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AT this important Crisis, the ideas that fill the mind, are preg
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DOM and GOVERNMENT—LIBERTY and LAWS, are inse
This Conviflion has led to the adoption of thr New Constituti
on; for however, various the Sentiments, refpe&ing the ME
RITS of this System, all good men are agreed in the neceflity
thatexifts, of an EFFICIENT FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.
A paper, therefore, eftablifhcd upon NATIONAL, INDE
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the public's humble servant. THE EDITOR.
SIX Months have now elapsed Jirne this paper wa< upie red
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tftii'g nature ; abounds with more originality than any other periodical
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In the present number, the publication of the fourvals of the Serntt
» commenced. As there is no gallery 'to the Senate Chamber, ail tha
be kfivzun of the proceedings of that Mofl Honorable branch of tht
national Legislature,is from their Journals ; in this viewof the fubjeCt,h
ufutyojedtkey will be interefiing to the public. The price of the Laws ana
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°J one year, amounts to more than the fubfeription.
The Editor is determined to prcfecute the publication, upon its origi
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"]t ons oj his ingenious corrcfpondents : He Jolicits the aid oj every
I ' -"' tf to faer.ee, freedom and government: And such fpeculaUons as
17 <1 friendly ofpe Tf o the peace, honor and prosperity of our riftng
nctimi. be received with gratitude by the public's humbU servant
JOHN FEW NO.
is V. VV-Yo r» K. Q.7c'\'>- 14, 1789.
WEDNESDAY, October 14, 1739.
THE TABLE T.—No. LIII.
" The difirc of knowledge, like the thirjl of riches
incrcases with the acquisition of it."
MANY philosophers have doubted whether
learning, distributed among the great mafsof the
people, contributes to the real liappinefs of so
ciety. The iuquifitive mind of man can never be
fatisfied with attainments in knowledge ; and eve
ry new acquisition only encreafes his natural rest
lessness of spirit. There is a plausibility in this
mode ot reasoning ; but nevertheless it is salaci
ous. Though it muiit be confelled that learning
does not produce contentment, Hill it affords a
source of fatisfacftion, which positively adds to the
quantity of human happiness. It renders the
mind active as well as contemplative. Its plea
sures and pains become more numerous and in
tenle. The happiness of an ignorant man can be
called nothing uiore than an exemption from mi
But whether as individuals we should be more
or less happy, as our understanding is more or
less improved, yet as members of a community,
the utility of men, may be generally said to be
proportioned to their knowledge. This remark
however admits of exceptions. Those men whose
curiolity pushes them into vain researches of lite
rature may arrive at great attainments and Itill be
very useless members of the community. A spi
rit of enquiry among a people will in time regu
late itfelf, and the bulk of the citizens will fall
into pursuits that are beneficial. The reason why
demagogues in some of the antient govern
ments blew up a flame in society so frequently
was, that the mass of the people were uninformed.
They could not distinguish the lioneft remon
strances of a real patriot from the petulant cla
mours of pretended ones. In the United States
the inhabitants are less liable to be deceived, as
there are so many men of information that the
valueof characters can be fairly estimated. This
diffufion of knowledge promises one of the best
fafeguards as well as one of the brightell orna
ments of our new government. There can be lit
tle danger either of oppreflion or infurreiflion in
a country where the inhabitants generally know
how to read. The public opinion becomes so just
and refpecflable that rulers durst not make op
preflive laws, and the people wish not to violate
such as are wife and salutary.
It is a pleasing circumstance to observe legisla
tors attempting to guard the liberties of their
country by bills of rights, and checks and explana
tions upon the constitution- Such precautions have
no doubt a good effevfl. But all the political con
ltitutions that the art of man can frame will ne
ver perpetuate the freedom of an ignorant peo
ple ; nor can any original defeats in a form of go
vernment fubje<ft an enlightened people to slavery.
It is worthy the serious attention of legislators to
make provisions in all parts of the country for
public schools. Mod of these should extend little
further than teaching children to read and write,
and perhaps to unelerftand some of the lower
branches of mathematicks. It would not be amiss
at the fame time, to have a political or moral
chatechifm introduced that should inftru(fl chil
dren in the great duties which men as well as ci
tizens should observe to each other. By this
means a foundation would be laid for laboring
people to refle(fl and gain further knowledge as
opportunity offers. They might gradually pro
gress without interfering with pursuits of buli
nefs ; and when once they had tailed the sweets
of learning, their ardor would generally keep
pace with their advantages for gaining improve
The following STORY in half a century more, will
fcarccly be believed.
NOT very many years ago, the French King's
taylor, having acquired a princely fortune, pur
chased a. chat ea/i in the neighborhood of Versailles.
In that neighborhood lived likewise a little
Marquis, whose pride and poverty were equally
on a par. The taylor turned gentleman, dined
in a large party at the house of a friend ; there
too dined the Marquis. After dinner the quon
dam profeffion of the former was accidentally
brought on the carpet, and the Marquis felt all
the indignance of nobility stained by fnch an as
sociation, he flepped up to the burgeois gentil
homme,and without any ceremony enquired if he
could make him a suit of clothes ? " Volontiers,"
said the other, " an lioneft man lhould never be
" afliamed of his profeffion—myfervant," added
he, pulling the bell, " will fetch me paperanda
pair of fciflars, that 1 may proceed withoutlofs of
time to measure you." This was done, and the
Marquis questioned as to the quality and richness
of the ftufF, &c. He left every thing to the tay-
\_Publijhed c,n IV ednefday and Saturday
lor, putting 110 limits to liis comntiffion ; and the
other called the company towitnefs the latitude
he had given him. The fuic of clothes in a few
days was delivered to the Marquis, exactly fuclias
is usually worn by the Dauphin on a birtli-day,
covered with gold, with pearls, and other precious
ornaments. On this occasion, the bill, you may
be sure, was not forgotten ; it amounted to thirty
thousand livrts, precisely the value of the Mar
quis's estate. An adtion was afterwards institu
ted for recovery of the debt, the estate fold, and
the Marquis put in pofleffion of a suit of clothes,
which constituted his whole property.
As the public curiohty h&s again been excited refpi fling the MAM with
the IRON MA) A, zvho was Jo long confined in the Bajiile, the follow
ing account oj who the perjon was, publiflied many years since, which
appeals very pliufible at leajl, may net be unacceptable to your readers.
IT must be recolle&ed that Lewis XIV. was exceflively amor
ous, and had several miftrefles. Amongst the reft was one without
beauty, but tall and well ftiaped, and whose wit and fine fetife
made more than amends for the deficiency of her personal graces. '
The King loved herto diftra&ion, and by her had a son, on whom
he conferred the title of Duke de Vermandois, and caused him to
be educated with all imaginable care. He was handsome; well
made, full of vivacity, but haughty and pallionatc, and could not
bear to pay the Dauphin, the only legitimate son of Lewis XIV.
the refpe& due to a Prince born to be his King. These two young
princes, near the fame age, were of very opposite characters. The
Dauphin, poffefled of the fame personal advantages as the Duke,
excelled him by his mildness, his affability, and a heart full of
goodness and generosity. These qualities, as estimable as uncom
mon in a Prince born to hereditary power, rendered the Dauphin
the obje£t of the Duke's contempt, who miffed no occasion of cx
prcfling his concern for the French nation, destined one day to o
bey a Prince without spirit, and Unworthy to rule. The King was
informed ofthis behavior of the Duke, and saw how blameablc it
was; but authority yielding to parental affc&ion, deprived him
of the power to correct his favorite son. The Duke, encouraged
by this indulgence, so faT forgot himfelf as one day to give the
Dauphin a blow. The King was presently acquainted with it,
and trembled for the criminal. Whatever inclination he had to
diffemblc this affront, the dignity of the crown, and the distur
bance it made at Court, got the better of his tenderness. He as
sembled, not without relu&ance, his favorite ministers, to whom
he difclofcd his concern, and demanded their advice. In pro
portion to the enormity of the crime, and according to the max
ims of State, they all judged it merited death. However* one of
the council, more sensible of the King's affection than the reft,
said, there was a way to punifli the Duke without taking his life.
He proposed the King should immediately fend him to the army
then on the frontiers of Flanders ; that soon after his arrival there,
it should be given out he was feiz; d with the plague, to prevent
his being vifitcd by persons of diftin&ion ; that after a few days
pretended illnets, it should be reported he was dead ; and that,
while in the fight of the army, his funeral ceremonies being per
formed in a manner suitable to his birth, he (hould by night be
secretly conveyed to the island of St. Margaret, where he ffiould
be imprisoned for life. This advice was approved by the King.
Faithful perlons were intruded with the execution of it. The
Duke fct out for the army with a splendid equipage. The reft of
the scheme was executed as laid down; and while the whole tamp
bewailed the imagined death of this unhappy prince, he w-*s
conduced through bye-ways to the castle of St. Margaret, and
put into the hands of the governor, who had before hand received
orders from the King to fuffer his prisoner to be seen by no other
person whatever. The Duke was allowed one single domestic,
who was in the secret ; but he dying on the road, the guards dis
figured him with their sabres, to prevent his being known ; and
leaving him stripped for the fame reason, continued their journey.
The governor received and treated his prisoner with the greateit
refpeft. He served him in person, receiving whatever he wanted
from the fcrvants at the door of the Duke's apartment, without
fuffcring any of them tocnter, so that he remained invisible to all
about him. One day, however, he bethought himfelf of graving
his name on the back of a silver plate, with the point of his knife ;
the servant who discovered this,broughtittohis mafter,in hopes of
a reward ; but the unhappy wretch was killed on the spot, that
the secret might die with him. The Duke remained for some
years in this prison, till the governor being advanced to the go
vernment of the Baftile. at Paris, it was thought proper to transfer
with him his illustrious prisoner. Both at St. Margaret's and the
Baftile, whenever, on account of sickness, or any other occasion,
they were obliged to let the Duke be seen, he was constrained to
wear a mask. Several persons worthy of credit affirm they have
seen him thus. If it be queried why the Duke, having so long
outlived both the King and Dauphin, was not releafcd, it must be
considered as impoflibleto rcftore to his rank, dignity, or estate,
a Prince, whose tomb existed, and of whose obsequies so many
then living were witnesses; so that it would have been scarce
poflible to undeceive the people, who to this day believe he died
of the plague vn the camp of Flanders.
. There is nothing more ridiculous in men, or
argues greater ignorance of themselves, than to
be crying, as they frequently do, we will do such
a thing, or such a thing, and then have done.
Alas h there is noltoppingtheprogrefs ofthe paf
lions without extinguiftiing life : A fire will as
soon burn without air . While there will be de
sires ; and these being of things to come, it is im
poflible to confine them to the present instant, or
any stated point of time : We cannot fay to them,
Thus far go, and no further, since progrelfion is
necefiary to their existence. There is no medium,
between death and motion ; and when we cease
to proceed, we cease to be.
To be doing, therefore, is a consequence of
living ; and idleness is but a diliberation of what
is to be done next. Old men are generally blam'd
for laying platforms and foundations of great
works and buildings, which they cannot live to
feefinifhed ; but I think the censure is groiindlefs,
since by this means they cut out certain business
and entertainment for themselves, and open a
source of perpetual new adtion and observation,