Newspaper Page Text
"Bellefonte, Pa., October 1, 1920.
LESSONS IN CITIZENSHIP.
County, Township or Borough and
What are the local civil forms of
government in the State of Pennsyl-
Answer: There are three distinct
forms in Pennsylvania: Counties,
Townships or Boroughs and Cities.
How many County Governments are
Answer: There are sixty-seven
counties in the State.
How are they classified ?
1919, the counties of the State are di-
vided into eight classes according to
Name the classifications:
Class I. Counties with a population
Class II. 800,000 to 1,500,000.
Class III. Counties having a pop-
ulation over 250,000, and not exceed-
Class IV. Population of 150,000 to
Class V. Population of 100,000 to
Class VI. Population of 50,000 to
Class VII. Population of 20,000 to
Class VIII. Population of under
_ Is all legislation concerning coun-
Answer: All legislation must be
uniform for counties in the same
Who administers the government in
each of the Counties?
Answer: A Board of County Com-
missioners is the Administrative Body
in each County of the State.
How many members in this body ?
Answer: There are three members
of the Board in each County.
Can they all represent the same po-
Answer: No. There are always
two from the majority party and one
from the minority party.
What other County offices are there
besides the County Commissioners?
Answer: There is a District Attor-
ney, Sheriff, Coroner, Register of
Wills,s Recorder of Deeds, Treasurer,
Auditors and Controller.
How do these officers receive their
Answer: They are elected by the
people of the County.
Do they receive a salary?
Answer: In Counties having a pop-
ulation of over 150,000 they receive a
salary, and in smaller Counties they
are paid by the fee system.
. What is a township ?
Answer: A Township is a sub-di-
vision of a County and is an institu-
tion of convenience.
How many classes of Townships are
there in Pennsylvania?
Answer: Under the Act of, 1917,
Townships are of two classes, first
and second class.
What is necessary to make a first-
class Township ? :
Answer: A first-class Township
must have at least 300 persons for
every square mile of territory.
What is a second-class Township ?
Answer: Second-class Townships
are those having a smaller population
than 300 for each square mile cov-
How is a Township governed ?
Answer: Township business is gen-
erally carried on under the direction
, of County Commissioners by Town-
ship Associations, composed of elected
Township officials. ;
How many officials are elected in a
Answer: First-class Townships
elect at least five Township Commis-
sioners, a Treasurer, Assessor, two
Assistant Assessors and three Audit-
How are these officers chosen?
Answer: The Commissioners are
elected for two years in even number-
ed districts and for four years from
odd numbered districts.
The Township Treasurers and As-
sessors are elected for four years,
while one Auditor is elected for four
years and one for two years.
How many officers are elected
Second Class Townships?
Answer: Second Class Townships
must elect three Supervisors, three
Auditors, one Assessor and one Tax
For how long do these officers
Answer: The Supervisors are
elected, one for two years, one for
four years and one for six years.
The Assessors and Tax Collectors
serve four years.
Have there been any difficulties in
Answer: The difficulties encounter-
ed in the classification of Townships
throughout the State have been -so
many that the last session of the
Pennsylvania Legislature passed a
Constitutional Amendment, authoriz-
ing the Legislature to make such
Is this Amendment now a part of
Answer: No. This Amendment
must pass the next Legislature, and
then be passed by a majority of the
voters in the State before it becomes
a part of the State Constitution.
What are the powers of the Town-
ship Government ?
Answer: The Administrative pow-
ers of Township officials are extreme-
ly limited in our State, but they do
look after the Public Schools in their
Townships, care for the roads and
help the poor, leaving all other mat-
ters of local government to the Coun-
Y Ihe taxes for the schools, roads and
support of the poor are levied by the
What is a Borough?
Answer: A Borough is a first-
class Township that is organized and
incorporated. There are over 1,000 in
Pennsylvania. : ;
What are the officials in a Bor-
Answer: There is a Burgess, who
is the executiwk officer, a town Coun-
cil, Clerk, Tax Assessor, Overseer of
the Poor and Justice of the Peace.
Under the act of July 10,
What services .are rendered by a
Answer: It keeps the peace, holds
a court for the trial of minor civil and
criminal cases, keeps the streets in or-
der and provides sidewalks, Bghis the
streets, furnishes a supply of water,
supports the public schools, cares for
the public health, purchases appara-
tus for extinguishing fires.
‘ MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT.
How many classes of cities in Penn-
Answer: There are three classes of
cities in Pennsylvania: First, Second
and Third Class.
What are First Class Cities?
Answer: First Class Cities are
those having a population of one mil-
lion or more.
What are Second Class Cities?
Answer: Those having a popula-
tion over 100,000, and less than a mil-
What are Third Class Cities?
Answer: Third Class Cities are
those with a population between 10,-
000 and 100,000.
How many are there ?
What population is necessary to be-
come a city?
Answer: A city must have a pop-
ulation of at least 10,000.
How many cities of the First Class
are in Pennsylvania?
Answer: There is only one city of
the First Class, Philadelphia.
How many cities of the Second
Answer: There are two cities of
the Second Class:
How is Philadelphia governed ?
Answer: The city of Philadelphia
is governed under Act of June 25,
1919. Philadelphia was granted a
new charter, which provides for a
Mayor elected by the people, who ap-
points the heads of the various de-
partments, and a Council of twenty-
one members, elected by the people
for four years.
What are the various departments
of which the Mayor, with the appro-
val of Council appoints the heads?
Answer: The Police, Fire and
Electrical Departments, over which
presides the Director of Public Safe-
ty. 2. The Department: of Public
Works, which includes gas, water,
sewers, filtration plants, highways,
‘bridges and all public buildings.
3. The Health Department, which
has charge of hospitals, housing, san-
itation and vital statistics.
4. The Department of Public Wel-
fare, having charge of charitable in-
stitutions, playgrounds, recreation
piers and public baths, and all things
pertaining to the well-being of the cit-
5. Department of Water Termin-
als, having charge of all the city’s
wharves, docks and ferries.
6. Department of City Transit,
which has charge of the street trans-
What salary does the Mayor re-
Answer: $12,000.00 annually is the
salary of the Mayor of Philadelphia.
What salary do the Councilmen re-
Answer: Under the new charter
every Councilman receives $5,000.00 a
Does the Council have anything to
do with the appointments of the May-
Answer: Yes. The Council must
approve the appointments before they
Does the Mayor appoint any other
city officials ? 3
Answer: Yes. The Mayor ap-
points a City Solicitor, who is head of
the City Law Department; a Pur-
chasing Agent, who has charge of all
supplies; a City Architect, an Art Ju-
ry, and a Commission on City Plan-
What other important officials are
there in the city?
Answer: The City Treasurer, Gon-
troller and a Receiver of Taxes.
How do these officials obtain their
Answer: They are elected by the
people of the city.
What are the duties of the Treas-
urer, and what salary does he re-
Answer: The City Treasurer has
charge of all the funds of the city and
makes payment upon warrants issued
by the City Controller. The Treasur-
er of Philadelphia receives $10,000.00
salary and certain fees in addition,
that amount to thousands of dollars
What are the duties of the City
Controller, and what is his salary?
Answer: The City Controller in-
spects and revises the accounts of all
departments of the city, prepares bud-
gets and estimates and issues war- |
rants for the payment of all moneys
by the city. His salary is $8,000.00.
What are the duties of the Receiver
of Taxes, and what compensation does
he receive ? ;
Answer: The Receiver of Taxes
collects all money due the city for mu-
nicipal and school tax, licenses, water | |
rents, permits, rents from markets,
wharves and other public property.
He makes a daily return to the City
Treasurer of all such receipts. His
salary is $10,000.00.
In whom is the legislative power of
the city vested ?
Answer: The legislative power of
the city is vested in the single cham-
ber of Council, whose twenty-one
members are elected for four years
from the eight Senatorial districts in
the city on the basis of one Council-
man for each twenty thousand assess-
What are the duties of Council?
Answer: The Council passes all
the ordinances, supervises appropria-
tions and expenditures of the execu-
tive department. It also selects the
Civil Service Commissioners, and they
designate the executive officials who
enter into and execute city contracts.
In whom is the judicial power
Answer: The judicial power is vest-
ed in County Courts.
What are the County Courts?
Answer: Court of Common Pleas,
the Court of Quarter Sessions, Oyer
and Terminer and the Orphans’ Court,
as well as the Municipal Court and
many employees are appoint-
ed through the Civil Service Commis-
sion of Philadelphia?
Answer: Over 12,000 employees
are enrolled in the classified Civil
Service of the city.
budget of Phil-
What is the annual
adelphia ? :
Answer: Approximately forty-sev-
en million dollars.
What do you mean by a city bud-
Answer: A city budget is an ordi-
nance passed by the City Council, fix-
: ing the sum that may be spent by the
ifferent departments. during the
In whom is the executive power
vested in Second Class Cities?
Answer: The executive power of
the Second Class Cities is likewise
vested in the Mayor and his ap-
In whom is the legislative power
Answer: The legislative power is
vested in a single small Council, con-
sisting of at least five members for
the first 200,000 assessed voters, and
one additional member for each 75,000
members up to 500,000.
a whom is the judicial power vest-
Answer: The judicial power is
vested in County Courts, correspond-
ing to the Courts in First Class Cities.
How many Third Class Cities are
there in Pennsylvania?
Answer: There are thirty-four
Third Class Cities.
Are the governments of these cities
similar to the First and Second Class
Answer: Yes. The voters in Third
Class Cities also elegt a Mayor for
four years, and a ell for the
How does the Mayor govern in
Third Class Cities?
Answer: He acts with the Council
in enacting ordinances and in appoint-
What other city officers are elected
in Third Class Cities?
Answer: A Comptroller and a
Treasurer, whose duties are the same
as in First and Second Class Cities.
Are the city laws the only ones the
city has to obey?
Answer: No. The laws made by
the Legislature in Harrisburg are
binding upon all the cities in the
——If you want all the news you
¢an get it in the “Watchman.”
; Youngest Veteran of the World war
Was Only 13.
The youngest veteran of the world
war has been found in Springfield,
Mass. He is Harold Brunette, son of
Mr. and Mrs. Adolphus Brunette. He
enlisted in the Canadian army at the
age of 13 years and served until the
end of the war.
Brunette ran away from home in
October, 1917. He worked his way to
November 7, 1917, Brunette was ac-
cepted and assigned to the First De-
pot Battalion of the First Quebec In-
fantry. After three months’ training
his outfit went to England and then to
Brunette was in the battles of Cam-
brai, Boulogne Woods and the big
fight that smashed the Hindenburg
line. Then his outfit went to Belgium,
where they remained until he was sent
into Germany with the Army of Occu-
pation. Early in 1919 the battalion
wer returned to Canada and demobil-
Brunette returned a seasoned vet-
eran, but only a little over fifteen
years of age. Birth certificates and
army papers prove his story.
Some Food Prices are Going Down.
Twenty-seven of the forty-three ar-
ticles going into the American family
market basket decreased in price be-
tween July 15 and August 15.
In making this announcement the
Department of Labor’s Bureau of La-
bor Statistics made public figures
showing that during the thirty day
period ending with the middle of Au-
gust the retail price of potatoes fell
forty-four per “cent. and the price of
cabbage went down forty-one per cent.
The drop in sugar prices is placed at
fourteen per cent. Most kinds of
meats decreased in price.
Eggs went up eleven per cent. in
price during the period. With this ex-
ception and pork chops, which increas-
ed five per cent., the increases in oth-
gr foodstuffs were two per cent. or
Indications that the decline in food
! price levels was general is seen in sta-
i tistics showing that each of the fifty-
one cities covered by the Bureau's sur-
vey reported decreases.
——Subscribe for the “Watchman.”
Children Cry for Fletcher's
AREER RRR RRR
OEE RE RR ER REN
i i y
The Kind You Have Always Bought, and which has been
in use for over over 30 years, has borne tho signature of
—=s and has been made under his per-
AT Fs oom supervision since its infancy.
cd * Allow no one to deceive you in this.
All Countcrfcits, Imitations and ** Just-as-good ” are but
Experiments that trifle with and endanger the health of
Infants and Children—Experience against Experiment.
What is CASTORIA
Castoria is a harmless substitute for Castor Oil, Paregoric,
Drops and Soothing Syrups.
neither Opium, Morphine nor other narcotic substance.
It is pleasant. It contains
age is its guarantee. For more than thirty years it has
been in constant use for the relief of Constipation, Flatulency,
Wind Colic and Diarrhoea; allaying Feverishness arising
therefrom, and by regulating the Stomach and Bowels, aids
the assimilation of Food; giving healthy and natural sleep.
The Children’s Panacea—The Mother’s Friend,
GENUINE CASTORIA ALwaYs
Bears the Signature of
In Use For Over 30 Yea
The Kind You Have Always Bought
THE CENTAUR COMPANY. NEW YORK CITY, 2
Bellefonte Trust Company
, Bellefonte, Pa.
Why You Should Make aWill
To protect your loved ones.
To safeguard your estate.
By making a Will you can appoint the Bellefonte Trust
Company as your Executor or Trustee.
You can thus assure to your heirs the business manage-
ment and financial responsibility which this institution affords.
: Your wishes can be observed in the distribution of your
property, for if you do not leave a Will the law may divide up
your possessions in a way that you might not desire.
How Have You Made Your Will?
Do not write your own Will.
‘‘Home-made’’ Wills are
dangerous and often cause law-suits, because, when drawing a
Will the law must be known, both as to wording and terms.
Consult a lawyer today about the making of your Will and have
him name the Bellefonte Trust Company to act as your Execu-
tor and Trustee.
J. L. Spangler,
C. T. Gerberich,
N. E. Robb,
Vice President Treasurer
WRIST AAA AAAI AAPA ANA AAA
Opie Read wrote;
“A rip or a tear may be accidental, but!
a patch is a sure sign of poverty.”
So are cleaned-up clothes. Wear rich
clothes, and you will feel and get richer.
We carry suits and overcoats that are
especially made for us by the best tailors.
You cannot get something for nothing, &
but if you do not come to the right clothing
store you may give up your good money
and not get what is coming to you.
Come to us and we will give you aga
Wear our good, “Nifty” clothes.
Quality. = Service.
E.—B. OSBORNE CORN and GRAIN BINDERS
E.—B. OSBORNE MOWERS E.—B MANURE SPREADERS
E.—B. CYLINDER HAY LOADERS
LETZ FEED MILLS CONKLIN WAGONS
E.—B. STANDARD MOWERS—in a class by themselves
MISSOURI GRAIN DRILLS—NEW IDEA MANURE SPREADERS
We are Headquarters for repairs for ‘the E. B. Osborne,
Champion and Moke Machines.
SPECIALS—While they last.
cents. A-1 Maroon paint for outside use at $2.00 per gallon.
COMBINATION TEDDER and SIDE DELIVERY RAKE
guaranteed to do both well :
SHARPLESS CREAM SEPARATOR, the separator with the suc-
tion feed, no discs, top of milk bowl 24 inches from the floor. SHARP-
LESS MILKING MACHINES, the electric moto-milker, the only one
to emulate nature.
B.—K., the perfect disinfectant, deodorant and antiseptic. No
dairy farm or home should be without this, NON POISONOUS FLY .
SPRAY. Spraying material for every purpose. Dry Lime, Sulphur,
Arsenate of Lead, Bordeaux Mixture, Tuber Tonic destroys Potato
Bugs and prevents Potato Blight.
Dubbs’ Implement and Feed Store
Spray Guns, 235, 35 and 50 *
“ Af ada
Satisfying Performance Economy of Operation
Power Durability True Value
BIG BIX.....vivseeeivannes serene $2250.00
SPECIAL SIX:....c..o000ee sssees . 1785.00
LIGHT SIX..e.veeeceversnscess +o. 1485.00
Cord Tires on all Models—Prices f. 0. b. Factory—Subject te Change
North Water St. BELLEFONTE