Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, July 23, 1793, Page 463, Image 1

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[No. 117 of Vol. IV.],
Hints refpetting a projetf for cflablijh
ing unto erf at p tact with the Indians.
TliE purpo'e of the following observations
is not either to criminate or panegyrtfb
themeafores of the national government ref
petting the Indians; it is to J*£geJl Jome con
fJerntions relative to Indian affairs, with views
i'.ry d'jfergr.t from those 0/ party. But, as my
ibul revolts against the fiavi/h dojftrines that
militate agaioft liberal difcufiion. I purpose to
express my sentiments in the spirit of free
dom ; while I repeat that decorum which is
due to t.*!? enlightened mind of America.—
And I fhsll fir.<i advert to measures which
hava already beeu proposed or adopted for
maintaining peace with the Indians.
I. The giving nf presents to tbe Tndians, is
a measure which has been sometimes employ
ed. l'arhap; particular cireumftances may,
an certain cases, advise its adoption. But it
may "be questioned whether this* measure* al
though the practice of European powers
should seem to recommend it, i.*, on the
whole, beneficial. Its advantages are at
least temporary and precarious—and perhaps
it tends in tbe event to encourage in the In
dians a disposition to depredation.
The ncifure of fending clerical mijjunaries a
mong the Indians has had its patrons- The ,
zeal with which this measure has been in
foine inftaoces patronized, may be considered
arguing moregooduefs of intention than
reach of thought, or acquaintance with the
history of society. I do not however objedt
: to the meafbre, but only to the miscalcula
tion of its relative place and importance. Of
itfelfi it appears inadequateat piefent, to the
objeS of maintaining peace with the Indian:.
3. Ntfpciatit* is one of the resources. This
msv be a valuable auxiliary, as conducive to
eonfidend in any other light, it-may d. ap
point the hopes of the pu'jl c. I will mention
of fie efficiency of tieaties iFitii the Indians.
After the war in which the French are now
engaged had extended to the principali/ime
Posters of Knrope, and had consequently be
come immediately intending ,to the Arru-ri
can commerce, the Prelidynt of the united
States announced to his fellow-citizens, t.iat
national difpofiton which is declared in the
national treaties and laws; publicly proclaim
ing, for the information and bfmft of the
citizens, the importance of abftaimrg from
ill acts inconsistent wit'i that friendfhip and
impartiality, which the faith of tieaties and
the authority of the law enjoined : And in tlie
fame proclamation, he gave public notice of
the determination to execute his officii and
sworn duty. Yet even this nv.-afure has not
escaped animadversion, and the lan«na';
cenlare. Such aniniadverfion', when pro
ceeding from misguided zeal, and not from
psrfonal d fappointment, may indeed be re
garded with a peculiar indulgence and gene
rous compiflion, as being the erratic effulions
iof an ardent paflion for liberty. But, u 3
Ineafure con.t'tutional, and wifely »-
'dapted to gnarcl against the i.fraction of trea
ties and the psblic law, is censured, even in
a country so enlightened and liberal as tie
United States, and by perlons claiming
character of American citizens ; can it hera
tinnal to repose implicit confidence in tie ef
feft of t eatie-, over such pe, lons as Indians
perrons so ignorant, so fnrpicious.A) irritable
% ft i t
so prone to plunder, lo destitute of regular
vernmtnt » Are the majority of the >ndan
lels adverse to the reftraintt ,Jnloa '°.',
than fche per fete who traduce the Pr.fu.ent
of the United States are -n
tender! for the protection of peace on the Ton
tier. But in cafe of I.ortilities-on » hew * iU ''
the extent of frontier, .he d.ftanc,
tack* incident to an Indmn war are amon
the cau'cs whch render ,t difficult. or ,mpo(
fibie, to completely protect tr.e rights ot the
United States by adopting a iyftem merelyde
fun-five. Ai.d in fending a regular armi m <
the Indian country, vinous dithcultu-s p.
sent theinfeh c, as obftac!es to the comple"
fureefs of I nch a plan : the natural "Wtacle
which impede the maich of a regular arm}
throng!) an uncultivated country ,
tiplied «-ell as tbe expen.eJ
Jmifhins the army with the requ.fite
plies; the difficulty of ever h«
enemy and fighting him on en.a, ' po .
1 ; to surprize ard defeat. An 1
btry exertions of volunteers, howevtr ho.
' C t rh?t
1 &a»is, are of foch a nature as to want that
fvftematic arrangement which appears c. .
site to the cfbWiflrment o! permanent p •
' 5. Hi atommrnt of ct'tr " • lsn "' - .
1 Indians is an object c.mtfrmplarec. by f«J»
the late treaties ; and outfit never to *
gotten. Vet this purpofc. i. V***k
nuft be flow in its prog reft • Alt.ioug
V "ratu-cditmcftbc of eminent at : jy.
rl Far?o ft, hc./evf r, may, it * mut-ned,
SAf URDAY, JuiY 15.1795.
be accelerated meafnre Tyhich i s yet to
.hie !'ag s efted. •
The pre cedin re marks point to the prin
cipal expcdientsrhich have been relied on
for keeping the idians in pejee. And taken
singly, or in conjnCtion, they do not appear
to promise thatjrompt and complete cita
blifhment of peat which is 'definable lor the
United States, jbefe general remarks argue
the difficulty of pcompliftiing this defirabie
object ; as well a the propriety of adopting
filch further expedients as the importance and
the difficulty of tfe o'ojeft may demand.
Is there then no other measure which may
bs adopted, and tvaich will aid and accelerate
the main of tbe arrangement now in
operation? Before suggesting a fpecific an
swer to this question, 1 will luccindtly men
tion fonie generai ideas.
To ejlab-ijk unwjai prace with the Indiant f it
appears impoi tsjnU that order, government,
civilization, fhifhfl taLe place among them.
This con fide ration immediately opens into
an extecfive field of enquiry. I d& not
purpose at this time to Purvey and particular
ly delineate the whole ; but limply to point
to some of the main obrje&s of attention. I
maltonly ftetcirf&metbing of an outline with
out even pretending to complete the repre
sentations. Persons conversant in compre
henfiye views of human affairs mult be sen
sible of the variety of particulars that would
require attention in minutely investigating
the fubjeft ! But, a 1? the present design is to
throw out only futile hints for public confide ra
tion, the observations will be of a general na
ture, omitting a multitude of particulars.
Ail opinion has, in lo me tnealurc obtained,
Th?.t it is impracticable to civilize the red
people on the bord% :s of the United Stater..
But the fmaH effect of* past attempts for this
poroofe does not appear to warrant the opini
on. The progrWt of mankind from rudeness
to iiumanization is wfoaliv flow, much flower
than a partial obfcrver.of &ciety would be
apt even to imagine.
11 is,' I acknowledge, no easy matter to
form a true estimate oi the- space of tvne which,
in the general course of events, must elapse,
before any people having no connexion wirh
the moit civilized of mankind, would
emerge from t'.ie rudeness ot lavage life and
advance to tfhe civilization, the arts and
humanities of poliflied focietr. Perhaps the
ffacc of a thoujand years is considerably ftoi t
ot the truth. Let a person consider the rude
ness of nations on the continent of Europe iO
L.te as the fifteenth century, and even late: —
then recur to the accounts to be found rela
tive to the fame nations in the writings of
Tacitus, or Caesar ; and further consider the
length of time whichthofe nations must have
existed, at the periods to which these writers
refer ! This view of .only a part ot mankind
may abundantly evince the very flow, and al
mo'ft imperceptible progress of the human
nice from savage rudeness to civilized con
It also appears credible, that tfcis progress
in its earlier rtages is much less pei ceptiole
than in its periods. '
And there is one general consideration whicj
applies very univeifally to the progress oi ci
vilization As far as my recolletfbon now
extends, kijlory has not recorded anx people th«t
ever mere cii Hi zed without the wtcnention vj milita
ry Jab or.dilation.
(To be continued.)
AT*. Rwsseij., i
THE Citizens whose names appeared in
letter pu'olifhed in your paper of Wed
nefdaylaft, from the Ambaflador of France,
to the French Citizens in this place, do not
think themfclves itititled to futb particular
notice for aiiy trifling afliftance th»v may
have lent to the unfortunate French teamen,
who escaped from Miqutlon, and landed here.
Be fides, it ought to be known, that the
small amount that was collected for the re
lict'of thele ditlrefled men, was aided equally
bv the contribution of a number ot other Ci
tizens of the town, whose feelings are warm
ly interested for the success of the FrJ.ich Re
volution, and who embraced with avidity an
opportunity that would evicce their sincere
anil grateful attachment to the patriot citi
z»nsof that great and generous nation, "'"'h
had the courage to afford and relief
to America in the hour of her affliction and
diftreis—and there is row f.ifficient evidence
to believe, that had it only been hinted to the
Citizens of the town, that their aid to the
contribution would have been neceffary,nine
teen, intwentv, would have f/.zed upon tne
occasion, to Save m*nifcfted their fr.endth.p
and atfertion to the children of the only true
and faithful friend of the United State*.
(jazettii 6th injt.J
Bofan 3- 1 793-
Otm r««"l »in 1,1 cl,nl " " nforl
Arid fail* *•'<? whik « r ">" rock ,he world •
O how f r>rate!y crrft, the wretch who tries
To wrettfrdi commerce fucfc a glorious pri*.
4 6 -3
PuHiJhei at Stockb ridge (Mass.) by L. Andrews.
IT has been justly observed, that the terms
" Liberty and Equality" have been-fla-
grandly perverted, by the conftruftion given
to them by some who make great pretentions
to pat riot Km and political sagacity -—Liberty
gives the privilege of enjoying in peace and
security the fruits of indnftry—it opens, wide
the do«>r to honorary preferment, to those
who purfu? the paths of integrity and politi
cal rectitude—it favors the diflfemination of
that knowledge which enables the community
ta diftingui!h between real and pretended me-
rit, and which dire<sts the public attention to
the former, whether found in tbe low wall'd
cottage, or in the lofty edifice of wealth and
affluence.—Liberty invests a people with the
right of ele&ing their own rulers, whose tafe
hto enadt laws for the general good—and it
enjoins upon th» community a ftri<st and punc
tual obedience to them, without which, nei
ther private nor public happiness can long be
considered in any other view than as empty
founds.—The aforementioned ate among the
many privileges which are allotted to a nati
on whose citizens rightly observe and use the
advantages which freedom and independence
place within their reach-—For fucb .liberty
oar heroes fought—for fuc i liberty our mar
tvrs lei!—for such Hberty our patriot* have
performed the duties of the cabinet, and fueii
it long be our happiness unmoleft-
Equality constitutes a barrier
aflumption of undelegated power
— the fame lecurity for the protcftior?
of the middling and lower class, in the exer
cife-nf tlifer righfi, as it does to the rich and
affluent, and renders the feat ofjuftice accef
fiii.j to all ranks of citizens- 'cvtr hor'tjl
blit weak and uninformed charafterr, propa-'
gate an idea that liberty confiftj in every
man's doing that which is inoft agreeable to
the dictates of inclination, whether conform
able to the laws, or not —that national regu
lations, calculated for the wisest purposes,
must, without giving time to experience '.heir
e3eft', be rendered lubfervient to the wbims
and caprice of a set of compluiners, who have
filHicient art to deceive the u»wary, and hafe
neiVimooeh i--'
discontented with the operation ot a fee and
iuft government. The views of the i aft men
tioned are, to introduce dil'order and cor.fu
fion, that, am'idft its raging, they may them
lelves leize the holm ol power—this effected,
their tone would alter-—ar.d while they
piincioallv their own aggrandizement, the
people would be called on to obey their nail
ciates, as the infallible oracles of political rec
titude. What thefedemagogues, before their
exaltation, would ftifc? liberty and equality, viz.
(he right of the populace to aftemble ando\ c i -
awe the proceedings ot the freely eie<ficd I'-
gifhtors of the nation, they would afterwards
declaim against as unlawful ar.d seditious.
But the former ideas, when once generally
diifeminated, efpeciaUy among an, uninform
ed multitude, are apt to carry their influence
beyond the controul of reason, 2nd finally pro
duce the mod alarming cont'equenccs. —Un-
happily, this line ofconduft has been too much
purfueJ by our Gillie allies, whefe noble ftrug
gies in the cause of human nature cannot but
j be intereftjng to every American.
Those who delight in the diffufiqn of that
bappinafs concomitant on the establishment of
Wire and wholesome laws, must heartily wifti
that the original principles which induced
France to throw off the fetters of tyranny,
may yet inspire them to the pursuit of thole
measures which are neceflary to secure liberty
,nd its bleflings on a just and permanent foun
dation. There are those who condemn as
Arijtocnts, all who do not join in the huzzas of
a Paris mob, and unhefitating'.y approbate the
proceedings in into of the French Jacobin club
lj U t many, very many, who think that the
conduct ol the former is difgraceful, and that
of the latter hostile to all true principles of
liberty, pray with more honest hearts for the
fneeels of the great cause of freedom, than
thole who accuse them with being favorer.s of
Arjhcracy, (3c. (3c.—But these declaimed mujl
have a cant phrase, and Arijlccracy will an
swer their purpose a> well, and perhaps better,
than anv other.—A(k i'onie of this class for a
definition of their favorite word, and they
will be as likely to tell you it means one thing
as another —but the definitiou is of no con
sequence Anjlocracy is the raiding Jour J,
th; he niori of the party, and that is fuffi
(ien» Those who, through honest ignorance,
allien to themselves the part of prejudicing
mind agiinft such whole pol.tical
opinions are as confiflent as theii own, claim
the indulgence of pity—while some who, from
less honest motives, employ their time to an
swer similar ends, deserve, in some instances,
the severest cenl'ure, in others, contempt.
That the mill of ignorance, which has so
long darkened and overspread the greatest
part of the habitable globe, may speedily va
oilh before the bright rays of the fun of free
dom, and the whole human race participatc
in the rich hleflings of equal liberty, law and
justice, must be the fervent desire of every
| philanthropic heart.
[Whole No. 439-]
FRANCE, the rival time immemorial of
Great-Britain, had in the course of the
»4r, which ended in ] 763, fuffei cd from the
fuccersful arms of the latter the severest loT
fes and the molt mortifying defeats. Britain
from that moment had acquired an alcend
ant over France in the affairs of Europe, and
in the commerce of the world, too decided to
be endured without impatience, or without
an eager oefire of finding a favorable oppor
tunity to destroy it, and repair the breach
which had been made in the national glory.
The animosity of wounded pride conspired
with calculations of the interest of the State
to give a keen edge to that impatience and
to that desire.
The American Revolution offered the oc
cafidn. 11 attra&ed early the notice of France,
though with ext»eme circumfpe&ion. As
far as countenance and aid may be prcfumed
to have been given prior to the epoch of the ac
knowledgment of our independence, it will
be no unkind derogation to aflert, that they
were mark neither with libera!fV, nor
with vigour ; that they wo»e the appearance
rather of a desire to keep alive difturb.-rnces,
which would embarfafs a rival power, than
of a serious design to aiSft a revolution, or a
serious expectation that it would l»e effected.
The victories of Saratoga, the capture of
an army, which went a great way towards
deciding the ilfue of the contest, decided a-lfo
the hesitations of France. They established
i:i the government of that country n confi
dence in our ability to accompli Hi our pur
pose ; and as a consequence of it produced
the treaties of alliance and commerce.
It is Impossible to fte iu all this any thing
more than t'J.e csrtduft cfa rivalnation, em.
'b'racing-a fltnft proraifing opportunity to re
press the- pride ,ancf diminifli the
power iif its riv'^l; <jv recording a IVectfiFul
fcfiitaaCi to Its authority, and by - foflpinff off
a Valuable portion of iu dominions. Xl'e
difmemberinetit of this country -from {Jrleat
fiitain was "art diwimwatul a very imporfmt
intertft cf France. It cannot b£ doubted,
that it was tbe determining motive, and ajt
_ademLizc_£ompeiifatiou (of the at-.
Menoffenfe, in country, deduced an
encouragement t«» the part which their zeal
for liberty prompted chem to take in our rer
volution, from the probability of the co
operation of France and Spain. It will be
remembered, that this argument was i.fed in
tlie publications of the day ; but upon what
was it bottomed f Upon the known compe
tition between thole powers and Great-Bri
tain, upon their evident interest to reduce
her power and circumscribe her empire ; not
upon motive, of icgard to our interest, or ol
attachment to our caue. Whoever should
have allcdged the latter, asvgrounds of the
expectation he'd ontj wmild have been then
juftfy confidercd as a visionary, or a dc-ceiver.
And whoever lhall now ascribe the aid we re
ceived to such motsves would nor deserve to
be viewed in a better light.
The inference from these fa&s i? not ob
scure. Aid and co-operation founded upoij a
great Wltercft, pursued and attained bv the party
affording them, is not a proper ilock up?n
which to engraft that enthusiastic gratitude,
which is claimed from us, by those nho love
f ranee more than the United State*.
This view of the fubjefi, extorted by the
extravagancy of such a claim, is not meant
to disparage the just pretensions of France
upon our goed tviil. Though neither in the
motives to the fuccouVs which she
nor in their extent (corifidering how power
fully the point oj honor in such a zvar xc\u forced
the confederations of interest when she was
once engaged) found a fufficient basis
for that gratitude w!!;ch is the theme of so
much declamation : Yet we shall find in the
manner of affording us those fcccours just
cause for our efteeci and friendship.
France did not attempt, in the firft in
stance, to take advantage of oyr situation to
extort from us any humiliating or injurious
concessions, as the price of her afliflance ; nor
afterwards in the progress of the war, to im
pose hard terms as the condition of particu
lar aids.
Though this course was certainly dictated
by policy ; yet it was an honorable and a
magnanimous policy ; such a one as always
constitutes a title to the approbation and es
teem of mankind; and a claim tathe friend*
ship and acknowledgment of the party, in
whose favor it is practiced.
But t'.iefc sentiments are fatirfied on the
part of a nation ; when they produce sincere
wilhes for the happiness of the party from
whom it has experienced such conduct, and a
cordial disposition to render altgocd auj fiicndly
cjfitr* u'hnk can h rtnieni ui'tiort prejudice to iu
curt Jwii urdpermanent inttrejli.
To alk of » nation Co situated, to rr a Ice a
facrtfiee of substantial interest ; to expofc it
felf to the jcalcufv, i'! will, or lefentmentof
the reft of the workl; to hazard in an emi
nent degree its o-.vo tjl'erv. for thebenefi'ofc
thi p 1 rt v , wlio may have observed towardaK