Centre Democrat. (Bellefonte, Pa.) 1848-1989, October 23, 1879, Image 2

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Every farmer in hit annua/ experience
discovers something of value. Write it ami
send it to the "Agricultural Editor of the
Dkmoi'hat, Itellefonte, J'enn'a," that other
farmer* may have the benefit of it. I.et
communications be timely, anil be .11 ire that
they are brief and welt /minted.
AURICUbTURK feels the ctt'ect of the
"boom" along with other branches of
business, and with wheat "booming"
close up to $1.50 and threatening to
go beyond even this figure, and other
products in proportion, farmers can
well atford to join in the general
cheerfulness at the prosperity which
they, more than any other class, have
contributed to.
Tiik current issue of the Rural
New Yorker is its "potato number,"
and it is well named. Illustrations
of sixteen varieties of new potatoes
adorn its pages, and the letter press
nearly all relates to the same subject,
and besides the editorials and "Rural
Farm Notes," is from the pens of such
well known farmers and writers as
Prof. Caldwell, W. I. Chamberlain,
I'rof. Real, K. J. Rrowncll, Henry
Stewart, and many others. These
special numbers are making n splcn
<Md reputation for the Rural.
We learn that the authorities of
the Michigan Agricultural College
have tendered the chair of Professor
of Agriculture to Mr. W. I. Cham
berlain, of Ohio, from whose ready
pen wc have made frequent quota
tions for the benefit of the DEMO
CRAT'S farmer readers. Mr. Cham
berlain is one of the few practical,
working farmers of the country whose
scholarly attainments fit him for any
position he may bo called to occupy;
and while we congratulate the College
on this acquisition to her working
forces, we shall be sorry to tniss Mr.
C. from the field he has so well tilled,
and arc not at all sure that he has
enlarged his sphere of usefulness.
We publish, in another column,
an article on "The Law of Trespass"
which it would he well for farmers to
read up. This is the time of the year
when gunnejrs are apt to nlioutid, and
every farmer should be prepared to
protect himself from their spoliation.
No man has any more right to enter
yonr fields with a gun and kill and
carry away your birds, than he has
to come with a bridle and take away
one of your horses, or with a reaping
machine to cut and remove your
crops. Remember this, and enforce
it, and by thus protecting the birds,
you will do yourself and the farming
community an inestimable good in
the way of securing our crops from
insect depredations.
The foraging season is now nearly
over and the {toultry will require
more feed than they did while roam
ing over the farm in search of insects
during the summer months. Unless
they get a lilieral supply of feed now,
they will not grow and thrive profit
ably. The young things have enor
mous appetites now, and it will not
do to stint tbcin if we wish to market
them at n profit.
They need not, and should not,
have as much grain as they will eat,
or they will soon 'eat their heads otr.'
A cheap and good food for them is
boiled potatoes mashed and mixed
with sour milk and wheat bran. This
will keep them growing finely, with a
little grain in the evening.
There is no lictter way of dispos
ing of the small {lotatocs than by
boiling and feeding them to pigs and
chickens. Wherever the supply is
nufllcicnt the fowls should have all
they can cat.
This food will keep them growing
nnd thriving, and if corn meal, or
corn and oats chop|Kxl together, be
substituted for the wheat bran it will
fatten them cheaply and rapidly.
W k have advocated from the begin
ning that farmers should read more,
study more, think more, and in every
possible way add to their kuowlcdge
of the business in which they are en
gaged. We firmly hold to this opin
ion, nnd so long as we shall remain
connected with the agricultural press,
so long we shall continue to urge the
necessity of this upon our readers.
Wc must not be misunderstood, how
ever, la-cause ol thin position, us con
curring in the opinions of HIOHO who
hold Unit farmer* us u elnss are
behind the age in general informa
tion, and intelligence, and particular
ly in that which pertains to their call
ing. On the contrary, we believe
that not only are they the peers of
any other class of workers in the
great Held of human industry, in
point of general intelligence and spc
ciflc knowledge; but that excepting
those classes which, because of the
technical character of their profes
sions, require and receive special ed
ucation, they are better informed than
most others. In support of our po
sition we are glad to be able to quote
I so high authority as the Rural Xew
Yorker , anil direct attention to an
article from its pages, in another col
umn, entitled "Relative Intelligence
of Farmers."
Agricultural Science or Art ?
It is reported that a eat in Itrooklyn,
X. Y., hits hutched three broods nf
chickens during the present summer,
and is now sitting on u fourth.
We find this paragraph in one of
our exchanges under the head of
j "Science and Art." We don't know
whether it is scientific or artificial.
"You pays your money and you
' takes your choice."
Fanning in " The Northern Northwest."
ltishop I'eck, during a recent trip
through the great Northwest, took a
look at things through his agricultu
ral spectacles, and makes report of
what he saw, in an interesting letter
!to the Christian Advooite. It seems
to us that when observing the o|>era
i tions of the harvesting and thresh
ing machinery the good bishop's
spectacles exhibited multiplying as
well as magnifying {towers. Afu r
giving statistics of some of the
I "large farms" of that large country,
the Rishop says:
bet this suffice to ftamplc the
farm* and lite large product* of agri
; cultural industry in tin* Htrang" ooun
| try. Imagine a vast plain, foniewhat
j undulating, and yourself in the midst
of it, and splendid farm*, and immense
s ly larger unbroken farming land* ex
tending to the horizon in all direction*;
and then think two thousand mile* on
beypnd—nearly every acre sandy loam,
vegetable mold, or alluvial de|osit,
I from two to six feet deep, the greater
projMirtion of the whole richer and finer
I than the garden* of the Hast ind you
will begin to have some idea of this
I Northern Northwest.
The very large farm* nre an evil.
| They have generally been obtained by
| railroad bonds in the band* nf sharp
| eyed parties when the Northern Pacific
! suspended. The large and increasing
; number of small farms—from lfrft to
I .",(**) acres—are more hopeful a* to pop
; illation, bringing into neighborhood the
large immigrations, and advancing all
j the forma of civilisation are the great
: hope of this country ; while the mag
| nates on their 10, 20, and .'lO.OOO acres
j will imitate the manorial greatness n f
j the old world, demonstrate on a Urge
; -cale the capabilities of the soil, and for
| a generation hold large control over the
j social and civil interests of the country.
, Tn the days nf their early descendant*
j these vast cstatcswill be broken Up and
! mini mixed for the good of the greatest
harming in (he Red River countuu
would astonish a New Kngl*n|kßflw|
many others, who had for t
been moving around on thihtl/VuH
den patches in the bast, f i-]j|tp9
one team with a single pknfcjfl
see fifteen or twenty gangX L Jmh
powerful teams, managed |
riding on a sulky, with furrow* so wide,
taken all together, that you would think,
and think well, that the whole force
would plow a farm of the Kastern pat
tern every day.
Harvesting i on a scale equally large.
Ten to twenty teams follow each other
around a field of wheat, drawing reap
ing machine* which cut an immense
swath, binding every straw as they go,
and pushing bundle* oil' from each ma
chine so fast that you cannot count
them. Threshing and cleaning are
equally wonderful, barge machines nre
worked by steam, and the straw is the
fuel—the machine pulling it in and
feeding the flame with it* own fingers
—while the pure wheat roll* out so last
that you can hardly put it into sacks,
when it is moved otr to market in bulk.
The Law of Trespass.
The general rules in regard to tres
passing on another's land are pretty
well understood in the community,
and yet many erroneous ideas pre
vail. For instance, many persons
believe they have a legal right to kill
their neighbor's fowls found trespass
ing upon their premises, and doing
damage to their gardens or crops.
This is an entire mistake. Undoubt
edly the custom of doing so, and
tossing the carcass over the fence, af
fords the gardener some satisfaction,
but it renders him liable to pay the
full value of the fowls, besides the
costs of the court- Ills remedy is to
bring suit against the owner of the
fowls for the damage occasioned by
the trespass. An unsatisfactory rem
edy, no doubt, but the only legal one.
Another prevalent idea is that if a
person simply crosses ymrr land for
twenty years he thereby acquires a
right to continue the practice. This
is onlyj true when the crossing for
twenty years has been adversely to
the bind owner, and under a claim of
a legal right to do so against the will
of tiie farmer. < Hhcrwise, fifty years'
travel by consent of the owner would
not give any one the right to continue
to pass after he had Is-en forbidden
so to do.
One ol the most annoying forms of
trespass to the farmer is that of hunt
ing and fishing. Many persons seem
to suppose they have a right to fish
or hunt over another's ground as
they please, but this is quite erron
eous. lit all ordinary streams and
ponds the right to fish belongs only
to the person owning the adjoining
land. If the stream is navigable,
that is, if the tide ebbs and llows, the
public have a right to boat up and
down it, and to fish from their boats,
but nut to go ou shore and do it.
Relative Intelligence of Farmers.
Krm tli* Ihiral Nrw* Yotk*r.
While we shall continue to insist,
until new light breaks in upon u,
that there arc a good many profitable
things in their business yet to be
learned by the fanners of America,
and that a good education of the
right kind is required by every young
man who aims at cxrS-llence in the
; pursuit of agriculture,—while we
hold these statements to Is? self-evi
dent, yet well worth being kept be
fore the people—we still believe that
the farming class really give as
much attention to the science of their
art, and read up as well on their busi
ness as any class in the country, and
much better than some.
Take, first, those classes which re
ceive a special education—the so
called professional classes and
compare them with the farmers iu
this respect. Beginning with the
I ministers, and taking all the denom
inations together, how many of them
; had a sufficient preparatory edtica
! tion, arc 'sound theologians, or men
! of real hreadth of culture or cathol
i icily of thought ? Take the physi
; clans, and what proportion of the
men in this profession are thorough
-1 ly skilled in anatomy and physiology
—compe tent and reliable diagnosti
cians, safe and effective in their
! therapeutics, ready anil apt in surgi
| oal practice, sound hygicnists, c.-irc
| ful observers and earnest students ?
Among our lawyers, how many of
them deservedly stand high with
their brethren on account of their
j sound knowledge of the principles of
law, extensive acquaintance with the
j statutes, skill as advocates, reliabil
| ity as counsel, or for general juristic
ability ? And what proportion in all
i these professions arc to any great ex
tent notcei for their love of knowl
edge outside of their own immediate
needs ? How many patronize their
: professional journals better than the
farmers patronize the agricultural
j press ?
When we go outside of the learned
professions, and inquire into the
; state of things among business men
and artisans, how do we find it?
, Mow many merchants know more of
| their business than its routine?
How many are acquainted with the
laws ol trade and finance as laid
I down by the great writers on these
I subjects ? Are the works of Adam
Smith any more likely to lie found
!in the hands of the average mer
chant than are the writing* of Lie
' big in those of the average farmer ?
! What, even, do our bankers know of
i scientific finance ; or how many of
our statesmen (so-called) are there
I who are students of the works of the
authorities on subji-cts rcla-
as a body,
BkcMtuily of the literature, rich
and varied as it is, of the branches of
- knowledge in direct relation with
their respective industries? And
when wc come to hard workers in the
| useful arts, the mechanics of the
country, how many of them lake and
| read their trade journals, or study
} the hand-books written for their
| practical instruction ?
Looking over the whole field in
; this way, we are compelled to award
| to the farmers a very high compare
| live position. While they are far
Ix-hind where they ought to stand,
I and where they might easily stand,
they cannot lie regarded as laggards,
when put in comparison with most
other classes. To be sure, in a coun
try where land is so plentiful and
cheap, nnd where consequently it is
so easy for every industrious Inliorer
to become the owner of land, wc
necessarily have a vast nuinlwr of ii
! literate men cngagi-d in tilling the
soil. But with all this, a close in
vestigation will show that the farm
ers as a class compare favorably with
any other as lovers of knowledge,
and as progressive workers in their
art and business.
A !,OOSK soil, like a sponge, will
hold a great deal of moisture ; a
hard rock, like a block of wood, will
absorb but little ; a few hours of
wind and sun will soon evaporate that
little ; while a deep, well pulverized
soil take many days—perhaps
a month would be re-quired to evapo
rate the moisture it would retain.
A soil ftriUited to the depth of ten
or twelve inches is ns much as the
most exhausting crop would perha|>*
require. But let the unfertilized sub
soil lie pulverized as deep as possible,
and a good crop can be grown in the
most unfavorable season.
Good Hints About llorßrß.
I tim- i >im, iiiiMin, itoUmi.
The horse's stomach has a capacity
of only Kixtecn quarts, while that of
an ox lion two hundred and lifty. In
the intestines thin proportion is ri -
versed, the horse having a capacity of
one hundred and ninety quarts,
i against one hundred of the ox. The
jox and most other animals have a
gall bladder for the retention of a
j part of the bile secreted during diges
tion. The horse has none, and the
bile Hows directly into the intestines
as fast as secreted. This construc
tion of the digestive apparatus indi
cates that the horse was formed to
eat slowly and digest continually
bulky and innutritious food. When
fed on hay, it passes very rapidly
j through the stomach into the intes
j tine.
i The horse can eat but live pounds
of hay iu an hour, which is charged,
J during mastication, with four times
its weight of saliva. Now, the stom
ach, to digest it well, will contain
but about ten quarts, and when the
animal eats one-third of his daily ra
tions, or seven pounds, in one and
one-half hours he has swallowed at
least two stomaehfuls of hay and
saliva, one of these having passed to
the intestine. Observation has shown
that the food is passed to the intestine
by the stomach in the order in which
it is received. If we feed a horse?
six quarts of oats, it will just fill his
stomach, and if as soon as he finishes
this we feed him the above ration of
seven poc ids of hay, he will eat sulll
e'ent in three-quarters of an hour to
have fo-ced the oats entirely out of
bis stomach into the it tcs.ine.
As it is the office of the stomach
to digest the nitrogenous parts of
the feed, ami as a stomach full of
oats contains four or five times as
much of these as the same amount of
hay, it is certain that either the
stomach must secrete the gastric juice
five times as fast, which is hardlv
possible, or it must retain ibis food
five tbnes as long By feeding the
oats first, it can only lie retained long
enough for the projier digestion of
bay; consequently, it seems logical,
when feeding a concentrated food like
oats with a bulky one like hay, to
feed the latter first, giving the grain
tin- w hole time between the repasts to
lie digested.
The digestion of a horse is govern
ed by the same laws aa that of a man,
and as we know that it is not best
for man to go at hard work the mom
ent a hearty meal is eaten, so we
should rememiicr that a horse ought
to have a little rest after his meal,
while the stomach is most active iu
, the processes of digestion.
Pork producing Value of Corn.
, J. W. IWhlairii, iti Rural N • V k<r.
It isa well-known, but indifferently
observed, fact, that it is a law- of an
imal growth that a young animal w ill
make a pound of growth on very
much less food than an older one. In
feeding experiments I am constantly
noting conoborating facts, vet farm
ers ignore in practice this law both
in |>ork and lieef production, entail
ing a great loss upon our agriculture-
Making a specialty of early pork and
lieef production will do much to re
-toru these industries to favor in the
East- I will not give the details of
the tnnny weighings of food ami of
pigs, as the condensed results will
j cover the point of inquiry.
Several lots of Chester White
grade pigs of two in a lot have been
fed from the time of weaning until
they would weigh, dressed, in round
numbers, 200 pounds each. These
pigs have lieen put in pens, from
which everything that they would
consume was excluded, and their
food consisted of weighed corn meal
moistened with water—and nothing
'else. The first year, 1*77, 100 lbs.
of meal made 24.8 pounds of growth.
The second year 100 pounds of meal
made 24.* fiounds of growth. This
year's results arc not completed, but
arc more favorable than heretofore.
They will dress when fed and fat
tened thus: *2 pounds j>cr l'K)
pounds of live weight; or, one bush
el of corn would give 11.3* pounds
of pork. It would be proper to say
that I do not think this method of
feeding is calculated to give the best
results tbat may be gained from corn
ineai. The cx|>eritncnU in question
were comparative, and were not de
! signed entirely with reference to
I economy. It is perfectly safe to as
sume that one bushel of corn will
' make 12 pounds of |iork. In fact, I
; find among mv re-cords instances
where results far exceeding those
given, have been realized.
I have stated what I believe may
be an average result from a well bred
pig judiciously fed.
A New Trick in the Trade.
f* Rnfti* Ma*rtri.
East fall I planted aomc plum
stones in my garden ; they grew
nbout as usual, except one plant
which is double the size of the rest.
Close by it came up a parsnip from
accidental seed. I tielicve the par
snip in its rapid growth, shooting its
root down by and in contact with the
plum roots, kept the soil loose and
thua favored their growth unusually.
It is worth further experiment.
SAVE your wood-ashes to fertilize
your cultivated ground, whether
field, garden or grass land.
II 'it HUH, Mr Parian*' <1- FV>., Ifarttumrr Ihn/rrn.
l'ainls, Oils, Glass and Varnishes,
j AUHIIRTmnt; .... llt'MKS' BLOCK, .... BKLLETOMTK. I'd
Ilr-ot liw Ti r < it V rerili >i Jan
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J.nJg. If u i us* A Mivtk, Uk lIIVef.
A MJU h.il l*sw Ji ||..1,. John II nan* IMI#.
£**••• ial< Judge* Hot**. Hltll tt Kb INCK, Jiilia |l|Vt
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U'glaf. rof illaati.lt Ikuf 41 4 R W |tt B' firtCLl'
It. i Set ,f |>. sija, a - UII LIS* A Tvaits
j iHstrh t Attorney liar iti A Kofcvaci.
i 1* tier Ift John Ur4iittU.fe
Tr.assurer llt.aat VcAftirg.
j • "Uht} Ku-•#! J'ac*N UtTLINQ.
4'-. Pl,.r A • C* /!*,*
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Hark t 1 "ui.tj C.MitaiaalotH'r*- lU*i.r lr<
Aftum*.;- t" OHJhI; < m C M ll n.
Janitor of Court Ifoma tar am lUUMutm
' ui.ty Auditor*- J\nt* T Utiasßf, (i K Wil-
UaMl. Tu mas li Jstoiauy
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|l 4*l f..t ■!,, cm* *bm |.,* f..| ■ twine.t,4
wU l-. than n.n 111 rtio* nf an, n* mm I,it,-* ~f
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f i—l*ml Ih* ninnivl .*l*ll,l tb- l't,l*iil,i,l Tb*
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mmlit*. u*<* • *lron*. lr*i*hi n—4l- and n*r
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t-rnak tb* ll, #4 Tb* mon*, i b**rfnll, t, fin. 1-1 If ||
"111 not oern* and itl an, mm bin* nl 4-ml.l*
Ih* prl— II ~.* bar* ay nlbr mm bin* bni Ihl,
and ha— a li*li*r on#. T>i —a* and ia|44it, of it*
imdl' -n ami qnalll, ol It, *nrk It 11, ln*l —• --inmandm
Hon. || "111 bm, fall, lurk, l-nud, ird. Mnd, *ath*r,
•llll. rnflW- plaat, fold, analln|>, ahlrr, lull, I .ml*.
-mbri44-i.nl* np b—mill,,. •*., "lib -lafan—.—
and <|Ulrkn*aa. an,ui|n*am>4 b, an, mm bin- *i
Imrnlad. Tb* Prlrmi of our *** mmhim* a— I.*,
than I boar aahad bjr 4-nl*r* In a—nd-hand, —bnlll
and Anl.h-I mm-hinaa.or thia* arllin* onlOld Sb.h
to ilnn- up l-italn-m, man, **rh inf-rlor and nld*,la
mm Inn— I nun* off-r-d a* *** at —dnr—t prima
R**a— of Imitation, and onl, ln, n** mm him*
Tbr- a— no *** Aral-riant mm-hln-t ofl—d at I** at
tb- "painil,." b, man, dollar*
For totllnionlal* t— dmr rlpllvt book*, mailml f—t
with mmpl-* at work.
floral* tblppad loan, part of tb* nmmtr,. no mall**
bow —mot* lb. pin— ma) Ira, and aaf* d.lw.r, *nar
nnlood, *l*h prltil-** of * tnonomui tt.nintVbi*
Irabi— p*,m-nt of Mil. or on —I-Hpt of prtr* l>,
H-*iil"ti*-l Iratt.r, Mon*, ordar. or IktA
Ar—nt "I*4 lbrnn*brml tb* rv.nnlr, A* Uitt, tb*
-bayra-l. mirat aatl.fm lor, and i,i,ld**4lin* mm bin*
I* tb- world. For lllraral inm. tllm
7b H—adwn,. X-* Torb.
Tbi* bona* |r mln-nl la * HI, f,m*d S*r ll* com
f..rial.l. bol-I*. tt k-jd In arar, i**|m I -jnal to an,
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luafcn el-aw oana4s,n U W ,n„m.,.n ,n, JR. C. R.
R . trairiA rtiatl
Kit* M*i, R..1, Xlaara Waal, and I>ay
Ili nalaAl , .1. ,|.m- oobbh tion at U-k llao n
W.lh It R 4 It |( t„„„
Kit* M. ! Ka*l a,,-l R'ctt oahni* I at RfiAVlta tea A,
< a I. AM a K H at (Votj mil, n r i V K
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; l*r,ft* - .(d attl, A 3 II K
l'ak.r (a a 111 ran la-mc-a Pl,.la4<*l| I,la and
illta>i,t,i i n Sla.-ar. Kt jncaa R tat. Kit* Kti-raaa
R-M, rtiila't*lpl,,, I I|4*. Kail and Iw> Ki,.,~a
l*a.t. at.ll jttibdaj KtptMA Kail. Ma*,At, ,ta .a all
; night trait,a 34 A RAU,I*.
1B"1 l>*i>*nt,4*nd*t
i row orrnßixo
Plain or Fancy Printing.
j Wo have tinuAual facilitioa for |>rintini;
* PA M I'll LKTS,
I'JCOfi It A M M KS,
BaT"Printing d<>n<\ in the I*t tyle, on
hort notice and at the iutriwt rali."
*s|rOrdor by mail will receive prompt
Hu h //(4iM Blof k,
1879. THE PATRIOT. 1879.
Oat Up a Clnb and Receive Toir
Paper Free.
The DAILT PATRIOT will be aent by
mail to club* at the following rate* :
Jfi ra, pM ,*M year t.< a (Rat- of r.
WAO |et ("ft |<m ,nit n dak of lea.
f.4 On oofv |er t*nt to n dab of twenty.
24 50 it ("ft pot t*M to • rlab of thirti.
54 (*l |r oof t pot ter to a dab of Mt.
And I 4 ma, ft*, lit on* *** la *wo ran* to Iho
P"* gottlag f lb. dab. fr.* tl, „,aj rnloa ft*
|rta nt a far
The WRRKLT PATRIOT will be *ent by
mail at the following rate*:
fl-tv |**t annual ft* daft* *fj,
f lAO jw aaar.ai p*r oof j to a rial, of Nt.
II 24 ft aantua for oofy to a dab of adghi.
II (a, |ot at,nam f*i ntfij to a Hot.of Mea.
ft' I l**t annum pat wfy tu a r4nt. of IMHy.
fti.A', f*r aaaam |r nfy to a rial, (4 ftfty
ft, 75 for aaaam f*t eft to a Hut, of <■• hundred
Aad oau onf t Ita* ft* oar yoat ta tray raw* to getter
of ad rlaK
The caoh mutt accompany nil order* to
inturo attention. All motey rhould be
•ent by pet offleo orde- or registered
letter, otherwise it will le at the tender'*
ri*k. AddreM
PATRIOT Pifnuenixo Co.,
Ilarritburg, Pa.