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PUDLt(J LEDGER COMPANY
fcrnus ii. it. cunns, rMn.s.
Chr) n.LudlnRton.Vlcrrealdnt John C.Marlln,
fieerelary and Treaaurert Philip B. Collins, John B.
Williams, birectore. ,
CtmiH JI. K Couth. Chairman.
A, It. WITAM3Y
JOHN C. MANTIM.
. -General Dullness Manar
Fubllfled dalljrat PcBLia LtMim Bultdlnr.
Independence Square, Philadelphia.
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C Address all communication to rrrnlno
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wmnxB ix Tna rniunitrnu rnnTorrici is stcoND
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Mill AVKRAOE NET PAID DAII.T CincULA.
ON OP TUB EVENINO LEDQEIl
TOR JANUART WAS 90,214
PHILADELPHIA, FIUDAV. MAnCII 3, 1914.
Men arc used as they use other. ritpay.
Repeated attacks by tho Arabian camel
riders lndlcato that tho Turks are keeping on
Brander Matthews says tbat tho highbrows
aro hurting tho theatre. Tho next move Is up
Air raids on unfortified and ungarrlsoned
English towns nre Just a little worso than sub
marine raids on merchant shipping.
Mr. Marshall (Vice President) says ho will
either be a candldato for ro-elcctlon or will
retire. This appears to bo a safe prediction.
One Qf Mr. Garrison's friends says that ho
la a man of broad outlook. But thnt won't
help him much, now that he's on the outsldo
Tho Kentucky Republicans who indorsed
Fairbanks for President do not seem to un
derstand. It's for 1910, not for 1912, that
nominations nro now In order.
When tho thrifty and distinguished Chau
tauqua lecturer contemplates tho report that
a movie star Is to receive $10,000 a week ho
must regret that ho did not dccldo to do his
acting on a different platform.
Freddy "William, tho accomplished Crown
Prince, has been called home. It Is said, and
Duke Albrecht of Wuerttcmberg is in charge
of tho operations nbout Verdun. It seemed
over here that Freddy wns doing quite well in
An Iowa court has decided that in spite of
tho antl-tlpplng law a barber may legally ac
cept a 25-cent gratuity from a customer. If
this Is tho usual tip, the Iowa farmers must
bo about as prosperous as tho Wilmington
For perhaps the one hundredth time a Ger
man of authority and prestige has declared
that tho shortage of food In Germany is n
"British myth." For the third time Germany
la preparing to destroy British merchant ves
sels because of the starvation policy of tho
Allies. Will the editor of tho Fathoiiand be
good enough to explain?
Prof. Irving Fisher says that a baby is
worth $90. un adult $4000, and by thnt process
an aging person begins to be worth a negative
quantity. That is very clever, no doubt, but
figures are notoriously untrustworthy. Al
most all of us have known babies who were
prjdoless, and many an adult couldn't get n
4000 loan from a bank If ho pledged himself,
soul and all.
Still, In Bplte of heroic efforts, some 300,000
(tons of freight remain In cars, Jammed on
Oldlnga of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Tho
Commercial Trafilc Managers' Association of
this city Is bravely fighting the congestion,
p,nd every effort made by Its directors should
ha seconded. It Is pointed out that tho break
must come within 48 hours or tho city will cut
Itself off from both coal and steel as well as
other raw materials. The effect would not bo
Immediate, but It would be disastrous, and
coming at a time of prosperity would become
a calamity. It seems that this is not so much
a question of blame for the causes as of praise
Jbr those who can solve the riddle.
Such Is the Incurable stupidity of every
Censorship. It never Interferes nt the right
point. A bill for a national censorship of
rnovlng pictures Is coming up at Washing;,
ion. We trust It wII fail. There Is a- deep
reason for the fact that the word "censori
ous" Is commonly used as Implying ""block
headed.!' Saturday livening Post.
Precisely. And tho stupidity of moving
picture censorship is only tho outward show
of a corroding evil In the minds of those who
would employ It Wasn't It the Saturday
Evening Post which once suggested that If
printing were Invented today there would be
a great "moral" movement for a national
censorship of the press? Yet the power of
the printed word nevor became a power for
good until It was free of every censorious
limitation and responded only to the decency
ojC the people whom It served. Tho moving
picture Is entitled to the same liberty.
pn the fape of t, Senator Gore's quotation
of remarktj attributed to President Wilson
ranks as .the prime Indiscretion In a long
list of immoderate and Irresponsible speeches
delivered in Congress. The gist of the ro
- jparjw. which the President Is paid to have
rrmde. aid which have been categorically re.
pudiatert. Is that a war with Germany might
not be a bad thing for this country, because It
might mean the end of the war by mid
summer The President has not been talking
of military strategy lately. One wonders If
ha has had time, with tho yelping pack at
his heels and the Germany situation ever
before his face, to think a great deal on the
subject of trench-warfare and the exhaustion
Of forces. Yot the words he is supposed to
ijjiyo said, hut did not say, oould come
fjem any one. and. In fact, nothjng Is
more frequent tlian such a chance re
irwrh. No one has ever imagined that
( President is not entitled to personal
yrnpath!ea and to opinions concerning the
duration of the war In case this country
JiouUJ be involved. He has, so far. Iiad no
oflkial m-mpathtes, and If war was his object
te has LiKm a most circuitous route to it.
.Vui Uttt (. the words of SMMitor Gore will
HP to ifertiu to m?M sUart W too cleaa
nt Owl sttjtuje toward UiU country. 'Xbey
will go to the German-Americana In tho
United SWte and undermine faith, not In the
President, hut In tho country. They will do
Incalculable harm ovon now when their
authenticity la denied. And they have done
Senator ddre no Rood.
THE VOICE OP THE NATION
Every erlala In Amerlcnn history hna
strengthened the nntloiinl Men n expressed
by Hamilton. Out nf Hie present nenntln
tlnns wltlt Germany (here la likely to mine
the ferlln thnt the world mint iimleratnntl
that when Washington apenh, It la with the
emphatic mice of the whole notion.
"TTTOIID comes from Washington Hint the
President told tho Congressmen whom
he summoned to conference thnt tho Teutonic
Powers look upon the United States as n "big
mnsvmcetlng," rather than as a closely knit
nation. Because of this Impression In Ger
many he wns rinding It dllllcult to persundo
her representatives hero to give pioper con
sideration to tho demands of this Government.
This may tlr may not explain tho long de
lay in the settlement of the Lusitnnln con
troversy. But theie Is no doubt that the fail
ure of Congiess to back him up has handi
capped him. Beginning with Mr. Bonn's re
marks to the AUBtrlnn Ambassador, Just bo-
fore tho Nebraska statesman left tho Cabinet,
niul continuing to the present, when con
gressional lenders have been doing their best
to lnterfeio with him, there litis been discord
enough for Germany to pretend to believe
that tho President una not talking for the
The history of tho country Justifies every
student In concluding that this Is not yet
really a compact and homogeneous nation. It
wns with the greatest difficulty that tho orlg
Inul thirteen colonies woio persuaded to sur
render their independent existence. Mtnto
loyalty was greater than loyalty to tho United
States. It took the great crisis of the War of
1812 to give birth to tho national feeling. But
oven then the theories of Alexander Hamilton
wore still regarded as monarchical lather than
The Mexican War was nnuther crisis which
aroused tho people and made a few of them
think nationally. It was not a State war, but
a war In which the Interests of the wholo
Union wore Involved. Yet statesmen even
then held that this wns not an Indissoluble
Union, and that the States icmalned In it only
so long ns It pleased thorn. It took the great
Civil War, more than seventy yearn after the
adoption of the Constitution, to establish the
fact that this wns a peimaneut federation of
States. Might made right In that war. Tho
South was compelled agnlust Its will to nc
eept tho view of the North. Since Appomat
tox tho national idea has giown by leaps and
bounds. Tho Government in Washington has
extended Its oversight to matters which would
not have been considered within Its proper
sphere In 1860. Wo have national laws legu
latlng tallroads and combinations of business
men. Wo find tho great party of State's rights
permeated with tho Government ownership
theory and Its leaders proposing that Con
gress authorize the purchase by tho central
Government of tho railroads and the telephone
and telegraph lines. These suggestions ato
made because it has been discovered thnt
forty-nine regulating bodies with jurisdiction
over trnnspoitatlon bilng confusion. In their
engerness for legulation tho Democtnta nre
urging central ownership as the hhortest way
to that goal. With the zeal of new converts
to an old established principle they are out
centralizing the Republicans in their plans and
It took tho Sp.anl.sh War to arouse the South
to an expression of loyalty to the Union which
It hnil sought to' dissolve. It had discovered
through years of peace and increasing pros
perity that whatever might have been the
theoretical Justification for Its views in the
sixties, it was better as a matter of practical
expediency that there bo a single strong
American nation than two jealous and com
peting nations within our territory. That
crisis removed any lingering doubts In the
North about tho loyalty of tho South.
But the action of Congress sinco tho present
war began has proved that wo must pi ogress
much further beforo It can properly bo said
that this is a nation all of whoso parts are
equally interested in the welfaro of the whole.
Too much State and sectional loyalty Is find
ing expression and too little national spirit in
these times when we should present a united
front to the world. We have not learned that
in foreign affnlrs tho President Is tho leader.
We forget that he is the executive depaitment,
nlono knows the facts, nnrl that In tho ubsenco
of overwhelming proof that It is wrong it Is
the duty of every loyal American to support
tho rhcy ndopted.
Wo cannot obtain the respect which is our
due in the court of tho world unless wo have
a stiong centralized government In Washing
ton, which every citizen admits represents
him In the conduct of foreign relations. And
If our citizens, Including our Congressmen,
think that International law is made or un
mado by them at will, and that tho President
ought to take tho side of one belligerent or
another as the apparent material Interests nf
tho country dictate, and give loud expression
to their views, they weaken tho power of tho
Executive and Justify tho view which Mr.
Wilson says is held abroad.
The present crisis is likely, however, to
broaden and deepen the national sentiment,
Just as It has been mado stronger by every
other test that has been put upon It. The
action of Congress on tho Issue which tho
President has put up to It will disclose tho
position which the national idea has reached
In Its progress toward Its ultimate goal.
CREDIT TO IIUHN
GOOD Benjamin Franklin might have
thrown up his hands In terror at tho spec
tacle shortly to- he presented of the city of
Philadelphia borrowing $87,000,000. But shrewd
Benjamin, aftor a ten-minute Interval to got
his breath and to conceive the situation, would
have clapped those same hands in Joy. For
he would have seen a city capable of going
forward In every project necessary to Its ad
vancement and progress, witlr a credit not
shaken and still not burdened by debt.
Ths por capita indebtedness of New York
city is $182, That of Philadelphia is $58,50,
There is no reason why Philadelphia should
fear a large debt nor Is there any reason for
rejoicing In one. The vital thing Is that for
many years to come Philadelphia can, with
the very slightest Inoreuse In taxation, meet
interest, pay off obligations and continue to
build Its transit lines, its libraries, its Park
way, can abolish grade orossings Bnd Improve
its sewage and still be la the position of a
well-inanaged household. It Is perhups not
practicable for any philanthropist to dig deep
and offer to pay the city's debt. But the more
important thing la that the city has no need
of such a philanthropist, it can borrow on
the most advantageous terras, and while tho
nations of Burupo come to this country bid
dins ft(8h feT team Philadelphia can saunter
at the ipa.rkt and bo everwhalraod wlUt oft
tent. Philadelphia la a wood investment,
LEDGER-PHILADELPHIA, PttTT)AY MARCH 3, lfllfl'
'" ' . F " - .. T
Tom Daly's Column
WB HAV13 been Invited to attend a meet
ing In New York tomorrow of "Men nnd
Women of tho Irish Hnco In America," to
voice the sentiments of tho nation against
England. In yesterday's papers wo read of
a counter demonstration. Well, we can't Bcem
to bo able to get to that meeting tomorrow,
but we submit this song for tho Occasion!
IN UNION STRENGTH..
Come, riff ye true-born Irtihmcn,
And tlitcn to my sonnl
We'll raise our nation's voice attain
To xcorc the Ancient B'ron.o,
Behold! In war's titanic throes
The tyrant sweats today;
lie rounts on us to flyhl his foes.
What are ire oolni) to sallf
"Down wllh England" "Kill tho Kaiser"
"Faugh a ballagh!" ttootoo! for tho
Turks Redmond's a traitor!
"You're Another!!" "Remember Allen,
Inrkln nnd O'llilon!" "Shoot the Dutch
" Ray for Austria! !" "Lcggo my eart"
Co);tc. let us see that on the snd
The foe shall stretch his length.
Make free the soil our fathers tlod!
In union there t strength.
The tyrant never tvas so iccaU,
Our hone h sliony today:
Our country walls to hear' us sneak.
What flit) we going lo sayt
"lielnnd wns Ireland" "Mr. chairman,
tho savage German" "when England
wns a pup!" "For England and Homo
Rule!" "Ireland ll bo lielnnd when
Kng " "Point of order, Mr. Chairman!"
"What tho ! ! " ".Move" we adjourn I "
Maybe that's bud! What? Honest, we've
been batting pretty well lately. Too well,
inuyhn. Perhaps we'd better hold nursclf In a
little bit. Wo sorter remind oursclf of Frank
It. Stockton's famous story, "His Derensed
Wife's Sister." Never read It? Oh, get It.
Too Ikp! Tho Intelligent compositor m.ido that
"unlhlnu" ii lila llrat try. Tryln' to kid us?
And why shouldn't wo rediscover Frank
It. Stockton. Just as Frank Adams resurrected
II. O. Hutiner? Stockton was a Philadelphia
product. Do you know his "Transferred
Ohost?" Rend that, too.
Some men we know have taking ways,
But O! nlns! nlack!
There nro hut few we know of who
I lino ways of bringing back.
Safely First, but Help! Help!
Dear T. D. Somo guy, tho head of the
depaitmuiit at my place of employment,
owes mu a buck and I'm kind o' Icary about
nskln' for It. as he Is my boss. How would
you call his attention to this debt?
Yours in distress,
Come, lails, let us help this poor fish! But,
remember. It's the smooch nnd not the strong
aim that wins hero.
In the meantime, D. S., hold out a little
longer. Rest n.saured, some succor is near!
(By tho way, are those Initials your own or
do they stand for what wo'ro thinking of
this minute?) Let's .vce, now! what to do?
What lo do? You might ask him to lend you
a dollar. But, no! He'd bo liable to behave
like thnt fellow M. F. Hanson used to tell
nbout: A had owed B $10 for somo time.
They went to the races togoth'er and A won
.something like $50, but B went broke. Ho
said to A: "I.ond mo $10. will you?" A
flushed, hesitated, llnally peeled off a tenner
and said: "All right: but mind, now, this
ain't the ten I owe you."
Como lads, lend a hnnd!
Referred to Bud Fisher
In a eatuloguo Issued by William Downing,
bookseller, No. 5 Temple Row, Birmingham,
England, we find listed:
Figure of a Woman, probably the God
dess Mot, tho mother-wife of Amen, height
S-lnches, executed in pure Alabaster.
Family's Rucking Up
She was Just IB and It wns her first real
party. Everything was losy to her: even her
father. "Oh, ' she cried, "Just look at Daddy!
Isn't ho perfectly handsome nnd distin
guished. Marvelous isn't he? Really (wills,
perlng), to look at hhn now you wouldn't
think that grandfather said 'ain't,' would
Shifting the Expense
Ills wlfo could joko at his expense
Because sho thought It comical!
But her allowance he cut off
And now she's economical,
WHAT'S A OT. A.MOXd 30T
Onfonl U'.i.l News
Tho Ancient nnd Pluhonornble Onlt r nf Fmnla Crab
held n mwtliiB Imim-illRtrly after the rec-nt lire In
tho Klnit 4 IluntliiB llulldln and decided lo render
the "Anvil I'hnrua" rn m-ime, brelnnlmr Immediately.
Aa a result. JIra nu Kctlltnockpr p.-nt the morn
Ins stnppln- p.Miplo on their way to church, telllng
them how aha knew poxliiwly and ticind tho arwdow
of n doubt that nil the firemen were drunk on the
nleht of tho Are and thai wa the reason It mian't
iHir"iH,,eil Imnwillatalv the alarm wna Klten. Mra
Jane Alnt-lt-awful acted aa ihurrh picket and whla-pt-reil
uurlini Ilia imraon'a praer. now Cm ilrrmmi
had utolen a barrel of communion wine In tho It.iptWt
i'hurc:i and all got bo drunk Hut they had to bo
takin home on atretchors. Mlaa i:ia llarkblter
anread th Joymja news that a bualneaa man and a
Phyalclan had distributed Ballon after Ballon of whla
Ky to tho nro Mghteru, that iloz.-ni of thim wera luat
aaved from a horrible death by halni tho liosa turned
.,'.. ,.,., n,.c ici, uii-uiiui iaurn bretittia took tlr.
The truth of tha matter la that ina alncle nuart of
ivhlakey wan administered imoni 80 neraona, all of
whom were drenched to Iht, akin and 15 of whom
had been holdlnic a noizle for two houra nnd a half
until their clothea were frozen itlff.
rom the Huston Herald.
Jarndire v. Jarndice,
l.anjlni- vb, Ilernatorff.
The most Interesting thing about the above
Is that It originally appeared In B. L. T.'s col
umn la the Chicago Tribune. and was headed
"Celebrated Cases." Boston should know that
the only thing that Jubtllled Shakespeare's
stealing of ideas was his betterment of them.
THAT fellow Frank Oliver, who batted about
.065 when he was Fordham's second-string
centro Holder, Im's the nerve to pu!( this In
the current Fonlham Alumni News:
Billy I-ush has the bakeball squad out In the
cage limbering up. From our personal recol
leotion. that cage was a bad thing for batting
We got so used to slamming It the length of
the cage that when we got outside In ihe lot
we couldn't knock it any further.
This Comes From Ihe Business Oilice
"I want to put in your 'Lost and Found'
column an advertisement like this: 'Wallet
containing considerable sum of money and
papers. Finder will keep money; return
papers,' " said the man.
"Don't you think," suggested the clerk,
"yo.u had brttv add, 'no 1(.113111 asked? "
m but you my W no questions an.
swered. I'm he finder,
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vjtui i-nr.oi MU-tr'tf KL-.rwi.ijrucinic.nJ1" u.YfiLt"i.in.jifLir(kEtrV weui"inrAWf:ii'Wj;ui iTsr.j-ce ll...1".-.' , I 1. !
ss? .OvNx .
OF HUMBLE ORIGIN
Pearls for Buttons and Queens' Or
naments An Important Amer
ican Industry Mystic Proper
ties of the Turquoise
THE pearl. It seems. Is no more a real stono
than that Jewel of which Shakespeare
wtoto In re the uses of adversity:
Sweet aro the uses of adversity.
Which, like the toad, ugly anil venomous.
Wears yet a precious Jewel In his head.
"There Is to bo found In tho heads of old and
great toads," wrote a contemporary of the
bard, "a stono they cull borax or stelon, which,
being used as rings, give forewarning against
venom." Another writer furnishes tho follow
ing bit: "A tondstono, called crepaudla, touch
ing any part envenomed by the bite of a nit,
wasp, spider or other venomous beast, ceases
the pain and swelling thereof." Preset ved In
some collection or other Is n silver ring of
the loth century. In which one of these toad
stones Is set. Tho stono was supposed to
sweat and change color "when poison was in
Tho pearl likewise Is not a real stone. It
ls-n growth of mineral matter, mainly calcium
catbonate, formed around a nucleus, consisting
of a minute grain of sand or other hard ob
ject, or perhaps a paiaslte, which serves as
a contie of irritation insldu of tho shell of an
oyster, and which gradually becomes encysted
or encn&ed In successive layers of caibonato
of lime secreted by tho physiological proeest.es
of the living animal. Not till oysters, however,
have this power of producing pearls. There
nro oysters and oysters, even among the peat I
producets. Tho pearls sometimes found In
ordinary oysters aio dull, shapeless and usually
Penrls of Great Price
Nor oysters only. Pearls may bo found In
almost any bivalve, and somo of the most
valuable aro taken from tho shells of fresh
water mussels. Tho pearl flshorles of tho
Mississippi aro of much gi eater importance
than Is generally supposed. In tho United
States tho fresh water pearl Industry dates
back to 1837, when tho "Queen Pearl" was
found In New Jeisey. It was sold to tho
Empress Eugenie for $2500, and is bnid to bo
worth now four times that sum. So the pearl
may be said to havo invaded the ranks of
Jewels. Neither a gem nor a Jewel In tho
Htrlct meaning of tho terms, tho pearl Is,
nevertheless, one of the most important mem
bors of the group which In common language
embraces gems, Jewels and precious stones.
In all probability It has become more popu
lar and Is used more universally than any of
the other stones. Its valuo varies from a few
cents to thousands of dollars, according to the
size, shape, lustre and color. Tho haroquo, or
Irregular shaped pearl, is found in very largo
quantities In tho Mississippi River and its
tributaries. It is not only used lit tho United
States, hut exported to Europe and India In
Tho American pearl, which Is found In but
ton, round and pear shape, also has a wide
range of valuo, which, llko the baroque pearl,
will vary with size, color, quullty nnd shape.
Tho round or ball peurl Is naturally most val
uable, particularly with a smooth skin and an
Iridescent lustre. Those frequently go Into
necklaces and have been known to bring in
the market as high as $10,000 for u single
pearl. The button shape Is also highly re
garded, hut this also depends on the slzo.
shape, skin, lustre and color for value. This
pearl has the effect of half a ball pearl, giving
tho appearance of a pearl twice Us weight
tho back being usually flat. These aro gener
ally used In large sunbursts, brooches and
rings. The pear shape pearl is used mostly
for earrings, bcarfplns and pendent pieces,
ine word "orient," employed among pearl
merchants, is-a poetic trope based upon the
Idea of sunrise, and refers to the peculiar Iri
descence of the pearl. A London expert de.
dares that tho best way of doctoring a pearl
Is simply to wear it. He says: "A pearl neck
lace that is worn one or twice a month will
go on for half a century and bhow no change.
Lock that same necklace up for 20 years and
all the glow and lustre ure gone and the
pearls look like wax beads." Tills suscepti
bility to outside Influences is partly responsl.
ble, doubtless, for tha belief in a mystic con
pection between the pearl and tha fortunes of
The old Persians put the pearl aboye all
other gems. They hotl a legend to the effect
that pearls were formed of crystallized rain
drops which had chanced to fall into the shells
of oysters as the animals lay airing themselves
on the beach. One of tho most famous' pearls
in hhjtory was found by a negro boy at Pan
ama In the days of the Spanish conquests. It
was pear-shaped and as largo aa the largest
plgepn's egs. It was presented to Philip II
and became knflvvn m -r Pelisrrlna" and was
regarded as a produjy,- It wen worn aa a bat .
FEELS TO HANDLE SUCH
buckle by soveial kings of Spain, then ns nn
ornament for tho hnlr of a queen, and finally
It found Us way to Russia, whero it sbems to
Though mystic, tho pearl Is common. But
the turquoiso Is both mystic and uncommon.
With soml-clvllized peoples of todny It takes
foremost rank among precious stones. This Is
due not so much to Us Intrinsic woith 11s to
the mystic properties and religious slgnlllcanco
which It Is supposed to possess. It Is tho
most highly prized possession of the NitvaJo
Indian of the deserts of Arizona and the
Bedouin of tho plains of Arabia, while tho
Thibetan and Mongolian natives esteem this
gem no less than do the Hop! and SSunl pueblo
dwcllors In our own Southwest. By virtue
of this general uso In pnrts of tho Orient
nnd America, nnd Its intioductlon Into legends
nnd myths of diverse and widely separated
peoples, the turquoise lias .oonsiderablo ethno
From the dawn of civilization down to tho
present day the turquoise lins played an im
portant role and found a variety of ornamental
and religious uses. Not only was it nlways
held In high esteem, but It was frequently in
vnstod with marvelous virtues. From tho
tombs of tho earliest Egyptian kings hns como
beautiful Jewelry Inlaid with turquoises from
tho Sinai Peninsula. Tho Inhabitants of Cen
tral Asia havo long valued tho turquoiso and
been lavish In its use, while tho Persians and
neighboring races of Western Asia havo from
time Immemorial drawn upon tho famous
Nlchupiir deposits near tho Caspian Sea.
Even prior to the beginning of tho Christian
era the mineral was probably known In Eu
rope. During tho middle agc3 and thereafter
Europeans esteemed this Persian stone, which
came to them by way of Turkey, and It was
probably named accordingly, first, tho Turkey
stone, and then tho "turquoiso." At tho time
or the Spanish Conquest under Cortcz tho Az
tecs of old Mexico employed turquoiso nnd
"chalchlliultl," n similar stono of greenish huo,
in many of their ceremonies. These Spaniards,
entering tho region now occupied by Now
Mexico and Arizona, found the turquoiso there
also hold In high regard, and recent excava
tions In tho ancient pueblos and cliff dwellings
of these States have rovealod mnny turquoiso
ornaments which reflect great credit upon tho
artistic ability of thoso early workers.
WHERE ROLLS THE OREGON
Let's begin with Washington and Oregon,
reversing the usual order of naming nnd de-
scrimng tno htatcs of the Union. .lust now
we're looking for interesting facts of history
We speak of Oregon first because that was
once the name of the whole province on tho
Pnclilr coast, Including what Is now Washing
ton, claimed by the United States, nnd extend
ing from latitude 42 degrees to 51 degrees 40
iilnutes north Until 1816 Joint possession was
held by Great nrltaln and the United Stntes
and then tho latter, by tho northwest boundary
.......j, ,,,., HH'iicii mi t:miin 10 me country north
of the 40th parallel. Washington, Oregon nnd
Idaho aro the States which have been orgnnizod
in tho original Oregon territory.
Tho first accurate knowledge of tho territory
was hrought back by Captain Robert Gray an
American navigator who entered the mouth of
the Columbia River in 179; nnd gave tho name
of his ship to It. The salo of Louisiana to the
United States In 1C03 endowed this country with
a title of ownership. The coaRt. aftor Gray's
expedition, soon becaino well known, and the
United States fitted out expeditions to explore
the Interior. The most important of these was
then under Lewis and Clark, who asconded the
Missouri River, followed tho Clearwater River
reached the Columbia and finally arrived nt the
Pnclflo coast In 1805. Jn 1810 companies estab
lished by J. J. Astor established fur trading
posts, the most famous of them being Astoria
at the mouth of the Columbia, The history of
the country for several decades was merely the
record of trading companies, Including the Hud
son Bay Company and the Northwest Fur Com
pany. Drltlsh traders and explorers gave Great
Britain a basis for territorial claims In the
region, and the boundary dispute led Boveral
limes to the verge of war. A treaty In 18 IS
fixed the boundary at the 4th parallel The
territory of Oregon was formed In 1848. the
territory of Washington In 1853, Idaho In 1803
Oregon became a State In 1858, Washington In
1889, Idaho In 1890. ' '""""'
With President Wilson speaking for prepared.
ne8 apd William Jennings Bryan against It,
the shipyards and the arms and ammunition
factories should hold a Jubllee.-LoulsWUe Cour
ier Journal, ' "'
NATIONAL POINT OF VIEW
The Bureau of Mines has done a great work
but Ufa cannot be safeguarded without the heln
of the operators and tho men who are directly
affected. Birmingham Age-Herald. -"
The pacifist and peaceatany-prlcer whosa
mamma didn't raise him to be a soldier, or who
didn't raise himself to be one, or whoT8Wtpo
proud to fight, has no right to expect braver men
to protect him In times of trouble. Rochester
Now comes the agreement with HaltL It
would seem that the trend toward extension of
benevolent help has been inevitable. AH that
may be hoped for the present is that tha Haitian
convention will work is satisfactorily us that
with Cuba Indianapolis News.
If there should be sn embargo on cartridges
gad gunpowder shipped abroad, there should be
an embargo on horses and blsnVets, boota and
shoes, underwear and everything else which
Amerieaos hate been sending abroad for thl
uae of the armies. pes Moines Capital.
. - '.
- H. .W. "-.. ..'. '" '-.!.. -- itiM
.tuw. - .. -i. -. ..- . b
What Do You Know!
Ollprtna nf nt...r.rl l..1i.v.Bt ...Ml r ' ?
in this column. Ten questions, the anntST
to which every well-informed person thtW
Know, arc asked daily,
1. Mho Ii the lliillnn Aniliainilor nt Waahlntlut,
s. .Mime nip .trims rsrrretim of Avttr.
3. In general, which N the more Mihinhle Am.fliS1
crop, ithriit or cotton'.' (m
4. About nlmt Is tlip miilmum Mired for eicrtut
trulim mlimlntl hi htiitiiloril (tlrn.,it .1 l?4
len iin coiiiNtrnt with the "nfcty (lrt" Mil'
Ti. ll'hn ...nf. ,l. ,tln,lln lf.... .f ,1.. 1,. (.,(.
it I lint.l tin... nl.l I.. I..,t.t...., It I, n ,tj&l
... ......... ..u.i u,., ", ii "-Hi. ill l,,l-l,ll, i'KL
7. What cre-it cartoonist routed the Tweed tint hi
Nc York? l
8, AVh.it American nimil officer by ills nrltlnit tit
thircil the linlsrr thnt Cermany moat hjiii
urent imj? jj
0. Nnme tun Stales which Imve more Senator! tin
Iteprcfccntntlicri In Cohrtcm.
10. Mho Im Coirritor Ofnrrnl of the riillipplneiT a
Answers to Yesterday's Quir
1. In the Hay of Snn Pablo, oft Vullejo, near ill
rrnuclsco, f'nl. $
-'. L'iiu.iueipiiia pninier u ,;s-in..'ijj who wa rmt
ilrnt o" the Itojul Arudrmy.
.1. V'llUam II. Sewnril.
4. Wooilrow. "VINou Is President, "Mid Iloardmn
the moat prominent member of the Eieulhl
.1. Illsh Street.
0. About one hundred miles.
7. I.iiwh to prevent ctr.inEnnre In prlraie lift
by limiting expenditures for clothlni, ItM
iimu.ement. etc. Aunlfea In the United Sill
Kenernll) to lawn regulating tho Manor trS?
8. Oeorco Ituhlce, of New Hampshire.
0. About nine du.H,
10. ort-four cents.
Editor of "What Bo I'ou "tnoic" "Vasill
being "kidded" when I wns told thnt ten dmokj
animals wero permitted In tho Moslems Farij
disc. If not. what aro the favorctl ten;
Tou wero not. The ten nre:
1 Tho dog Kratlm, which accompanied IMj
2 Tt.iInnm'H nss. which pnolto with the VOlS
of a man to reprove the dlsobedleji
S Solomon's tint, of which he said, "Go to till
ant, thou sluggard "
J -Tnnnli'u il,nli
fi The ram cnuglit in tho thicket and offerijj
In sacrifice In lieu of Isaac.
8 The calf of Abraham.
7 Tho camel of Saleb.
S The cuckoo of Reikis.
9 Tho ox of Moses.
10 Mahomet's mare, called Borak.
No Easy Way
Brflfor nf "What Dn l'oit ffnoio" I amj
young mnn and would like you to advls"
career where the work will not Do too narovfi
You are not looking for a career People EQ
havo careers work hard and then harar. u
man lonltinc for a snap Is on every E'tHSI
quick "sucker" list. . a
When Hie Year Bernn
-fftor of "What Do You Know" I was rJ
ing "The Spectator" last night nnd noticed ; fo
tho first time thnt the essays are dated Injl
peculiar way. Tho first essay bears tne ,
. ,. . ,n.A ,, SI-.. ...... 11 ma what UUJ
.HillCIl 1, 1I4U-11. I.UII JIIU 11.-I vi ""Z J, J
means? If- ""I
In England the year began on December l
until the tlmo of William the Conqueror, ihS
lam was crowned on Jntiunry 1. and It WM
thereafter ordered that the year should "
on. that date. As tho year began on Ma'CA"",
in the rest of the Christian nations, the Lnim
gradually forgot the order of William an'H
tlinn Mnreh 25 became New Year's Day. J"?
ary 1 was fixed as the beginning of the year II
tho Greirorlan calendar In 1583 The Jl""?.
Catholio countries adopted tho change at owi
It was not until 1762 that Protestant Wi
accepted the change. The date Jlnrcn ' ',ig
therefore, means that It was March 19, 'S
by tho English calendar and 1711 by the urn
gyrlan calendar. You will tlnd In the fjm
Colonial records of America reports of MI""!
taken on March 18, 1735, for example, fuo?j
I. el..-. l.n.lr li.a n vatmof- nt ti nlMAtlnlT Oil API
4ii inn (juuno ii t w-"i v w .,---.-- kill
1, 1736. Some Ill-Informed Investigators P"W.
exnressed aurorlse that there should be a "Sa
year with no record of anything done. J
planatlon Is simple when you understand ya
the new year began nt that time.
"If I Should Die Tonight"
LUf,..- ,ilt,l., nA Vrt,i VNAIfl"
Ir. ,1... .,,,, ...!l,l "If T Rhnllld Die TOIUgBK
printed In your column In tonight's Bv'Sj
Lkdqeh, I found the following selection ;
volume of 13en Kings verses, puun-- ,-.
Foibes & Co., of Boston and Chicago, in
An Introduction by John Mcuoveni -
part: "lie (Ben King) wrote 'If J onoum -
night' a parody mat was. accepted
original, the sun, the centre of the K""-
sliould-dle-tunigiit system or iiioub.
19 T l.n,,1.1 ,11a tntllirllt
And you bhould come to my cold corps .S
say, , j
Weeping and heartsick o'er my lifeless eUfi
If T .hnnlil rilA tntiLvlit J
And you ehouliV' come In deepest grief J
Apd say: "Here's that ten dollars that I eS
ifiigni naa in my larye wimu
And say, "What's that?"
If 1 chnnM A tnnlrrlil
":"ir"r.zr.:r.i'v". ... maa-
AilH yuu eouuiu uume Q my iys iv,r-
Kneel, , -
I Say. If I Should die tnnlE-ht
And you shojuj ime to me, and .
va wt 'biMjt payin' me that wo.
l u-Jj-brartia the while.
But J-d drop dead again.
W: M 4fe ttfc m
8- XKr TBsF