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O. B. OOODLAnDBR,
JT W. SMITH,
1:1:7I Clearfield, Pa.
J J. L1XGLE,
l:lfl Ptilllpabnrff, Centra Co.. Pa. y;pd
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Curwcnsville, CtearQold oounty, Fa.
oct. 9, '71-tf.
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
7-0ffire Id ttie Opera lluua.. octtf, '78-tr.
ATTORNKY AT LAW,
OSr-Office one door out of Shaw House.
ATTORNKY AT LAW,
nflj ,e in Masonic building, Seoond atret, ap
. Iho Court House. JeZS,'78-tf.
LAW 4 COLLECTION OFFICE,
tU Clearfield County, Pena'a. Toy
O T. IIROCKBANK,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Iflce in Opera House, ap 16,'77-ly
M1T1I V. WILSON,
.11 tornty-al-La ir,
CLEARFIELD, . . PENN'A.
ff-froffioe la th. Miifoule Building, ovor tho
C'iunlj national llok. iuer24-80.
ALL ACE & KREBS,
A TTO USE YS-AT-LAW,
jai ;7 Clearfield, Pa.
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
"ilioe over lbs County National Hank.
Jnn. 26, '7Sif.
piiANK G. n ARRIS,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
iirst-class Life and Fir. Iomrano. CompaoleB
r-rr-OfRoa in tho Opera Uuuee.-ft
Mar. Ill, 'o I 1 j"
thus. n. m'Brar.
JUIiKAY & GORDON,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
Set-Office la Pie'i Opera Hotu., aecood floor.
yyiLLlAM A. HAGERTY,
hi Kl( i: over T. A. Plerk Y Co.'. Store,
Mr-Will attend to all legal business with
iniiOtnaia and fidelity.
RI'R I. U'BNALI.r. DAH1RL W, a'CUBDr,
c EN ALLY A McCURDY
ATTORN E YS-AT-L A W,
.'47 Legal bnelneee attanded t. promptly wlthj
1-lity. offlo. on Second atraet, above the Fint
.'et,oiial Dank. Jaail:7l
f F. McKEN RICH,
All legal builoeei eotruetad to kll ear will re
ceive pruoipt attention.
4r-0rae in tb. Court Home.
"A T T O R N E Y - A T - L A W ,
Real Eitat and Collaotloa Afoot,
( l.KAHKII.LO, PA.,
v.'ilt promptly attend to all legal builneaa oa
Iru.trd to hit oaro.
,-OSee is Ple'l Optra lloo.e. Janl'7..
J OliN L. CUTTLE,
ATTORNEY AT LAW.
'l Heal F.atate Agent, Clearfield, Pa,
naice oa Third itreat, bet. Cherry A Walnut,
4rRoipeotfally olTere hie aorvioee Ib eelllng
enJ buying laoda la Clearfield and adjoining
c.untlea i and with aa otperienoeof overtwentv
r.ara at a aurv.yor, flatUra htmeeltthat be e.
raoder tatllfafltloB. LFeb. ia:AS:tf,
R. E. M. SCHEURKR,
Offio. In reildeBoe oa Pint el
I April M, 17J. Clearfield, Pa
W. A. MEANS,
ll'UYSICIAN A SURGEON,
tj DUBOIS CITY, PA.
v ,! attend profeuional ealli promptly, auglfi'70
yi. T. J. liOTER,
I'll YSICIAN AND SURQ SON,
Olloa ob Market Street, Claarteld, Pa.
-0re koum I to II a. at., and 1 to I p. a
;JJU. J. KAY WRIGLEY,
. HOMEOPATUIO PUYSICIAN,
--lie adjolalng tho reeldenoo if .tame.
''', K.O., oa rJeeoadbL, Clearfield, Pa.
(' J.'VK1'1 M T)
Ut. ' x
"ft'ne at retideapa. eoraar of Stat, and Pia.
f"". Jaa. eta, leBI.U.
R. II. B. VAN VAI.ZAH,
t'l.EAMFIF.LD, PEHM A.
fric k in itpsipFvcE, rortNRn or first
AND 1'INK STREETS.
P Ooie. houra-Vroai 11 to i P. M
II ay 11, 17
J. 1. BURCUF1KLI),
nnrteoa of the lad Healneat.PaaBavlvmala
aiteera, having retarBed froal lb Amy,
hie anraaaleaal eanlaaa tkaallia.aa
promptly autaa.a aa,
GEO. B. Q00DLANDEB, Editor & Proprietor. PRINCIPLES, NOT MEN. TEEMS-S2 per annum in Advanoe.
VOL. 55-WHOLE NO. 2,714. CLEARFIELD, PA., WEDNESDAY, MARCH 23, 1881. NEW SERIES--VOL 22, NO. 12.
1 Oil PRINTINfl Of EVERY DESCRIP
tl Ho. Biatly nmtid .1 thte effla.
JIWTItEX' ds CONSTABLE)' !
W. hav. printed a large anmber of tl
FEB BILL, and will on the receipt of twenty
It oeota, in ail a odt t B7 adflreei. ibtII
WILLIAM M. HKNKY, Juhtiok
OP TBI FlACi AMD HoHITRKIR, LUMBER
CITY. Colleetioni made and tnnney promptly
paid over. Artie lei of agreement and deedi of
eunreyanee neatly eieouted and warranted cor
root or no obarx. . 13jy'7J
Jttitiee of the Pom and fieri Tener,
fc.Collectioni Bade and money promptly
paid orer. eb'7itl
(OITRHD r. O.)
JUSTICE Of the peace
Fun BKLb TOWMBDIP.
Hay I, IS7I-ly
iSquare Timber & Timber Lands,
Jain CLEARFIELD, PA.
Land Surveyor and Civil Enginee
drAll boalneai will be atteBdo I to promptly.
Deo. 11, 1880 ly.
House and Sign Painter and Paper
feO-Wll) azeoute Jobe in bio lioe promptly and
la a workmanlike manner. apr4,07
WILLIAM I). BIGLER,
TTOILVE r--.a 11
Nov. 17th, 1890 If.
WEAVER & BETTS,
Real Estate, Square Timber, Saw Logs,
AND LUMBER OF ALL KINDS.
Jfr-Offlc. oa Seonnd treat, la roar of etoro
mom of Uaorge Weaver 4 Co. I JanV, '78-lf.
JUSTICE OF TUB PEACE
Oweola Mills P. O.
MI official baiineae antrnitod to falm will be
promptly attended to. inch 2V, '74.
BARBER AND HAIRDRESSER.
Shop on Market Bt., opposite Court Houm.
A eleen towel for every oaf torn er.
Alio dealer la
ltet llraitdi of Tubarco md Clgara
RlearfiRld. Pa. may 10, 'Tl.
' JAMES H. TURNER,
JU8TICB OP TUB PEACE,
jfrfP"He hei nrenared himaetf with all the
neoeaiary blank forme under tho Peniion and
Bounty lawi, m well at blank Deedi, etc. All
legal mature entraited to hu oaro will reetlro
prompt attention. ay 7in, iB7vu.
Market Htreot, Clearfield, Pa.,
MABITAOTOaKa A.D DBILBB I.
Harness, Bridles, Saddles, Collars, and
TAII klnda of repairing promptly attended
to. Haddl.ra' Hardware, lluria Uruahee, Curry
Oomba, Ao., alwaya on band and for lal. at the
loweal oa.b prloa. March 111, 1871.
G. H. HALL,
PRACTICAL PUMP MAKER,
NEAR CLEARFIELD, PENN'A.
plfPump ajwaye on band and made to order
n ihort Dotieo. Pipea bored on raionable terms.
All work warranted to render satisfaction, and
delivered If desired. myZo.lypd
rPIIB nnderslcned btirt leave to Inlortn the pub-
X He that be if now fully preparo to aooom mo
date all in the way of furnishing ll.aes, H uggUn,
Saddles and Harness, on the shortest notice and
n reasonable terms. Residence on Looast street,
between inird and roortb.
OEO. W. OKA Rn ART
Tlearfleld. Feb. 4, 1S74.
THOMAS H. FORCEE,
nil lr a ii
GR All AMTON, Pa.
Also, i tensive manufacturer and dealer In Square
limber ana Hawed Lumber 01 an ainai.
Jfi"Orderi solicited and all hilts promptly
Oiled. L"jy I 73
S. I. SNYDER,
WfltclicB, Clocks and Jowolry,
Graham' t Rwt Markat 8trt,
( I.RAKFII.LI), PA.
All kinds of repairing in my line promptly at
ended to. Jan. 1st, 1870.
CARKOt L L. atPOLB.
Clcnrflrld Insurance ARcncy.
lit: II II tl IIIIHU.F., Jftnl,
Reproa.Bt the following and othar firttilaaa Co'a
Liverpool Loadoa A (II. ib. U. S. Ur ..t.l"!,4
Lyeomtng oajnatual Aeejh plaoa...H ,IOO,000
Ph.Bii, of Hartford, Coon 1,634,083
Iniurani Co. of North America 11,438,874
North Brltl.h A Meroantlle U.S. Br. l,lHI.8fta
Srottl.h Commercial U. 8. Branob.... 87,l4e
Travelere (Life A AooldeBt) 4,oVMi4
OHire on Market St., op. Court Houae, Clear
(aid. I'a. J.ne 4, '7 tf.
WILLIAM 0. HELMB0LD,
Patten itlock, Curtrtnurtllt, Pa.
Companioa Represented i
C.mmoralal l aloa Ina. Co., Aetata 19,068,701 58
Fireman 't Fnnd Int. Co .A.eeta l,16t,0ir.M
I'nloa Iolur.no. Co., AneU - 1,026,0.17. 8
Trarelera'Aeeideat laa. C... AeeeU. t.tll, 14.11
In.urano. plaoad oa all kiada f property at
Cor..nltllle, Pa, Feb. 18, 1881-tf.
West End Drug Store,
IN URAIIAH'g ROW,
(II alf way betweea MotKp'e and Fleok'e
TUB aaderalgaed ba. opened a a Drag Star.,
with a full aupply of p.rf.otly pur. Bad
freah Druge, Medlolnet, Cbemieala and Toilet
Artielae. Ikea. Druge ban bwa i.lHd with
gnat ear. and ar. guaranteed t k. perfeolly
par. and reliable. 1 .ill give my partonal albaa
Uoa t. thle departmeat, Bad will ehewfelly glv.
Bay advle. aai io formation la regard tomediolBM
Otaartald, Pa, Dae. 1, ll8t-u.
WINTER AND SUMMER,
v a. o. aaowLToN.
Oh, I wiik the Winter would go,
And I wi.b tb. Summer would ooma.
Then the big brown termor will hoe,
Th. little brown bee will hum.
Ho, hum I
Then the robin hi. fife will trill,
And the woodpeoker beat bia drnm,
And out of their tenta in tb. hill
Tba little green troope will ooiuo.
ilo, hum f
Now tb. blutiotna ar. alok in b.d,
And the dear little birda are dumb,
The bp.ok kaa a oold in hor head,
0b, Summer take, long to oom.,
Ilo, hum I
When la bonny blu. fieldi of aky
And tbe bonny blu. flelda below,
The oloud-flcoka fly and the lamb-Hooka lie,
Then Summer will eome, 1 know.
Then around and over the treei,
Wltb a nutter and flirt will go
A rollicking, frolicking brMM,
And away with a wbiik, ho, ho.
Oh, the bloraoma take long to o.ma,
And the leiolea long to go
Hut the Summer will oome, and the beea will hum
And tbe bright little brook will How, I know,
THE LIFE AND TIMES OF THE LATI EM
PEROR OF RUSSIA.
Alexander, nixtk Czar of tbo Uouso
of RomanolT-HolHtoln, oldest son ot
tho lato Emperor Nicuolus I. and of
tho I rincosB Uharlottool 1 russiu, was
born 17-211, 1818, wbilo bis undo,
Alexandor I., was upon the throne.
Ho was but Boron years old when the
death of this ancle, and the renuncia
tion of tbo succeseion by the Grand
Uuko LotiHtnntine, made bis lather
Oar. But Nicholas did not assume
tho crown unopposed. A very con
siderable body of the Imperial Guards
rebelled, bcint; incited by a union ol
secret societies gonorally known under
tho name ot Uekabrists, and for a
whilo tho Czar's succession, his lilt) and
tho existence of his House was in dan
ger. Tho Dukabrists were a species
of constitutional revolutionists, having
in their composition a strong infusion
ol what in our own time is styled .Ni
hilism. Their intention was to ex
terminate tho Imperial family, to di
vide Russia into a vast nu:nbcv ol
small States, and to unite theso in
aomo sort ol comodoratiou that, while
giving each independence internally,
would be capable ot resisting assaults
from without. The scheme camo near
achieving success, butonded by fuiling
utterly. A few regiments ot the
Guards remained loyal.and those served
as a nucleus around which to rally tho
positively loyal and negatively con
servative elements of tho population,
civil and military, liy a series of bold
measures, vigorous attacks followed up
relentlessly, tho insurrection was crush
ed. Slate trials completed the work
that soldiers began ; hundreds of men
were oxecutod, thousands banished to
dio in tho Siberian mines; for a time
Russia was subject to a reign ot terror
in tho name ot law. Uommg to tbe
throno through a sea of blood, Nicholas
ruled thoncelorlh a race of slaves.
ini YOUNG czar's education.
This terrible oxporionco mado a deop
mark upon Alexander's nature Tho
habit ol gloom, of suspicion, thon
lormed, ncvor left him all his life long,
though in brighter times it was molli
fied. Moreover, bo was at this poriod
removed from the caro ol his mother,
tho gentlo Gorman Princess, and given
over to tho more sovoro rule of a mili
tary govornor tho General Moerdor.
Under tho caro of this learned man,
and of the Russian poet Joukowski,
his education wenton. Whon thirteen
years old he was commissioned a Lieu
tenant ol tbe uuaras, ana in lour
years, by regularpromotion, was mado
a Colonel. Hut ho had no taste what
ever for military life and constantly
endeavored to ovadoitsdutios, greatly
to tho disgust of his father and to his
own serious disadvantage. His desire
lor civil rather than military life was
opposed to all tbo traditions ot tho
Russian Court, and gloomy forebod
ings freely wore expressed as to his
future Iho belief was curront that
his succession to the throno would be
disputed by the old Muscovite party in
tho interest of li in brother, tho bold,
dashing Grand Duko Constantino. Out
ot this possibility grew a lend Dotween
the brothers that led to open quarrels.
Constantino, being an Admiral of tho
fleet, on ono occasion went so fur as to
placo Aloxttnder under arrest for somo
alleged intraction ot naval discipline!
Kor this piece of impudence the Czar
ordered tho Admiral under arrest
thus serving him out in kind. But the
mutter was serious so serious that
when Alexander's first son was born,
in 1815, tho Czar required Constantino
publicly to tako an oath of fidelity to
the heir to tue crown.
Tho Czarevitch, in tbe moantimo,
had freed himself from his military
governors and bud gone npon his
lamous wife hunting expedition into
Germany. The story ot this expedition
has been recently rotold : how of all
tho "eligible" young princcssos upon
big list none pleased bun, and now by
accident ho found his army at the little
grand ducal eourt of UoBO l)armstadt
a trim, round waistcd German maiden
with whom he truly tell head ovor oars
In love tho prctly l'rincoss Maria,
daughter of tho Grand Duko Ludwig
II. And so, instead ot a stato mar
riage of convenience, he mado a love
match a most rare privilege for an
hmperor when, April 10-Z3, 1041,
his Cu'lcbs-like pilgrimage ended in bis
becoming a married man. Unluckily,
as all the world knows, the love did
not last. Like a truo Muscovite, tho
Czar was a most wholesale lover, and
his poor wile's pationce was sorely
taxed by his flagrant infidelities. Tbo
last and most notorious of these was
his connection with the Princess Olga
consummated a little wbilo back by
a morganatio marriago Dciore tne
breath was fairly out of bis wife's
body. His legitimate children are:
Alexander (now Uzar), born rebruary
2G-March 10, 1815 j Vladimir, born
April 10-11, 1847: Alexis, born Janu
ary 2-14, 1850; Marie (Dnchess of
l-.dinburgh), born October 6-17, 18B.1;
Sorgius, born April 29-May 11, 1857,
and i'aul, born September 21-Oclobor
Till THRONE ATTAINID.
In tho darkest hour of tbo Crimean
war the Czar Nicholas died. On his
death bod bo formally bequeathed
his Empire to Alexander and exacted
from Constantino a fresh promise to
uphold hi brother loyally lu order to
secure the peace and happiness of tho
nation. The Czarevitch on this oc
casion, In tho presence of tho Ministors
and Council' of Slate, declared bis In
tention to accept the trust, and on bis
father's death Immediately was pro
claimed Czar. Tbe lame aftornoon
the Kstates ot the Empire, with the
Senoral ofiicer In St. Petersburg, did
omago ; and at a Council hold undor
the presidency of tbe now Emperor it
was resolved not in any way to inter
runt tho course of the war with the
Alliod rowors. Aloxanaor s nrst act
was to issue a manifosto to Iho nation
notifying his accession and deolaring
in gonoral terms his Intention of up-
uotuing tue glory oi me umpire as ii
bad boon uphold by rotor, Ualuermo,
Alexandor and Nicholas and almost
his socond act was to sign the treaty
by which Bessarabia was cedod and
the Crimean war ingloriotisly brought
to an ontl. However, this immediate
failure to make his performance accord
with bis promise was no fault ot It is.
The defeat that he sanctioned was be
queathed to him and could not have
boon avoided. Peace being establish
od, he set himself seriously to tho task
of introducing into his Empire much
needod internal reforms. Tho army
was cut down to the lowest limits com
patible with the dignity and Bafoty of
tbo Stato ; vigorous offorU were made
to re-establish tbe shattored finances
of tho nation and to promote com
mercial prosperity, and an earnest pur
poso was manifested to raise Russia
out of its slough of primitive barbar
ism and to bring it abreast ot tbo civil
ization of tho nineteenth century.
Till EMANCIPATION OF THE BERFS.
The greatest ot all of the reforms
that Alexander ctToctcd.and that which
will through all time give honor to
his name, was bis emancipation of the
serfs. His great ukase of March 2-
r obrnary 2U, 18U1, sot twonty three
millions of human beings free. Nomi
nally, this emancipation proclamation
was issued with tho unanimous consont
of the Russian nobility; in point ol
fact, a very large majority of tho no
bility opposed it, rightly percotving in
it a great abatement of their personal
powers. In issuing it tho Czar reach
ed the climax of his reform movemont.
Tbe ill will that it excited was so in
tense snd lasting that thoroaftor ho
found his hands more or loss tied. The
supplementary ukase of February,
1804, by which the Polish sorts were
freed was based upon a very different
motive, being intended sololy as a po
litical move which would and did
weaken tho influence of the Polish no
bility. The two other important at
tempts at reform subsequently made
to secure popular education and to
lound elective provincial assemblies
proved, practically, abortive. In name,
tho publio schools exist, but thoy are
so wretchodly managed that they fail
to accomplish any useful purpose The
provincial assemblies, upon which the
Itadicals ot tbe ivmpiro founded high
hopes of eventually securing a national
assembly and a regular representative
form of government, have proved evils
rather than blessings. Being porvortod
to bad purposes, they have become tor
the most part fresh sources ot oppress
ion ; in one or two cases whon tboy
have endeavored tc abato local griev
ances they have been promptly sup-
? reused by the Imperial Government,
lowevor, it is probable that in both
theso directions the Czar was honost
in his intonlion to do good; that he
failed was due to the foroo of adverse
circumstances. Another good measure
that has como to very little is his in
troduction of trial by jury. Jury trials
undoubtedly go on in Russia but woe
to the jury that finds against tbe case
as it is presented by the Judgo !
MILITARY ACHIEVEMENTS OF TWENTY
But in one important respect the
reign of tho Czar has boon eminently
successful. When he succeeded to the
crown the army was a dispirited mob,
and a small mob at that ; be loaves it
ono of the strongest and best disciplin
ed of the armies of Europe. Under
his ordors a general system ot military
conscription was introduced, the actual
strength ot the army was greatly in
creased and its effectiveness vastly ox.
tendod by its admirablo organiaation.
Tho simple proot of this Ib found in what
tbe army has accomplished during tne
concluding twonty years of thoquartor
century ol tho Czar's roign. Twonty
years ago began anew tho advance
: I . 1....
inui jiBia mat wua umy auspunueu
during the Crimean war and that was
constituted the hereditary aggressive
policy of Russia frem prehistoric times.
In November, 1bu(, tho advance reach-
od Bokhara; in a year and a half that
Khanate was conquered and bamar-
cand was occupied by Russian troops.
In 1873 Khiva, the adjoining Khanate,
was annexed, and in 1875 the third
Kbnnalo, Khnkand, bocamo a part ol
the Empire. Tbis brought tho Russian
linos on the South lairly to the Ironliers
of Afghanistan, and bo lod dirootly to
liord Jteaconslield s Invention, as a
frecautionary measure, of the famous
ndian scientific frontier that, in turn,
lod directly to tho Anglo-Afghan war.
In tbe East tho Russian linos were
pushed forward with equal vigor and
almost equal suocess. Twenty years
ago tho advance rested on the Oxus ;
now it is tar advanced into that de
batable region known as Little Bueha
ria or Chinese Turkistan, far down on
the eastern slnpo of the Continental
Divide. Finally, tho army that Alex
ander created wipod out tho stain of
tbo detent on tbe Crimea by tne con
quest ot Turkey two years ago. At
the gates of Constantinople the Treaty
ol San Stefano was dictated to the
Sultan and Bessarabia was regained.
Had tho Czar died thon ho would havo
died a hero. Unfortunately for his
own glory ho has lived two years
longer than his tirao just long enough
to kiso by diplomacy almost all that
he gained by war.
PREVIOUS ATTEMPTS ON THE CZAR'S LIFE.
This last, and successful, attempt to
ansossinato Aloxander is the sixth that
bos been made. Fourteen years ago,
April 10-28,1866, be was fired atSuint
i'eterscurg, lust as ho was entorlng
his carriage, by an ex studont, Kara-
kosof. The pistol was knocked in tho
air by a workman named Komissarof,
a native ot Kostroma for which uso-
lul attention he was promptly ennobled.
Again, at Paris, Juno 6-18, 1807, he
was shot at by a Pole, Borozowski to
whom in grateful remembrance of this
attempt at regicide a testimonial ot re-
spoct in the snaps oi a revolver was
tbo otbor day presented by certain of
tho teddostof the Pans Rods. On this
occasion the Czar was driving with his
two sons and tbe Emperor Napoleon.
Borozowski, although thus tiring into
a flock of sovereigns, missed clean.
He was about to shoot again when his
pistol burst in bis hand. In April, 1879,
a third attempt was mado, this time
in St. Potorabnrg, by a Nihilist named
Soloiew. The shot missed and Solojow
shortly thoroaftor was tried and exe
cuted. Then camo, in th. following
December, tho blowing np of the rail
way track near Moscow at the moment
ol the passage ol what was belioved
to be the Imperial train a failure be
cause a goods train had by aocidont
come np tb. tin. in advance or me
"special'' bringing tb. Czar. Finally,
juot a year and a month ag, cam. the
famous, but still nnsuocosslul, attempt
to murdor the tmperor by blowing np
the Winter Palaco. But this timo tho
Nihilists have won.
THE IMPERIAL MANIFESTO.
St. Petersburg1, March 14. Tbe
following Imporial manifosto bas boon
We, fcy th. grao of Ood, Alexander III., Em
peror and Autocrat ot all the Ruaalane, Caar or
Poland, Orand Dnka of Finlaad, at.., hereby
make knows lo all uur faithful eubjeete that it
hai pleaaed th. Almighty, in Ilia ineorutablo will,
t. vl.lt Huaila with heavy niowa or rate, and to
oall bar benefactor, Aleiander 11., to 11 iana.tr.
He Tell by the banda of imploua murdarera, who
bad repeatedly Bought hia preoioue life aod made
their attempt, beoauae they law ia him a Droteelor
of Ruaaia, tba fouodetii.a or her greatoeea aad a
pr.mour of tb. walfar. or tb. Hutaiaa people.
Let ua bow to th. unfathonabia will or Divln.
Prorldeno. aad offer up to th. Almlghtv oar
prayara ior a eoui aaa a naiov.u retaer.
W. awend tho thron. wbioh we Inherit from
onr forefather., tbe throne of tba Kuaaian Eut
pire, and Ctardom and Grand Dukedom inaena-
rably OLoeoLad witk H. vr. munv tb. neary
bjirden waiob Un Baa impoaeu apea ua wita a
6rm reliano. upoa Hia almighty help. May He
bleaa our work to the welfare of our beioved father
land, aod may He guide onr atrengtb for the hap
plneaa of all our faithful aabjeota, la repeating
before the Almighty Uod the aacred vow made by
oar father to devote Bcoording to tho Teatament
of our forefather tbe whole of onr lire and lo car.
for tbe welfare and honor of Ruaaia, w. call upoa
all our faithful aubjeeta to Quito before tbe altar
of tba Almighty their prayer, with oura, and
oommand them to aw.ar fidelity to na and t. our
euooeaeor, hia Imperial Highueaa th. hereditary
Orand Duk. Nioolal ALxandroviteh.
Uivan at St. Peteraburi, Aano Domln, 1831,
and tne firat year or onr reign.
A saluto fired by cannon on the
Fortress announced tho conclusion of
the ceremonies connected with the
ascension of Alexander III. to the
throno. Tbe space before tho palace
was covered with pooplo whon the
Emperor and Empress passed through
the road on their way to Kazan
Cathodrat amidst deafening acclama
tions. The Czur banded over to Gonoral
Melikoff the entire direction of affairs,
and has summoned deputations from
tbo country at largo to consult upon
tho best means to atlopt against an
archy and sedition. Tho garrison was
kept roady all night in caso a disturb
ance should occur. A number of Cos
sacks patrolled tho streets. It is per
sistently stated that Gen. Melikoff had
some days previous to tho murder un
earthed the plot, and cntroatod the
Czar not to expose himself publicly.
SKETCH OF Till NEW CZAR, ALEX
Tho successor lo the crown ot Russia
is tho Grand Duke Alexandor, born
rebruary 20,1815; married Novem
ber 9, 18C0, to Maria Dagmar, born
November 20, 1847, Uaughtor of King
Christian IX., of Denmark.
The Czarowtlz is hardly as tall as
his father was in his best days, but ho
must be nearly, if not quite, six feet in
hoight, and is remarkably doop-chostcd
and broad shouldered, with all tho ap
pearance of great strength. His light
gray eyes resemble those of his moth
er's relations at UesBO-Darmstadt more
than his father, who has tho dark blue
oyes (such as tho French call blue
black) which are to be soon in tho pic
tures of Alexandor I., Paul, Peter tbe
Great, and several other members of
the bouse of Romanoff. In figure and
gonoral stylo ho is also liko his undo,
the lato Grand Duko of Hosso-Darm-stadt.
The shapo of his head, which
is above the avorago size as with most
of his family is rather peculiar; ono
ol those only fitted by a largo hat,
which when worn appears out ot pro
portion to tho comparatively small lace
bolow. A phrenologist would say it
was a shape botokoning great energy
and strength of will, with a talent lor
mathematics. His forehead is high,
but the organs of veneration, firmness
and self-esteem aro most largely devel
oped. Tbis form of tho bead may have
been produced, according to the Dar
winian theory by several generations
ol dospotic power, as Alexander II. has
more of it than is generally seen,
though ejjot as much as bis son. A
small mouth, with extremely good tooth,
which no only shows when be laughs,
is tho Czarowitz's best feature ; his
bair is auburn, and his complexion vory
fair. In St. Petersburg ho usually ap
pears correctly attired in uniform ; but
whon enjoying a holiday among his
wife's relations, bo may be Been in a
very looso washed Buit of shephord's
plaid, a black tie, a whito hat, and with
noithor gloves, ring, nor watch. That
he has been no carpet soldier is evident
lrom tbe marks ot Irost bilos on tne
third and fourth fingers ot the left hand,
and a slight scar on his tcmplo, whoro
a bullet grazed his head in ono ol the
battles in tbe Turkish war.
Tho Czarowita is vory popular in
Uoponhagon, whoro bo and tho 1'rinccss
Dagmar, as Bhe is still fondly called by
tho Danos, walk about the town to
gether in tho most unceremonious
mannor, and aro always ready to tako
thoir part in any popular entertain
ment during tho long visits which thoy
periodically pay at their latbor N court.
It also speaks woll lor him that ho is
supposed to require no extra amuse
ment there, but to ho perfectly happy,
leading a simple life with bis wife and
children, roaming about in the park
and spending quiet evenings in tho
emtio. In tho Summer ot 1870 the
whole Danish royal lumily, including
fiio King and Quoen of Groeco, wore
ontortnined tor six week. at his palaces
in Su Petersburg and Czaro-Selo. Tho
Princo's study in tho Antiehkoy palaco
is a small room fitted un with maps
and globes and woll lilted bookcases, in
which historical works in all languages
prodominato. That he is a reader
is shown by the pilo of newspapers
which bo collects at tbo dilloront sta
tions when on a railway journey to
poruso on tho road, ana ho has takon
personal interest in the publication of
tbo Stato correspondence ol Kussia.
Some years ago he wroto himself to
the heirs ol La Harpo, who was tutor
to tho Emporor Alexander I., to ask for
the loan ol-any letlora lrom his great
undo La Harpo, wbicn might happen
to bo still in their nanus.
A French soldier 1 placed on sentry
over a 64-pounder. Whon, two hours
later, the guard cornea to relieve mm
he is not at his post and is only lound
alter some trouble in a wino ebon
"Yon infornal scoundrel," Bays the ofii
cer of tho guard, "is that tho way you
keep watch over tbe cannon commit
ted to your caro ? " "Woll, cap, " said
the toldior, "don't you soe 1 figured
the matter up and 1 fonnd that it
would tako at least twenty mon to
move that gun. Suppose 0110 or two
came along, thoy couiun t uo any narm
but if there were enough of 'em to
carry it away do yon think 1 could
prevent thorn whip twenty ol tbcm
Whon you sco a man take oh" his
bat lo you, it is a sign mat no respects
you ; but whon ho is Boon divosting
himself of bia ooat, you can mako up
your mind that be intends that you
shall respect bim.
"What docoration is that you are
wearing?" said an Austrian sergeant
to a now recruit. The man blushed
deoply and respondod, "It was tho
medal our cow won at the caul show."
WINTER IN THE WEST.
HOW THE PEOPLE AND FARMING HAVE
SUFFERED FOUR HUNDRED THOU
SAND HEAD OF CATTLE LOST.
The Winter now drawing to a close
will not soon be forgotten In tbo North
wostorn States and Territories. The
oldost inhabitant recalls nothing like
it, and it will probably servo for many
years to come as a frightful oxamplo of
tuo severity ol tbo climate. Through
out Minnesota and Dakota tbore has
boon an almost unbrokon snow block
ade for three months, and the stories
toiu Dy travelers ot the sizo of the drills
in thoso States aro quite boyond the con
ception of people living in less wintry
A correspondent at Chicago reviews
some of tho disastrous features trf the
Winter as follows:
The interruption to business and the
vast amount of money oxnondod in
fruitless endeavors to keep their linos
open nave mado tbe season everything
uut prunutuio one to the railway
companies. lu somo of the cuts in
Wisconsin tho snow has boon packed
to a depth of thirty foot, and in Min
nesota, depots, freight bouses, and in
several iustances trains of car on side
tracks have been literally buriod.
Nearly all tho remoto villages of tho
frontier havo boon supplied with pro-
visions, but in many of them fuel has
bocn exceedingly scarce, and prices
have reached fabulous figures. At
some points In Dakota the settlors
wore threatening to tear up tho rail
road tracks and burn tho ties a task
oasier to contomplato than to execute.
lion who have boen through the tar
Northwostem territories and know
tho country woll, express the beliet
that when Spring shall have oponod up
that country will bo found to bo a ver
itable Golgotha. Thoy argue that
isolated settlements most have boen
buried in the avalanchos of snow which
have lallon, and that numorous in
stances will be found where tho hapless
pioneers, having been unable to reach
places of safety, have perished.
A representative of the Times, who
has just returnod from a tour through
the cattle rangos lying between the
Missouri river and the Rocky Mount-
ains, tj ta that the Wintor in that
section nas been the severest ever ex
perienced, and that the loss of cattlo
will exceed 400,000 head, valued at
from t8,000,000 to 10,000,000. Tbo
poor brutes have died in myriads,
whole herds havo boon wiped out in a
night. Ho says : Tho death rate
among the cattlo in that tract, which
embraced within lines extending north
and south through Sydney ana North
1 latto, towns on tho Union Pacino
Railroad, in Nobraska, 125 miles apart,
is, in all probability, larger than any
where In the entire grating country.
Tho cattle mon have designated this
and the dry belt in Colorado as the
"burnt districts." The Nobraska burnt
district is 200 miles one way by 125
miles across on tbe south, and no on
tbe north. There is an immonse num
ber of cattle in this area a half million
or more. There is a succession of
mammoth herds on the North Platte,
Loup and Niobrara rivers, and tho
morality among them is behoved to be
between 25 and 40 por cent, accord
ing to location. West of tbe Black
Hills stage route from Sidney the loss
1 not be groat, but east ot that line
they have died by thousands. On the
Niobrararangos.eastof Antolope crook,
owners thomselvos admit a loss of 50
per cent., and south of that thoro is a
bovine cemetery until the Platto is
Tbe great loss in this particular re
gion is duo to tho heavy snow storms,
which wore preceded by sloot and rain
that converted tho earth's surface into
a shoot of ice. Evon had there boen
no snow the cattle could not have got-
ten at tho grass, which was undor a
coat ol ico, but the snow aggravated
the trouble somewhat, and for woeks
tho cattle endured tho horriblo torture
of slow starvation. Thousands upon
thousands dnllod down upon tbo south
Platto after glass and wator, but, as
the river was frozon, they could got
The recent heavy jnow storms which
visited Eastern Nebraska and the
Northwest did not trouble tho burnod
district, kindly voering off in another
direction, and so there is a prospect of
bnghtor days. J bousunds ol dead
cattle cover the ground bctwoen Sid
noy and North Platto within sight of
tho railroad track. Many of them have
boon killed by tho cars, but by tar tho
larger number died ot cold and starva
tion. Thoy wore missed botwoon tho
two forks of tho Platto which come
together at North Platto, and tho suf
fering of tho poor brutos is said by
those who saw them to have been
frightful, Thoy filled the air with thoir
cries of agony, and wandered about un
til so weak that whon they laid down
to rost thoy could not gut np again.
Nothing could be done for their relief.
It would havo boen a hopoloss task to
havo tried to feed them. A thousand
tons ol hay would not havo gono around.
Tbe poor things, overcome by the cold,
ooulu not be drivon back on the snowy
ranges. Thoy resisted lorco by sullen
refusal lo budge, preferring lo remain
whoro they were and dio than to move
They dovourcd ovory vestigo of grass
that could bo seen, and oven chewod
the hair on their tails. The scenes that
were witnossod by tho Bottlers aro do
scribed as heartrending.
Tho Iossob in other districts, while
not so heavy, are vory severe. Over
production is ono cause ot tho calamity
which bas boon visited upon tho cattle
intorost, the resources of the country
having for years been taxed to the ut
most by the enormous hords which
havo roamed over the plains and in
From Bomo causo or combination ot
causes tho present Winter bas boon
romarkablo for a widoly extended and
marked increase in diphtheria and
scarlet fevor, which have Invaded
homes in which tho hlghost attainable
skill has boon exorcised and the most
approved appliances . have boon em
ployed to render them as healthy as
possible. In somo oaso the immedi
ate causes of those disorder are un
discoverable, but in the light of sani
tary science the class of agent which
eitlior mitiato or greatly increase the
virulonce of those complaints ia no
longer problematical. Decaying or.
ganic matters, moreparticularfy animal
exarotions, give rise to a euhllo blood
poison, which, though it yet evades
chomical analysis, is now conceded on
all hands to be a positive doadly fact.
When this poison invades a dwelling,
no matter whothor from extorior or
interior soureoa, in sufflciont quantity,
tbe lives ol the Inmates are jeopardized
as positively as though tbey were
compelled to breath a mephitio go.
The effect may not b no prompt or
fatal, bnt the danger is a fact no longor
disputed by any intelligent physician.
It is, therefore, not sufficient to guard
against intorior sources of diseases; the
peril may be in a neighbor's houso or
other buildings, in tbe emanations of a
compost boap or a filthy stroot or bid
den cesspool, which if they find an
avenue may enter sleeping apartments,
find a nest in clothing, carpets, and
drapery, and bring in their train the
swift destruction of all that is most
A case in point has occurred in a
neighboring village Five cases of
diphtheria appoared lu a household
where the utmost care had boon taken
with the plumbing. The obvious in
ference was that the causes of the
complaint wore exterior to the house.
It was found that tho mouth of the
air-box through which extorior air
entered to supply tho heating furnaces
was on a lovol with the top of a ce
mented pit on tho adjoining premises,
in which accumulations of kitchen
refuso, animal and vegetable, and barn
manure were promiscuously stored and
allowed to rot for fertilizing purposes.
The foul air from tbis pit was drawn
into tbe house through this ono avo
nuo, and the poisoning of its unfortu
nato inhabitants, four oi whom died in
quick succession, was the result. It
seems that disease may pervade a
houso with deadly result where tbe
cause is least suspected ; It therefore
devolves upon every housekeeper,
whether resident of tho city, village,
or on a farm, to be constantly watch
ful, not only of his own, but also ol his
neighbor's promises, that nono of the
obvious causes of diseaso bo permitted.
' TJ1EB OERV' AND TUE 'MEAN
ING OF Til E NAME.
Tho Boors of South Africa are so
called because of thoir occupation and
way of lite. Thoy are "boors, which
is tbe Dutch word for "farmor" or
peasant," corresponding to tho Ger
man word "bauer," and tho English
word, now degraded from its early and
honorablo significance "boor." Orig
inally planted at the Cape of Good
Hope in the beginning ol the seven
teenth contury when Holland was tbo
first maritime Stato in tho world, those
Dutch colonists wore gradually forgot
ten and noglcctod as the powor of Hol
land declined, lu 1814 tho Cape defi
nitely bocamo an English colony to
the disgust of the Boors, a groat body
ot whom finally movod off bag and
baggago in 1833 for Natal, rcsolvod
liko our Pilgrim fathors to change
thoir soil, as they could not change
thoir bovornmont. Thoy lost tboir
way in the wilderness, but load by a
romarkablo man, Protorious, tbey final
ly founded an establishment known
since as Piotor-Maritzhurg. The Eng
lish authorities followod thorn up, how
ever, and the early liko the later years
of the reign of Victoria wore marked
by conn icts between tbese sturdy rt cm-
erlandors of tbe South and the groat
i ... i j i? i
power wnicn overnnauovrBuiam. j-.uny
in May, 1842, Sir. II. G. Smith was
beaten in an engagement on the fron
tiers of Natal, hut before tbe end of
the month tho British occupied tho
holo country. Tbo floors again
moved Northward. Protorious with
tho majority of his pooplo crossed tho
Kivor Vaal and founded the "houth
African Ropublio" of the Transvaal.
Somo twelve thousand of tho Boers
who remained in the region botween
the River Vaal and Orange Rivor wore
takon under tbo British Dominion by
a proclamation dated February 3, 1848.
Tho Katlir war which broke out In
1851, mado the English Government
understand tho importance of pre
serving the pcaco among tho whites of
all races and tongues in South Africa,
and in 1854 the Independence of the
Orange rrco stato was recognized.
The Boors of the Transvaal are natu
rally unable to understand why their
Soutb African Republic should not be
treated as well as the Orango Free
Slate N. y. World.
RICE CULTURE IN THE
Uoforo tho war our rico crop camo
chiefly from the Carolinas. During
the past ten years tbo rice industry has
been extended to Louisiana, where
ovor 50,000 acres are now devoted to
it, and tho annual crop ot tho country
has been doubled. In tho meantime
great improvements have boon made
in tho thrashing and cloaning tho grain
by tho introduction of machinery.
Whon the grain is cut it is stacked in
tho Holds to sweat, to facilitate tho
thrashing, after which tho rice is sent
to special mills for hulling and polish
ing. There are scvon mills of this sort
which have been built in New Orleans
during tbe past docado. Each mill
amnlnrs lrom twentv to tortv hands.
and all are busy. The rough rico is
roceivod in large bins, from which it is
winnowed and silted lo remove sticks
and rubbish. To remove tho beard tho
rico is passed through a revolving
"hoodlum," from which it is carried to
the "stones," which crack off the hulls.
Then the dark-colored grains are pol
ished for market. Iho polishor con
sists ol shocpskin, tanned, stretched
ovor eheop wool on rovolvingcylindora,
tho space botween tho sheepskins and
wire gauzo being just sufficient to allow
the rice grains to find their way by
degrees to tbo bottom. Tho grains aro
highly polished by the friction against
the skins, which rub off tho bran and
leave tho grain clean and white Tho
bran amount to eight barrels lorevery
hundred barrel of clean rioo. It is
sometimes used to adulterate spices
Tbe waslo in hulling avoragoa about 5
or 0 per cent,, but sometimes reaches
20 per oent The hullors rocoivo from
half a cent to three-quarter of a cent
per pound lor bulling.
Eating and Digestion. As a des
sort I will add a few of my favorite
diotic aphorisms : An hour of exorcise
to ovory1 pound of food. Wo are not
nourished by what we oat, but by what
we diirost Evory hour you steal lrom
digoelion will be reclaimed by indiges
tion. Bowaro of the wrath of a patient
stomach I Uo who controls his ap
potite in regard to the quality of his
food may safely indulge it in regard to
quantity. Tho oflenor you est, the
olloner you will repent it Dyspepsia
is a poor pedestrian ; walk at the rate
of four mile an bour and you will soon
leave her behind. The road to the rum
cellar leads through tho coffee-house.
Abstineno. from all stimulant, only, i
easier than temperance Thoie aro
worthier objects ol charity than famino
strickon nation that send their bread
stuffs to Iho distillery. An egg is worth
a pound of moat ; a milch cow seven
stall fed oxen. Sleep ib sweeter after
a fast-day than after a feast-day. For
every meal yon lose yon gain a better.
"Bridgot, 1 cannot allow you to re
ceive your lower in tbe kitchen any
longer." "If very kind of you,
ma'am, but ho is almost too bashful to
oome into the parlor."
POLITICAL ASSASS1NA TIONS.
A THIRTY YEARS' RECORD OF ATTEMPTS
ON THE LIVES OF RULER.
1848 Novombor 20 Tho lifo of Iho
Duke of Modena was atlumptod. J
irH'J Juno Zl Iho L row n rnnco
of Prussia was attacked at Minden.
1850 Juno 28 Robert Pate, all ex
lieutenant in tho army, attempted lo
assassinato tuecn ictona.
1851 May 22 Selefoquo, a work
man, shot at Frederick William IV'.,
King ot Prussia, and broko bis forearm
1852 September 24 An infernal
machino was found at Marseilles, with
which it had been intended to dostroy
1853 February 18 Tho Emperor
rrancis Joseph, oi Austria, was griev
ously wounded in the bead wbtlo walk
ing on tne ramparts at V lonna, by a
Hungarian tailor named Mbzens.
1853 April 10 An attempt on the
mo oi v ictor I'.manuel was reported to
the Italian Chamber.
1853 July 5 An attempt was mudo
to kill Napoloon III., as ho was enter
ing tho Opera Comiqne.
1854-March 20 Fordi'nd Charles
111., Duke of Parma, was killed by an
unknown man, who etubbod him in the
1855 April 28 Napoloon III., was
fired ut in tho Champs Elysees by Gi-
1850 April 28 Raymond Fucntos
was arrested in the act of firinir on Is
abella, (Jueen of Spain.
1SDO December o Agesilas Alila-
no, a soldier, slabbed 1'ordinand 111.,
of Naples, with his bayonet.
18j7 August 7 Napoleon III.
again. Harcolclti, lubaldi and brillo
wore sentenced to death for coming
lrom London to assassinate him.
1858 January 14 Napoloon III.
for the fifth time. Orsini and his asso
ciates throw fulminatiug bombs at bim
as he was on his wav to the onera.
18U1 July 14 King William of
rrussia was tor tho first time shot at
by Oscar Becker, a student, at Baden
Baden. Becker fired twice at bim,
but missed him.
1802 December 18 A stmioiil by
tho natno of Dossios, fired a pistol at
Quoon Amalia of Grooco, (Princess of
1803 Docombcr 24 Four more
conspirators from London against the
mo ol Nnpoleon HI., wore arrested at
1805 April 14 President Lincoln
was Bhot by J. Wilkes Booth.
1800 April u A liussian named
Kavarasoll', attempted Czar Alexan
der's lifo at St. Petersburg. Ho was
loned Dy a poasant, who was ennobled
for the deed.
1807 Tho Czar's life was again at
tempted during the great Exposition
at a review in the Bois do Boulogno
1807 Juno I!) Maximillian shot.
1808 Juno 10 Prince Michaol of
Siberia was killed by the brothers
1871 Tho life of Amadous, then
nowly King of Spain, was attempted.
1872 August Colonol Gutioriez
assasBinatod President Balta, of tho
Ropublio of Poiu.
187.1 January l l'residont Mora
les, of Bolivia, was assassinated.
1875 August President Gracia
Maono, of Ecuador, was assassinated.
1877 Juno President Gill, of Par
aguay, was assassinated by Command
1878-May 11 Tho Emperor Will
iam of Germany was shot at again,
this timo by Emilo Honri Max Uoedcl,
alii.s Lehman, the Socialist. Lehman
fired throe shotB at the Emperor, who
as returning lrom a drive with the
Grand Duchess ot Baden, but missed
1878 Juno 2 Emperor William
shot at by Dr. Nohiling, while out
riding, lie received about thirty
small shot in the neck and taco.
1879 April 14 Attempted assassi
nation of tbe Czar at SU Petersburg
hy one solowjew. no was executed
1879 December 1 The aRsassina
lion of the Czar attempted by a mine
undor a train near Moscow,
1879 December 30 Tho King of
Spain was shot at while driving with
1880 February 17 Attempt to
kill tho royal family of Russia by
blowing np tho Winter Palaco. Eight
soldiors were killed and lorty hve
1881 March 13 Tho Czar of Rue
sia killed by a bemb.
The Cossacks. Tho Cossacks, who
are so efficiently aiding tho Russians
during their aclivo hostilities In lurk
eslan, havo always bocn very promi
nent in the military operations of tbo
Muscovito people Thoy much resem
ble the lfussiuns in appearance, man
ners and language, being descendants
it is thought, ot tho ancient Russians
Novgorod and Kiev, whom tho neces
sity of ceaseless resistance lo enemies
has rendered peculiarly martial. Tho
term"Kassack isot tho Turkish or lar-
tar orirrin, signifvinjr both robber and
light armed warrior. The whole num
ber ot tho Cossacks has been estimated
at 3,000,000, though 2,000,000 is proh
ably nearer tho truth. Tho chiet hot-
mansion is now vested in tho Czaro
wite. Tho principal occupation of tho
Cossaoks in peace is fishing and cattle-
breeding. Jbeir wealth is mostly in
horses, Iho poorest person owning live
or ten. Their beasts are small and
ill looking, though swill and oxcoss
ively hardy. Thoy serve on horsoback
during war, between the ages ot eight
oon and fifty. Thoy are divided into
regiments and subdivided into hun
dreds, fifties and tons. Without any
battle array, thoy attack with fury and
wild shouts, dispense, and attack again.
Thoy are singularly export in surpris
ing and intercepting small dotachmonts,
in annoying an oncmy on tho march,
and in pursuing and harassing an army
in fight and retreat.
An English lawyer wont Into a bar-
h iknn tn ,,rrvu irt a wio. In fjlkihtr
.llmAi.ai.tnrf rtf tliA l.avvnr'a head
the harbor exclaimed : "Why, bow
. . I , ; -;.,( j,V'. i:-J
long your ncau i.a, sir t " i oa, repucu
tho legal gentlemen ; "wo lawyers
must havo long heads." Tho harbor
firocoeded in bis vocation, but at
cngth exclaimed: "Why, sir, your
bead is as thick as it is long !" Black-
James Frftnklin's old minlinu press.
at which his b rot hor Benjamin worked
as an apprentice, ie on exhibition at
the Old South Church, Boston, The
supply oi Franklin presses holds out
Deiter man mat oi n asnington s
nurses and body servant.
Ashmoad Barllott must havo pro
posed to Dardott Contts much alter
the manner of a email boy asking bis
grandmother for a piece of oak. AVif
llaven liegitter. But ho took the cake
and got big plum, too.
BT M. L. MoQUOWN.
WHEN SCHOOL LETS OUT.
ST . S. aTiSTOS.
Whon acbool "lata ut" at euo-down time,
Aod ahadowe loag ap hlll-aidee .limb,
With leap, aad romp, aad laugh, and about,
lo kilt aod amoek and roandaboat,
By grain-field fenoe, through paature-graia,
A foot-won way lb. arhotara paao,
And bright-faced .if aad browe-faoed lont
Uo heart-glad bom. when aabool "lata out.'
I alt aad wateb, where, wklt. aad llow,
The mietreee movee te graoe bolow ,
A lithe young girl, with folded band., -With
low-down look, la wide, brown baada,
Who fluala Ib light whrre deep abade lieai
With aweel, aad looaa in lake-tlue eyeai
I alt and watch, BBd hope and doubt
I know Dot what, when eohool "Iota out."
War. I ao young aa tbey who know
The mild maid-rule, Juet there bolow,
Would I I a glad aa tbey who pea.
lly grain-field fenoe and paoture-graM t
Would I be gled tbe home-bound way,
And laugh, and about, aad romp aa tboy 1
It might he ao la rouadob.ut,
but not aa Bow, wbaa eobool "Iota out."
Son. d.y how Boon I eanaot ull,
But aome day Boon, I know full well
My feel aball fall with boat aa alow
The green laid way tbat hers do go,
And I .ball feel my great heart ria.
To tender looks from iake-blu. .yes,
Aod there shall he 10 feer, no doubt.
Her hard In mine wuru school "Isto out,"
A B USE OF THE TEA CHERS
Head before the Teachers' Institute of
Tbo teacher by right ol hi pro
fession is TOBted with an authority
requisito to govern any school which
be may be called upon to instruct. , . .
And it is highly necessary that he
should have at his command all that
the law has given bim, in order to
mako his profession a success in every
department. But in pursuance of thi
with which be is vested, bis authority
is greatly and shamefully abused.
And since most.or all teachers are cog
nizant to the exlont of their rights, we
do not deom it necessary to expound
a topio which is so generally under
stood, but will puna on and briefly
state a few instances by which bis au
thority is abusod.
In my estimation it is abusod in
many different forms ; but as our time
is limited to a tew minutes, i win sug
gest but two way, by which it seem
lo be wronged to the greatest extent:
First. In a majority of the district
of ibis groat Commonwealth, the pa
rent greatly overstep tne Dounus or
propriety ,and soriously injure tho causo.
Thoy should strive to promote, and at
tho same time not abuse an author-
tv thev should sock to porpotualo. In
a generality of cases they have a dis
position tosot aside the teachers' com
mands and rules, by taking tue pan or
thoir children in evory "potty" caso in
which they aro corrected for miscon
duct, and by advising thorn to act con-
trarily lo his will and wishes. Ana
some parent have tbe presumption to
command, or diotato to the teacher
(through their children) tbe course
thov wish him to pursue in the future,
or tho privilege they would have their
worthy offspring enjoy. By this prac
ticewhich iscarriod to a much greater
ex tent than many would suppose they
abuse his authority ; croatoa prejudice
between tcachor and pupil; create
jealousies and disturbance, and in fact
do great Injustice to our iree scnooi
YY e nave orieny noitceu now ma au
thority is sometime abused by the
parent, and will now endoavor to show
in a few words tho method by which
some teachers abuse their own rights.
Wo believe tbat a thoughtless ana
selfish toacher can abuse his own au
thority much more than it can be
abused by others. If he assume an
undignthed mannor ; pretena to know
whathedoosnot; bocomo too familiar
with hi nunils. and acts in a rude and
distasteful manner, be losos thoir re-
enect. dotlironcs his power, and re-
coivos thoir contempt in return. But
in guarding against this evil ne must
be careful lost be falls a vietim to
another and more dangerous on., by
assuming a manner calculated to alien-
ato hi pupil from mm, Dy snowing
prcjudico, favoritism and partiality. A
toacher dangerously Injure his au
thority by laying down arbitrary and
unjust rulos rules that he fail to exe
cuto ; by openly declaring he will pun.
ish for a cortain offence and neglecting
to do so whon the case presents itself ;
by a badly managed case of inflicting
punishment ; and by acting in a s.em
ingly arbitrary mannorwhen enforcing
bis rulos ; ana lastly Dy a proiunjjeu
torturing of his pupils ; such as holding
a heavy book in the outstretched hand ;
standingon one foot, and by compelling
thorn to stand boside a hot stove till
they are almost roasted. Thie is the
mostovil and degrading practice that
has over found it way into the halls
of tho school room, and it should every
where receive tbe severest consure of
an intelligent peoplo, and it would be
but a tow years till this heathenish
lormality would be remembered only
as a vice of tho past.
I boliovo this question is to be further
discussed by tho Institute, and as snob
is the caso 1 will leave it to my uperi
ors to discuss in detail.
In conclusion I would say, we are
aware that the tcachor ba a great
many difficulties to contond with, and
ovorcomo ; that bo Bomotimoe unthink
ingly and unknowingly abuses bis own
authority. But he is not supposed to
bo porfect ; bo i a fallible being and
liable to err, and as a matter of course
does not soo all things In the right
light, and consequently make, nis
mistakes along with the rost of man
kind. But notwithstanding all hia
frailties ho is leading the advance
guard indefensool education, and lb.
cultivation of tho human mind.
As I said before tho teacher is not
expected to bo inlallible. But when
ho takes charge of a school he is ex
pected lo be a model man ; lo set an
unquestioned oxamplo, and do hi ut
most to onnoblo the profession be ba
ospousod. Tbat he will imprint tbe
first lessons of love and libortv on
tho young and tender mind ; inculcate
principles that will lead them to honor,
succossand prosperity; engrave imago
that will be carriod down from "poster
ity to posterity" and bo brilliant when
the name of Oromwoll and Crsar
shall have faded from tbe memory of
Follow-tcachors, permit me to say
this is my first attempt to apeak bofore
such a mass of education a we see
prosentod here today, and 1 trust
yon will excuse mo for thus wandering
from my subject
We closod the tour of the eounty
atGrahamton,on Friday of last week.
Huston school were inspected during
the Summer cason with tho exception
or Ponficld and Wintorburn. Fifty
two director accompanied ut during
our inspection tour. I n all, w. traveled
1,285 milo. Two hundred and sixty,
lour visits wore made.
W have received a programme of
tbe commencement exercise of th
Clovoland Medical College, Ohio, in
which iaonnd tbe name ot our friend
and fellow -teacher, Mr. D. E. Bottorf. T.
Ed. was a faithful educational worker,
and will, no doubt, excoll in the pro
fession he bas chosen.
During the month of February, w.
visited 85 schools, being accompanied
by 10 directors and 4 patron ; travel
ed 435 milo ; bold 8 Local Institutes;
wrote 50 official letters, and (pent 23
day of tbe month in official dutie.
The West Clearfield Sohool Board
desire to employ one female teacher
for a Summer term of five month.
Applications will be received until
April 1st, 1881. Address J.G.SchryTer,
Secretary, Clearfield, Ta.