Newspaper Page Text
MR. ADAMS'S LETTERS.
Amsterdam, Oct. 17, 1780.
\A/ E . are . ~ow come s o your twelfth head of
( inquiry, which is, " What countenance have
the finances ? How much does the exfe/ice exceed the
yearly income P Does the annual revenue, deriv
" from the taxes, increase or diminijh, in the
" "whole, or in any particulars ? and what are the rea
" sons given for it ?"
Here I am apprehensive Ifhall find a difficulty
to make niyfelf understood, as the American fi
nances, and the mode of taxation differ so mate
rially from any that I know of in Europe.
In the month of May, t 775* when Congrefscame
together, for the firlt time, after the battle of
Lexington and Concord, they found it necellary
to rail e an army, or rather, to adopt an army al
ready jaiied, at Cambridge, in order to oppose
the Britiih troops, and ffiut them up in theprifon
01 Lolton. But they found that the colonies were
but jtill out of debt, had but just paid off the debts
contracted in the last French war. 111 the several
treasuries of the colonies they found only a few
thousand pounds. They had before themaprof
peftofa stagnation, or interruption of their trade,
pretty universally, by the British men of war.
1 hey had a thousand perplexities before them,
in the prospect of parting through thirteen revo
lutions of government, from the royal authority
to that of the people. They had armies and na
vies to form ; they had conllitutions of govern
ment to attend to; they had twenty tribes of In
dians to negociate with ; they had vail numbers
of negroes to take care of; they had all forts of
arms, annnuuition, artillery, to procure, as well
as blankets and cloathing, and fubiittence for the
army; they had negociations to think of in Eu
rope, and treaties to form of alliance and com
merce ; and they had even fait to procure, for
the subsistence of the inhabitants, and even their
cattle, as well as their armies.
In this situation, with so many wants and de
mands, and no money or revenues to recur to, they
had recourse to an expedient, which had been oft
en praclifed in America, butno where else ; they
determined to emit paper money.
The American paper money is nothing but bills
of credit, by which the public, the community,
to pay the polleflor a certain sum in"a
limited time. In a country where there is no coin,
or not enough, in circulation, tliefe bills maybe
emitted to a certain amount, and they will pass
at par; but as soon as the quantity exceeds the
value of the ordinary business of the people, it
will depreciate, and continue to fall in value,
in proportion to the augmentation ofthe quantity.
The Congress, 011 the 18th of March lall, stated
ta ' s depreciation at forty for one. This may be
nearly the average, but it often pafles much lower.
By this reiolution all the bills in circulation on
that day (and none have been emitted since) a -
mount to about one million and aquarter sterling.
To this if you add the money borrowed upon
loan certificates, and the debt contracted abroad
jn I lance and Spain, the whole does not amount
to but little more than five millions.
early income we have none properly speaking.
\\ e have 110 imposts or duties laid on any articles
of importation, exportation, or consumption. The
revenue confilts entirely of grants annually made
by the legislatures, of fumsof money for the cur
rent service of the year, and appropriated to cer
tain uses. These grants are appottioned upon
ail the polls and effates, real and personal, in the
community ; and they are levied and paid into
the public treasury with great punctuality, from
■whence they are issued in payments of the de
mands upon the public.
011 fee then it is in Lhe power of the legislatures
to raise what fuins are wanted, atleaft as much
as the people can bear ; and they are usually pro
portioned to the public wants and the people's a
bihties. They are now conilantly laying 011 and
paying very heavy taxes, although for the three
or four nrft years of the war the obftru&ioiis of
trade, iS.c. made it difficult to raise any taxes at all.
The yearly taxes, annually laid on, have increased
every year forthefe three years part, and will
continue to be increased in proportion to the a
bilities of the people. This ability, no doubt,
increases, in proportion as population increases,
as new lands are cultivated, and as property is in
jiny way added to the common fleck ; it will also
increase as our commerce increases, and as the suc
cess in privateering increases.
Lilt by the method of taxing, you fee that it is
in the power of the legislatures to increase the
taxes every year, as the public exigencies may re
quire ; and they have 110 other reltraint or limit
taan the people's ability.
I have the honor to be, &c.
„„„ „ JOHN ADAM S.
ADVERTr S E M E N T.
(t- T MR. ADAhS's LEITERS which have appeared in the Gal
tette, are part oj t fines, 26 m number, wrote by his Excellency in
H»lan<l-V,e uholeare fubliJheJ in a pamphlet of 'ti 4 paces, whuh is
to br j".d Ay Mtjf's. Brrrv & Rogers, Hanma-Square, Mr. Robert
Hodge, QjHihSlfcci. and by the Editor hereof.
INVOCATION TO SLEEP.
il T ET not the patriot, whose unwearied mind
JL-i Toils for the general good of human kind,
Bend at thy shrine in vain : On him attend,
On him let all thy fofteft dews descend ;
And to his rapture-soaring foul be given
lo climb invention'! highest, happiest heaven :
Where Shakelpear, wand'ritig, tipt his tongue with fire,
Heard myftick founds and Hole a icraph't lyre.
Not less in vain the virgin lacrifice
Eloquent tears, and energy of sighs ;
O'er her fair brcall the sorrow-soothing rod
Gracious extend, and give her all the God :
Charm her fad drooping foul; and, killing, dry
The dewy drops that glisten in her eye."
CONGR.ESS of the UNITED STATES.
Begun and held at the City of Ncto-York, on Wednesday the Fourth
of March, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty-Nine.
An ACT to regulate Processes in the Courts of
the United States.
O E it enabled by the Senate and House of Reprefen
-U tatives oj the United State/ of America in Con
gress ajfembled, I hat all writs and precedes iffiiing
from a supreme or a circuit court, /hall bear tclt
of the chief justice of the supreme court, and if
from a diltriot court, lliall bear tell of the jud<re
of such court, and shall be under the seal of the
court from whence they ifliie ; and signed by the
tliei eof. The seals of the supreme and
cii cuit court, to be provided by the fupreine court,
and of the diftrkt courts, by the refpetfive jud
ges of the fame.
And be it further enabled, That until further
pi ovifion shall be made, and except where by this
ac\ or other statutes of the United States is other
wile provided, the forms of writs and executions,
except their style, and modes of process and rates
of fees, except fees to judges, in the circuit and
diftncft courts, in suits to*ommon law, shall be
the fame in each slate refpedtively as are now used
or allowed in the supreme courts of the fame.
And the foims and modes of proceedings incauf
es of equity, and of admiralty and maritime juris
diction shall be according to the course of the
civil law : And the rates fees the fame as are
or were last allowed by the States refpei r tively in
the coui t exercising supreme jurisdiction in such
caules. Provided, f hat on judgments in any of
the causes aforefaid where different kinds of ex
ecutions are iffuable in fucceflion, a capias ad
fati sfaciendum being one, the plaintiff shall have
Ins election to take out a capias adfatisfacienduvi
in the nrit lnlrance, and be at liberty to pursue
the fame until a tender of the debt and colts in
gold or silver shall be made.
And be it further enaaed, That this ast shall con
tinue in force until the end of the next feflion of
Congress and no longer.
FREDERICK AUGUSTUS MUHLENBERG,
TOHM ATlAVlfr" °/ "'' Hou l' °J R 'prefentatives.
JOHN ADAMS, la-President of the United Slates,
and Prrfident of the Senate.
APPROVED, SEPTEMBER THfc CQth, 1780.
GEORGE WASHINGTON, Prefient of the United States.
An ACT to explain and amend an Ast, entitled, " An
ast for Regiflering and Clearing Vejfels, Regulat
ing the Loajling Trade, and for ether purposes."
"D E it enaßed by the Senate and House of Rcpre
-LJ fentatives of theUnitedStates of America in Con
gress ajfembled, That when any goods, wares, or
merchandize cis foreign growth or manufacture,
'hall be unladen from any /hipor veflel in virtue
of a permit obtained for that purpose, and flrall
be put into a craft or veflel, with intent to be
transported to a landing within the fame diftrift
it fliall be the duty of the infpeftor, or other of
ficer attending the unlading of such goods, wares
and merchandize, to deliver to the matter or com
mander of every such craft or veflel, a certificate
of such goods, wares, and merchandize, having;
been dulj entered, and a permit granted there
for ; and such certificate shall contain a descrip
tion of all the packages, with their marks and
numbers, and shall authorize the transportation
and landing of the fame, at any landing within
the lame diftricl:, without any further fee or per
mit, any thing in the said recited ast to the con
And be it further enaCicd, That so much of the
twenty-second feftion, of the said recited ast, as
exempts veflels of less than twenty, and not less
than five tons burthen, employed between any of
the diftrifts of the United States, in any bay or
liver, and having a licence from the collector of
the diftrkt to which such veflel belongs, from en
tering and clearing for the term of one year, be
extended to veflels not exceeding fifty tons : 'Pro
vided such veflels lhall not have on board goods
wares, or merchandize, other than such as are
actually the growth or produce of the United
And be it further enaCied, That so much of an
ast, entitled, "An ast to regulate the collection
of the duties imposed by law on the tonnage of
flaps or veflels, and on goods, wares, and mer
chandizes imported into the United States " as
hath rated the ruble of Ruflia at one hundred
cents, be, and the fame is hereby repealed and
made null and void.
IREDERICK AUGUSTUS MUHLENBERG,
T niiM A I-. A x ?P ea j[ er of the House of Representatives.
JOHN ADAMS, I icc-Prcfdcvt of the United States,
and Prefdent of the Semite.
Approve!*, September «q, i 789.
GEORGE WASHINGTON, Prefdcut of the United Slsics.
GENERAL ACCOUNT of ANTICIPATIONS 9 '
A PARTICULAR STATEMENT of War
r RA m TS drawn by tbe late Boa '-d of Trea*
frny on MickaelHuiegas, late Treafurv „r
t United States, which remain unpaid in
were compnfed ,n the Eftimatc made & the &
cretary of theTreafury of the United Spates and
by him reported to the House of Reprefentatiw*
ot the United States.
Date of jj « (| In wh of?favor. II
Warrants. || '|| Department, andfor what drawn II Da! - 9--W
Brought forward, « .
1788. 1039 Edward Chinn, late Commif- *
c - 24- iioner for Rhode-Island, for Sala
ries and contingent Expenses of
Office, one Quarter, from ill Jan
uary to 31ft April, 1787, 23, so
10 4° Ditto, do. do. do. from 31ft Oft
to 31ft Dec. 1786, . 6
1041 John Halftead, in part of a <"um
due him agreeably to A& of Con
gress, 4 th June, 1788, . 03a
1789. ioSi George Stanton, for the rent of
teb * ,0 * the House occupicd by the Board
of I reafury, from ift Novemberto
31ft January, -
1082 John White, Commiflioner for
the States of Pennsylvania, Dela
ware, and Maryland, being for ex
pen fes, attend in g the transportation
of public papers. &c. 8674
March 26. 1107. William Winder, late Commis
sioner of North-Carolina and Vir
ginia, for salaries and contingen
cies of office, transportation of
public papers, See. from the ift of
October, 1788, to tbe aoth of
March, ,789, M99gi
1108. Ditto, ditto, ditto, 51 01
1109. Ditto, ditto, ditto, 10! 1}
1110. Ditto, ditto, ditto, 2234
1111. Ditto, ditto, ditto, 23
1113. Ditto, ditto, ditto, 91
1114. Ditto, ditto, ditto,
in 5. Ditto, ditto, from the ift of
July, to the 30th of Sept. 1788. 500
1116. Ditto, ditto, ditto, 193
May 16. 1151. George Stanton, for rent of the
house occupied by the Board,from
the ift of February, to the 30th ot
April, 1786. ' 56 2a
June 2. n6B. Paul R. Randall, for his salary
as Secretary to the Algerinc Lega
tion, from Sept. 1785, to Sept.
1786, per A6l of Congress, of the
11th of Sept. 1788, 70§
u £* ,1 99- John Jay, Secretary of Foreign
Affairs, for Office-Rent, and
other contingent Expenses, $7 22
July 22. 1193. Benjamin Walker,Commiflion
er for fettling the Accounts of the
late secret and commercial com
mittees of Congress, from the ift
of April, tothe 30th of June,l7B9, 475
*789' Nathaniel Appleton, Loan-of
ficer of the State of Massachusetts,
Balance due him on Settlement at
the Treasury of his Accounts o£
Salary, to the 30th of June, 1789.
and which having been introduced
in the accounts of expenditure,
forms a Part of the Balance of
189,906 34-90ths, Dollats, Anti
cipation by the late Board of Trea
sury, on the 11 di of September,
1789, 2,64$ 6£
March 9. 1147. Roger Sherman, Esq. Aflignee
to Isaac Sherman, being in full for
his Expenses whilst executing Sur
veys in the Western Territory,
from 11ft April, to 21ft Septem
ber, 1787, 33 3*
William Ellery, Loan-Officer
of the State of Rhode-Island, on
a settlement at the Treafurv, of his
Account of Salary tothe 30thof
September, 1788, and which hav
ing been introduced in the Ac
counts of Expenditure, forms a
Part of the Balance of 189,906
34-90ths Dollars, Anticipation by
the Board of Tueafury, on the utfi .
of Sept. 1789, f lo 2'
May 13 . 1148. Pdtrick Fcrrall, being in full for
contingent Expenses, and Office-
Rent of the Office of the Board of
Commiflioners appointed toadjuft
the Accounts of the several States,
from the aoth of Nov. 1788, to
the 2d of May, 1789, $
Aug. 1. 1198. John Cochran, Loan-Officer of
the State of New-York, being for
his Salary and Stationary for his
Office, from the ift of April, to .
the 30th of June, 1789,
1788. 859. Thomas Hutchins, Geographer
March 4. General, advanced for the Use ofi ,
of his Department, 2
1789. 1118. John Lawrence, Aflignee to
John C. Symm«,onc ofthe Judges
of the Western Territory, for his
Salary, from 26th March to 30th
June, 1788, per Ad of Congress,
of the 13th of July, 1787, 213 13
111Q ( Ditto, ditto, ditto,
aiao y rom 111 J"ly» to 31ft Dec.
(at 200 Dol. pr. quarter, 400 g 3
1141 Joseph Nourfe, Attorney to Tho
mas Hutchins, Geographer-Gene
ral, for his salary from the ift of
Jan. to the 31ft of March, .1789. 375
Published by JOHN KENNO, No. 9, MudH;