Newspaper Page Text
Bellefonte, Pa, June 18, 1920.
ESTIMATING THE NATION'S
Early in May, 1919, the United
States Department of Agriculture is-
sued a report showing the condition
of winter wheat to be 100.5, half a
point over a “perfect” condition as
compared with the average of former
years. On the acreage sown—almost
49,000,000 acres—this indicated a win-
ter wheat crop of approximately 900,-
000,000 bushels. Adding to this a nor-
mal spring wheat crop of some 350,-
000,000 bushels, there was a promise
for a total wheat crop in 1919 of a
billion and a quarter bushels.
Subsequent reports reduced the
prospective yield, due to losses
through blight, insect enemies and
other causes, until, at the end of the
crop season it stood at a little less
than 900,000,000 bushels for the com-
bined winter and spring wheat.
How is it done, this matter of esti-
mating before the plants are fully
grown, the amount of wheat and oth-
er grains which will be produced in
this country in a single season?
If you should wander into a certain
room of the Bureau of Crop Estimates
at Washington on the day when one
of these reports is to be given out,
you would find gathered around a ta-
ble many newspaper correspondents
and press representatives. The word
“wander” is used figuratively, because
you could not gain access to the room
without proper credentials, and once
there you would be unable to leave
until the business at hand was finish-
ed; all doors leading to the room are
locked, and there is no way of com-
municating with any one outside.
On the table are a number of sheets
of paper—copy of the crop estimate—
face down. An official of the bureau
stands nearby with an accurately
timed watch in his hand. Directly he
says “ready,” and the press represen-
tatives range themselves around the
table, each with a hand on one of the
sheets of paper. Next comes the
command, “Get set!” and the repor-
ters assume attitudes corresponding
to those of a group of sprinters. Fi-
nally there comes in stentorian tones
the anxiously awaited word “Go!” Im-
mediately there is a sound of feet
racing over the flooring, followed in
a few seconds by the rapid fire of tel-
egraph instruments and by the excit-
ed shouting into telephone transmit-
ters of a series of numbers. The crop
estimates is going to the four quarters
of the country.
All this is a part of the govern-
ment’s determination to play abso-
lutely fair, to see that no biased in-
formation is put out before the fixed
time, and to see that the report is re-
leased to all interested parties simul-
taneously. Of course, the reporter
with the longest or the fastest moving
legs may obtain a few seconds’ advan-
tage over his competitors after the
signal to go is given, but that is all.
No matter on what day the govern-
ment crop reports are issued, the
time is always exactly the same—
2:15 o'clock eastern time to the sec-
ond. The reason for this is that it is
the hour of closing of the principal
grain exchanges in the West—1.15 p.
m. If the reports reached the ex-
changes during the midst of a session,
they might create unwarranted fluc-
tuations in prices.
The little race among the Washing-
ton correspondents is only the begin-
ning of the flash which carries the re-
port to every person in the United
States who is sufficiently interested to
A national crop repc is, to a con-
siderable extent, a composite of
thousands and thousands of individ-
ual estimates of the local situation.
That the reports are absolutely unbi-
ased no well-informed person can
doubt. As for the force of statisti-
cians, no incentive for bias exists
among them, even if a prejudiced re-
port were possible, since the tabula-
tors and computers who make up the
totals do not even know the States to
which the reports pertain and the fi-
nal telegraphic reports and comments
of field agents relating to spcculative
crops are kept locked in the office of
the Secretary of Agriculture until
crop-reporting day, when they are
turned over to the crop-reporting
board. This entire board is immedi-
ately locked in, with guards stationed
at the doors and telephones discon-
nected, until the minute the report is
In the central office of the Bureau
of Crop Estimates at Washington are
housed about 135 employees, the ma-
jority of whom are statistical clerks,
computers and trained statisticians
experienced in handling and interpre-
ting agricultural facts. In addition,
there are forty-two salaried state field
agents, each of whom is required to
travel during the crop season, inter-
view farmers, representatives of com-
mercial houses, mills, elevators, buy-
ing and selling agencies and state and
Each agent enlists the voluntary
services of from 250 to 1500 selected
crop correspondents in his State, who
report to him every month regarding
crops. At the close of the month the
agent makes up a detailed estimate.
Two other classes of voluntary re-
porters send reports direct to the bu-
reau at Washington; 2800 volunteer
county correspondents, 53,000 town-
ship correspondents, 20,000 field aids
who report to the state agents, 6400
special price correspondents and more
than 12,000 mills and elevators.
Approximately 200,000 volunteer
correspondents in all make up the bu-
reau’s list, including 50,000 individual
In addition to the special reports
sent in each month by the field force,
the crop-reporting board has all oth-
er available data, such as the Weath-
er Bureau reports, crop reports is-
sued by state authorities and private
The crop-reporting board is com-
posed of the chief of the bureau, as-
sistant chief of the division of crop
reports, two statistical scientists and
one or more of the field agents called
in from the different States each
month. When the returns from the
voluntary crop reporters are all in,
they are sorted by States and districts
and partial totals are tabulated on |
sheets which are identified by num-
bers only, there being nothing on the
sheets to indicate either the State or
the crop, so that the work of adding
up and averaging the partial totals is
purely mechanical. The tabulation
sheets are cut up into sections, which
are distributed to different groups of
computers, and the results are not as-
sempied by States and crops until
after the bureau is put under lock and
key on crop-reporting day. The re-
port of the state field agents go di-
rectly to the secretary of agriculture
and are locked, unopened, in a vault
in his office. They remain unopened
until the morning of crop-reporting
day, when they are turned over to the
chief of the bureau, at the time the
crop-reporting board is called into
Inasmuch as the field agents are ex-
perienced crop inspectors, and as each
devotes his entire time to studying
the crops of his State, great reliance
is placed upon their estimates. Yet
the estimate of the other classes of
correspondents are a check upon
them. Furthermore, when the mem-
bers of the crop-reporting board con-
sider these estimates they take, in
conjunction with them, other factors,
such as weather conditions during the
few days since the reports were made,
and the estimates for adjoining
States. The average of the three es-
timates is then made. )
The Bureau of Crop Estimates is
considered by those who know to be
the best organized, smoothest-running
piece of human machinery for gather-
ing and disseminating agricultural
statistical data in existence. So well
recognized is that fact that a number
of foreign countries have sent repre-
sentatives here to study our system
and to adopt that portion which is ap-
plicable to their conditions.
Real Estate Transfers.
Foster V. Jodon Jr., et ux, to Geo.
H. Wilson, tract in Spring township;
H. Reeder Jodon to Foster V. Jodon
Jr., tract in Spring township; $3200.
E. S. Bullock, et ux, to C. H. Don-
ley, tract in Huston township; $2000.
John Daniell, et ux, to Stephen Sa-
bol, tract in Snow Shoe; $1200.
Isaac S. Frain’s Exr’s. to Albert N.
Womelsdorf, tract in Marion town-
Edward P. Lucas, et al, to Georg?
F. Walker, tract in Boggs township;
Jacob Carver’s heirs to Thomas Me-
Closkey, tract in Snow Shoe township;
Charles W. Erb, et ux, to Annie XK.
Humphrey, tract in Philipsburg;
Margaret D. Garbrick to Christ
Eckley, tract in Benner township;
Daniel H. Michaels’ heirs to Clyde
M. Viehdorfer, tract in Burnside
John Zwalderigo, et ux, to Paul
Kassop, et al, tract in South Philips-
Bertha D. Jones to Mary Gill, tract
in Philipsburg; $1.
Michael Gill, et ux, -to Bertha D.
Jones, tract in Philipsburg; $1.
Estella E. O’Brien to Moravian
Coal Mining Co., tract in Snow Shoe;
James A. Beaver, trustee, to Frank
M. Crawford, tract in Bellefonte;
T. F. Rogers, et ux, to James Da-
vis, tract in Potter township; $1.
T. F. Rogers, et ux, to James
Swabb, tract in Potter township;
Harry Dukeman, sheriff, to Fannie
S. Musser, tract in College township;
Wm. H. Brown, et ux, to Carolyn B.
Edwards, tract in State College;
Wm. H. Brown, et ux, to George R.
Green, tract in State College; $4000.
Estella E. O’Brien to Moravian
Coal Mining Co., tract in Snow Shoe;
George VW. Ward, et ux, to Mary J.
Martin, tract in Ferguson township;
J. I. Reed to Mary J. Martin, tract
in I'erguson township; $125.
Edward H. Meyers, et ux, to Kd-
ward L. Taylor, tract in State College
ida M. Rishel heirs to James Reed,
tract in Harris township; $1750.
Harry H. Ishler, et ux, to Alfred
Lee, tract in Harris township; $2300.
W. G. Runkle, et ux, to J. Forrest
Bible, tract in Potter township; $200.
Andrew Lytle, et ux, to Ella E.
Catherman, tract in College township;
Ellen Meese to Christina Rine, tract
in Bellefonte; $1200.
Sarah J. Moore, et al, to James H.
Hugg, tract in Philipsburg; $5000.
Fred Leathers, et ux, to W. C. Shay,
tract in Howard borough ; $340.
George W. Beezer, et ux, to N. H.
Krape, tract in Benner township;
Louisa Bush to D. C. Kustaborder,
tract in Spring township; $250.
Clayon B. Stover, et ux, to Elmer
D. Ripka, tract in Spring Mills; $275.
F. M. Crawford, et ux, to J. E. La-
Barre, tract in Bellefonte; $500.
Frank F. Palmer, et ux, to John Wil-
kinson, tract in Potter township; $350.
William M. Allison, et al, to Sarah
Hoar, tract in Potter township; $450.
John Wilkinson, et ux, to Lawrence
M. Boal, tract in Potter township;
William M. Allison, et al, to Henry
Foust, et ux, tract in Potter township;
W. W. Price to John P. Sebring
tract in Taylor township; $350.
Eliza Jane Harvey, et bar, to Lillie
Mae Shellenberger, tract in Philips-
Jacob Harpster, et ux, to Isaac G.
Harpster, tract in Ferguson township;
Mary E. Sholl, et bar, to Orvis M.
Sholl, tract in Millheim; $450.
William M. Allison, et al, to Henry
vis M. Sholl, tract in Penn township;
© WTO IER DITA AS A RL
F. P. Royer, et ux, to Corney R.
Boob, tract in Millheim; $600.
David Chambers, treasurer, to F. P.
Philips, tract in Potter township;
David Chambers, treasurer, to
Hiram Bowes, tract in Liberty town-
ship; $29.19. :
Henry Ccle to Mary Ellen Williams,
tract in Rush township; $275.
James C. Reed, et ux, to John F.
Kimport, tract in Harris township;
Ida Sullenberger, et bar, to Elmer
Day’s heirs, tract in Liberty town-
Binder Twine Plentiful, Cheaper.
The wheat grower need have no ap-
prehension as to the supply of binder
twine—this season. Reports coming
to the Bureau of Plant Industry, of
the United States Department of Ag-
riculture, indicate that there will be a
plentiful supply of this commodity
available for the American farmer.
ers in Yucatan to reduce their plant- ;[
ing, with the result that a real short-'
age of the fiber five or six years hence |:
is a very likely possibility.
Big Compensation Paid During April.
Industrial accidents injured 13,882
Pennsylvania workers during April,
according to an announcement made
i recently by Clifford B. Connelley,
‘ Commissioner of the Department of
Not only will it be plentiful, but it is
likely to be cheaper this year than for
some years past.
Yucatan—the chief and cheapest
source of henequin, from which the
twine is made—produced a large crop
this year; which, coupled with the ter-
mination of control of prices by the
Commission Reguladora, was respon-
sible for a drop in the price of fiber
from 15 to 10 cents a pound in March.
The price is now reported to be 3
cents a pound. This reduction should
be reflected in the price of twine this
Thus far the recent revolution in
Mexico has not affected the henequin
industry of Yucatan and Campeche,
the two important fiber-growing
States of that country. It is too late
now for any disruption of this indus-
try to affect seriously the supplies of
twine for his year’s harvest, as prac-
tically all the fiber necessary for the
present needs have already been im-
ported to the United States.
Although there is no danger for this
year’s twine supply,. officials of the
Department of Agriculture are some-
what apprehensive over the effect that
the low prices for fiber prevailing now
will have upon the production of the
henequin during the next few years.
Low prices, according to reports to
the Department, are leading the grow-
Labor and Industry. The accident re-
ports received by the State Bureau of
Workmen’s Compensation indicate
177 of the 13,882 workmen died from
the injuries received. The record of
disabling accidents for April is ap-
proximately 1,500 less than in March.
During the first four months of
this year, there have been 844 indus-
trial workers killed and 56,072 other
Pennsylvania workmen, during
April, lost 68 eyes, at a workmen’s
compensation cost of $85,579. The
following losses of limbs were suffer-
ed at compensation costs as indicated:
Thirty-three hands at $61,838; nine
feet, at $14,785; seven arms, at $13,-
703, and five legs, at $11,400.
The Bureau of Workmen’s Compen-
sation, during April, approved pay-
ment in 192 fatal accident cases. Fa-
tal compensation awards totaled
$422,016. Fatal compensation paid
during the month amounted to $203,-
461. Disability compensation paid
during the same period was $444,828.
No Progress for Him.
“Don’t want a railroad through
“You don’t?” :
“No sires. I'm satisfied with the
way things are now. Take your old
railroad somewhere else.”
“But this will improve the value of
your property. It is a progress.”
“That may all be, but I'd just as
soon not have progress build a rail-
road near my farm. It’s hard enough
to get work out of the hired help now,
without having them stop and rest,
and look every time a train goes by.”
—Detroit Free Press.
A little turpentine dissolved in
warm water is the best thing with
which to wash windows and mirrors.
A little aleohol will also do wonders
in brightening glass.
et Contents 15 Fluid Draotm
2 ALGOHOL-5 PER GENT. E
pd AVesetable Preparationforas
ii: SimilatingtheFood by Reg #
St ting the Stomachs and Bowes 4
: meee — . i
Thereby Promoting Digestion
: Cheerfulness and Rest.ContaiS
neither Opium, Morphine nor
Mineral. NoT NARGO TIO]
SE ———— ]
Recipe of PITCHED |
\ helpful Remedy for
A help! i
Gonstipation and Diarrhoea
and Feverishness an
Loss OF SEE?
FacSimile Signature of
RES (Rata t]
For Infants and Children.
| Mothers Know That
Piling Up Happiness
Does each year find you wishing and
hoping for better things in the future
—and regretting lack of accomplish-
ment in the past?
There is one sure way to fill your
horn of plenty to the brim with ali the
good things of life. It entails no sac-
rifice now. It merely means the form-
ing of a good habit.
Save! That good old formula for suc-
cess is as true now as when it helped
build the fortunes of our pioneer rail-
road builders, manufacturers and pro-
Applying it on a small scale in your
own way will bring you results in pro-
portion. Open a bank account with us
and we will help you save.
CENTRE COUNTY BANKING CO
SASS o ona
‘Money back” here isn’t
a ‘“‘game’’---it’s a privi-
The man who gives a
store the opportunity to
rectity a cause for dissat-
isfaction is doing the store
a favor more than himself.
That’s the right way to
look at it..
A A A SS ENS
Quality. Service. Efficiency.
E.—B. OSBORNE CORN and GRAIN BINDERS
E.—B. OSBORNE MOWERS E.—B MANURE SPREADERS
E.—B. CYLINDER HAY LOADERS
LETZ FEED MILLS CONKLIN WAGONS
E.—B. STANDARD MOWERS—in a class by themselves
MISSOURI GRAIN DRILLS—NEW IDEA MANURE SPREADERS
We are Headquarters for repairs for the E. B. Osborne,
Champion and Moline Machines.
SPECIALS—While they last. Spray Guns, 235, 35 and 50
cents. A-1 Maroon paint for outside use at $2.00 per gallon.
COMBINATION TEDDER and SIDE DELIVERY RAKE
guaranteed to do both well
SHARPLESS CREAM SEPARATOR, the separator with the suc-
tion feed, no discs, top of milk bowl 24 inches from the floor. SHARP-
LESS MILKING MACHINES, the electric moto-milker, the only one
to emulate nature.
B.—K., the perfect disinfectant, deodorant and antiseptic. No
dairy farm or home should be without this. NON POISONOUS FLY
SPRAY. Spraying material for every purpose. Dry Lime, Sulphur,
Arsenate of Lead, Bordeaux Mixture, Tuber Tonic destroys Potato
Bugs and prevents Potato Blight.
Dubbs’ Implement and Feed Store
B Las (Gi
Satisfying Performance Economy of Operation
Power Durability True Value
BIG SIX.....ec0es esesevaressssense . $2250.00
SPECIAL SIX..... sesserussces eees 1785.00
LIGHT SIX........ cevene vr reneevs 1485.00
Cord Tires on all Models—Prices f. 0. b. Factory—Subject to Change
North Water St. BELLEFONTE