have to call upon
the government for soldiers to land them
there. The consultation oi the government
officers was for the purpose of ucuriog 'aid
in transferring the prisoners to the peflltea
tiary. A PECULIAR LANDSLIDE
Sweeps an Engine nonse Against a Dfpvtss
Bloomsbubt, N. J., November 28. A.
landslide this morning swept aa engine
houte with "William Bigley, an engineer,
against a moving train On the Lehigh Val
lev Railroad at the west end of Plattenburg
tunnel. Bigley was taken from under tbe
engine, crushed to a pulp.
A quantity of earth and debris was
wedged in the mouth of the tunael, and
traffic was suspended for 12 hours.
Fatal Wreck Caased by a WaskoaC
Ibonion, O., November 28. A disastrous
wreck occurred at Ceredo this aeralajt, 0a
the Chesapeake aad Ohio. The train 'was
tar own frost the traek by a wasfcsatwhon
raaaiaa- at a high Mta ef sasd. Us
A Peculiar Place for Tbanksdviag Services
Bold Talk of a New Xeeter-Tke
Outdoor Life of a Frontier
Gone and Courts.
rSPECTAL TXLK3BAM TO THI DMPATCX.I
Johnstown, November 28. In a swirl
ing snowstorm the sun of Thanksgiving sets
on the Conemaugh. Two lights illume the
valley, the steady flare up the river at
bridge No. 6, of both torch and carbon,
where the night railroad gang takes up
anew the work of repairing the last ravages
of the flood, and here in Johnstown the
fitfnl and sky-leaping-glare of the furnaces
of the Cambria Iron Company.
Six months ago to-morrow night different
lights illuminated the valley, a blazing
church at the upper end of Johnstown, a
blazing mass of a thousand homes at the
lower end. From Decoration Day to
Thanksgiving the cycle of Johnstown's trib
ulation runs. There is grief in a thousand
'homes with the thought of this day a year
ago, but Johnstown, in verity, gives
thanks. In tbe Episcopal Church ot St
Mark's there were about 40 attendants upon
the service, fourof whom were men and the
rest women and children, half of whom
were in mourning. Yet this is the way the
plucky new rector talked:
The attendance is so small because this is not
a holiday in Johnstown, as elsewhere. Every
one Is bard, at work. On Sunday the number
of people hero reaches 12U. Tba number of
communicants of the parish is 200. I am here
for three years, and I shall regard my work a
failure if the' number is not doubled by that
Mr. Bold's enthusiasm is largely born of
the good impression of the practical methods
of the Episcopal church, implanted by
Bishop "Whitehead oi Pittsburg. "He got
50 sewing machines at f 18 apiece," said Mr.
Bold, proudly, "and gave them to 50 sewing
women, who have since earned, their living
on them. "With $150 he set a dyer up In
business, and the wish to have the soiled
and muddy clothes renovated has enabled
that man to buy a 9300 house since."
The outdoor life of Johnstown at' this
Thanksgivingtide is that or a new frontier
town. You see signs that tho "Kindergar
ten" has been here to packed houses and
that the "Fakir" is coming. The local pa
pers are running over with advertisements.
The saloons are-thronged, Cowolidatie is
accomplished, and ea electric road through
all the borough, is looked forward te.
ASSAULT ON AN AECIII8I0P.
A Crowd of Toronto Tosohs Create a DtasC
ISrXCIAI. TXLaOXAX TO THB &HTATCH.1
Toeonto, November 28. There was a
disgraceful disturbance here last evening,
on the occasion of the reception of Arch
bishop "Wa!h when he came- to take ofice
in this city. A crowd gathered with
a band, and sang "We'll Hang
Old "Walsh on a Sour Apple Tree"
Stones were thrown at the carriage of Sena
tor Smith and his coachman was bit, but
not seriously Injured. 'Soon after the crowd
leit the railway station missiles were
hurled at Archbishop "Walsh's carnage.
To add insult to injury, the Archbishop's
ears were greeted by the song, "We'll hang
the Pope on a ssur apple tree." The line of
carriages turned ia to Kins street, where
the hooting was recommenced
with increased vigor. "When the
Archbishop's carriage was opposite
Bond street it was assailed by a regular
fttsilade of sfssiles projeeted from a knot of
disapproving toughs who stood on the
corner. The windows ot the vehUle were
shattered, bat tie- oeevpaata isesiiiwith-
Ehuter sweet where another cowardly at
tack Was made upon His Graee. A eberas
of hoots and groans was followed by a shower
of stones, one of which entered the carriage
and struck His Graee Hpeo.the wrist He
was not injured. His carriaire finally drew
up opposite the main entrance of the Cathe
dral, and he passed in unmolested.
TWO PETRIFIED 309118.
PecnHar Btscavery Had ia a Km)
8FZC1A1. TXUtOBAK TO TBI DIPATCH.J
Findlat, O., November 28. The exten
sion of the Toledo, Columbus and Cincin
nati Bailroad, which is being built South
from this city, passes through the old ceme
tery of the village of Arlington, In the
southern part of this county. A short time
ago the right o( way through the cemetery
was granted by the Probate Court, thus ne
cessitating the removal of the bodies that
bad been at rest there for many years. This
worK has been going on unin terra ptedly until
yesterday, when the workmen opened a
double grave, that of a man and bis wife.
named Swerllne. Upon tbeir attempting to
remove the bodies they were found to be
much heavier than those already taken up.
Iniactthev were so heavy a to make it
necessary to open the boxes before they
could be taken from the graves.
This done, it was found that both bodies
were turned to solid stone. It is said by
those who knew thea ia life that- they
loosed quite natural. The bodies have
been buried about 32 years. They were re
interred ia the new cemetery nearby. The
friends of the deceased tried to keep the
matter irom the public, as they feared the
bodies would be stolen by the enterprising
museum man. bat tncriacts soon became
known. The find excited considerable com
ment in the neighborhood.
SAN INTO A WAKEE6&31,
A FeeaHer and BIsastron Wrack a ike
Atlantio Coast Line.
mrXCtAI. TXLXQIIAH to thi BISTATCK.1
Petessbteo, Va., November 53. This
morning, shortly after II o'clock, a general
alarm of fire was soaadad which broaght
ont tbe department Instead, however, of a
fire there was a terrible -wreck on Third
street. The north-boaad freight train over
the Atlantio Coast line, wkich arrived here
I about three hours behind aeaedale tisse,
while coming down a steep grade get fro
under control, and through an open. Switch
ran on a side track leadiag to Third street,
Tbe train came at lightning pt&. The
locomotive collided with a box car ia front
of Marks1 & Friends' large brick; storage
warehouse. This car was driven entirely
through the thick bricx wall, atakiag aa
opening of 20x15 feet and. seeding the'
bricks flying ia every direction.
The locomotive and tender were eeaplete
ly wrecked, and the warehouse, a new build
ing, was badly" damaged. The eaglaaer and
BDTISS UP OUR SUIKM.
CeaOraHtiea at the Latest Ksmsr Abas.
Augusta, .Me., November 38. The pro
prietor of the Poland Spring Seas, Mr. E.
P. Sicker, upon being naked abaat tbe re
pert that aa English syniieato bad amd aa
oSfertor his plaee, adasittod tt it was
tree, and added: "Greeaoagh "Walker ia
now ea hk way here from Liverpool, aa a,
raarssoBtatlve of a syndicate, wfclah. pro
pot to obtain control of (ha kadiag spring
and health reaorte of the United Stats. Aa
agsnt of the combination, it is ssW, ha al
ready obtained option oa ntaay of tbe lead
ing MMrtr, including tho at cWratoga,
Hot prion Waukesha aad tba Bin Liak
SEED'S EAMS BEEAE
An Unexpected Defection in the DI
gation from PenssylYxaia.
THE ERIE' MAS HOT' DOTJBTffl.
Calbertson Will Not Tcte, ltfMftl ' - ''
Speaker Selectei by Quay. ? "
EUMOBS OF A C03UUTIII
Whereby Seed Would B Bora of Ue Scjft
Pig Iron Killer..
Bepresentative Culberison, of the Bria'
district, is an outspoken Pennsylvania Caa-t
gressman, who will not vote for Beed far "
speaker. Mr. Calbertson doesn't dislibt
Beed so much as be doer Quay, and oppose;
the mas from Maine simply beeaase be i i
the Senator's choice. Mr; Cnlbertson's de
fection is the only one from Pennsylvania
so far known of by the Beed men. " "
prnox x statv coRazsrosnxxr.i 'j '
Washejqton, November 28. A, ia-
tionai Holiday la. always one of the qswteat :
or Washington. days, and this daywasW.
excention to tea rule. nsn.irlm.rJ..
business houses were closed, officials stay ad
at home, visited with the most intimate of :
their personal friends, or rode or drove isjt?""
the country, and even the members of tba.
House of Beprsaentatives who are ia tba
thick of the battle for the Speakership, '
seemed glad of an excuse fora little relaxa
tion from the jtrone tension of th nut malr.
It Was, therefore, the quietest day of tbj
5M$k-t the various headquarters of aba"
easdidates. The field was again geaw
over thoroughly, nothing was discovers to .
materially change the appearance of thisfa. '
Mr. McKinley did not seem to have Js
hope by the strong Beed developaats '
yesterday", and he indignantly eh
some of his supporters who declared tfcatii
Beed. He did not purpose to have it said
that he had plaved the dog in the
and because he could not get enough
to revenge nimseu on the man who
get more votes than he. ..!&
THE "WEST PHILOSOPHICAL-
The "Western members generally aaass1 '
to view philosophically the cfpuiti ?
the East on Beed, and to think thai if aV
faction couldn't get its pmiealar tm i sifts. "
Beed would be as satisfactory to its "Wi '
as anybody. In fact, the laager- tb."si
era people study the sitaatMS, tba p
they are convinced that the seeiieaal eiv if
wholly absurd and calenlatod todriv va
to BeedVpurely a a protest against it a.
sense, rather than to esaiB-i ska "Ws"S
against him. C
Cannon, Henderson aad Barrows
a very quiet day, seres ia tba press si 4
possibility that iasteadot tbe big h e
the little ones, thev would eat b
and they will wait costfertably with
hope the camiHZ of Saturday.
The most procaiaent arrival ftam
svlvaaia to-kv was that of Sea. '
I Kelly,-who reached hi hotel thai
boob, w flueaw. manner larnspn a
qairiaa iadioated that the neort
iriandliaes to eed Uvtrae, a p
Mt to exploit hiBHelf la the pi
wuH only eaase U aa iawssn
ants hatweaa maw Mini la .iy.
jar. JLaliey- 4a aot
loosen e siJga
for chairman or the waysj
mittee, he doe, not now Mat toat J
accept Jany thins: ur ra ta ev
Beed' election he will anvaiat
chairman,, with McKinley next la tba 1
with, the understaBdiae-tbat KeBav wtU
fuse to server and thus bring Mt juntos fl
tne neaa oi tne committee.
Another Pennsylvania arrival w
Calbertson, member froat tba. Jsri c
Far less promiaentthan Kellev.ka
to a few. be created much more of a i
than the "Fataar'of the Hoase." M 1
time in making himself known at Ms 1
Kmley headquarters, and aaaAsaaiag I
sen as against jxeea. Mt. uuiesrtssi
been classed among the fewdoabtralj
sylvanians, by the Beed men, bat it
pears he is no longer doabtfau m i
caused a new lease of life of the
McKinley to a larger rapport in tba .
stono State than the Bead ssaa wmI
HE DOBSX'T LIES OOA.T.
Mr. Culbertsen's oppeaittoa to Scad Md
explained by the fact that he sanm jtojg
to be the Speaker desired by Qaay.
Is "agin" anything that Qaav waata s'
cause Quay recently backed SdMsr Ji
wanted anotbir man. Glaaier waa t
ed, and CulberUoa, who- want to basal
county, was nsaa to una a Beta a
Osborne, of the Twelfth district, wM toaaait' '
against vjuay oeeansa tne Beaatar m asm 3
man appointed Collector of Internal JM
enaeiorthe revenue district iawaMaVMk
borne lives- Aa these oatees ar aai aj
fined to a Congressional dlsiriat, I
uuar did not think any one
could fairly cHim the right toi
officer, and so resisted in tbe i
of persona who were strongly bach
xens, regardless of Uongr
Up to this hear no fartbor
Beed is heard from ia Peaaeyl vaaia, i
cent those before elaased a daaMJIor
tainlr for McKinley. naatelr.
Harmer.-Yardley, Osberae, Calsartosa
ncuu. w nether any of tas tu
Beed will probably aot be Bcaitrret' J
until themeetiwof thePaavIwaii
gatlea to-morrow sfternoe. lAawmnmtf.i
sW JMBylW roajlww Jl,fJaillPwli XWv,"
"WASBTXQTOir, November 28. 1
L York delegation bald a rather feratai :
ipr in the evening la Beprentowa,;I
den 4 parlor at tbe Arlington .Betel. a
Beed' bad seat word that he did aatj
any .one to be ceereed Into sat
The vote snowed that tixtoeae
mpnafepps lirnnnnf Trim inrTljmd. wlsk
jrr .: . - ; . j
the remaining three absent uoat the
Cbnaressmaa Baker then' annoas
.while ha wa for Burrows, ha weM"
I hesitate to oast hi vote ferSeed.
i-FIoed. tbe other member, is ht
l and was told that ha wa free to vote
chose, bat before dinner wa ovar ba
mated that he miaht. in certain
cies, seta for Ac Main candidate.
WASansonoN. November a. JkHi
Speakership candidates ate taairt
a dinner wbleb Ksarssentatlv .
gave at hi howeier the pnrpe!
lag tfeaan all together.
AjWTIJW KIW OIL Pitt.
tsracut. naaaiux to raw Msai$
CADIZ, O., November 28. Ms
Grit Oil Company No. a, ea tba
Utm, earn la yesterday, a lft-bas! :
a sapartor qaality of oil. yw
Wl JsVUanVJl OniBIJ t
deatty ch df l