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while purfumg the gratification of their natural
or artificial properties: From this cause, Britons
■with all their boalled freedom, consent to bear
willingly the greatelt burthens. I have bee!) speak
ing of luxuries, but in generalobferve, In order
that our expectations may not be defeated, a nice
dillifl%uon ought to be made as to the quantum
each l'pecific article imported will probably bear,
and that while we fnppofe our public toilers daily
increaling, tho faift may not be that a premium is
held out by government to defraud the revenue.
This has been often the cafe where exorbitant and
ill-judged duties have been laid, calculated upon
the iniltaken principle, that the consumer even
tually bears the burthen, whereas experience
teaches us that the original importer is very often
in such cases the fufFercr, as there are many arti
cles which may not bear the additional price of
the duty, and a curtail of the coniumptian fol
lows, leaving the surplus as a heavy tax in the
merchant's hands, the whole duty on which he is
bound to "discharge ; but while a proper caution
is observed as to thole articles from which we
expect to derive an income, there are others we
arc to cons; tier in a different view ; and as they may
relate to our manufactures: here it will be found
our policy to give every encouragement to the
raw materials of foreign growtii, and which our
country does not afford, which ought to be intro
duced without burthens, that we may export them
afterwards with the additional price of the labor
uporv them, which its the molt beneficial pari of
commerce, as employing the greate'll number of
hands—and the cheapness of the raw material
will tend to give a preference in competition at
foreign markets : Lipon like principles every dis
couragement ought to be placed upon the intro
duction of foreign wrought articles, which may
be manufactured with advantage at home.—Some
conliderations on this head may come under a fu
ture number. AMERICAN US.
(To bj continued.)
Of the CONSTITUTION— and AMENDMENTS
to the favie.
THE tranfaiftions which have taken place in our
country, fill every patriotic mind with pleal'ure ;
inasmuch as they realize the confidence which had
been reposed in the native good sense of the peo
ple ; that whenever their public affairs get obvi
ouf.y wrong, they would interfere, and set them
to rights.—The example of changing a conllitu
tion, by aflemb|ing the wife men of the States,
inlleaa of aflembling armies, will be worth as
much to the world, as the former examples Ame
rica has given it.—The conllitution which has
been the result of our deliberations, is unqueltion
ably, the wisest ever yet presented to men ; and
the accommodations of interells, which it has
adopted, are greatly pleasing to those, who have
been anxiously concerned upon this point, having
realized how difficult it was to accommodate thole
A concurrence of opinion, however,
autliorifes to fay, that this conllitution has some
defects: It is, perhaps, not one ofthe least, that
the important rights, not placed in lecurity by
the frame ofthe conllitution itfelf, were not ex
plicitly secured by a supplementary declaration.
There are rights, which it is useless to surrender
to the government; and which, yet, governments
have been always fond to invade :—There are the
rights of thinking, and publilhing our thoughts,
by speaking and writing: the rights of free com
merce : the right of personal freedom : There
are inilruments for adminilleriiig the govern
ment, so peculiarly trult-wortliy, that we lliould
never leave the legillature at liberty to change
them.—The new conllitution has secured these in
the legiflativeand executive departments ; but not
in the judiciary.—lt Ihould have ellablifhed trials
by the people tliemlelves, that is to fay by jury.
There are inilruments so dangerous to the rights
of the nation, and which place tliemf'o totally at
the mcrcy of their governors, that those gover
nors, whether legillative or executive, lliould be
rellrainedfrom keeping such inilruments on foot,
but in well defined cases. Such an inllrument is
a llandi.'g army.
Such a supplement to the conllitution, where
that is lilent, is wanting to secure us in these
points. The general voice has legitimated this ob
jection ;and though it does not authorise us to con
lideras a defect, the perpetual re-eligibilitv ofthe
Prelidcnt, but three States out of eleven having
declared againll this, it may nevertheless be con
fulercd as one, and lliould the majority change
their opinion, as to this point, yet it is devoutly
to be w.ilhed, that this may remain unaltered, as
long as we can avail ourf'elves of the services of
our great leader, whose talents, and whose weight
of character, are peculiarly necellary, to get the
government so under way, as that it may after
wards be carried on by subordinate characters.
Under the auspices of this conllitution, admi
niltered with jullnefs, firmnefs and wisdom,
our America mull rapidly advance to dillino;uifh
ed eminence, power and prosperity: and the
perfecting this conllitution, by the addition of
such a supplementary declaration as is above fuo--
■rested, may be the result of the lame calm deli
beration and greatness of mind, which led to the
ratification cf the fyitem—for if this cannot be ef
fected quietly and peaceably, the conilitution had
better, infinitely better, be lefc to descend to
posterity as it is, than to hazard so invaluable a
jewel on the ocean of public discord.
EVERY friend of talle and fentimenral im
provement, mult wiih to encourage the The a
rk. e , unlels they fuppoie that it is injurious to the
mcvals of the people, and opposed tothefpirit ol
republicanifm.—Jtsut still the heft friend the thea
tre can boalt, may imagine it is liable to errors ;
and among these errors, may it not be reckoned
one, that an Englijhplay should intioduce a trench
character, in such a manner,, as to excite derili
-011 and contempt ? To burlesque and sport \yith
foreign manners, is, in any instance, rather bar
barous and unpolite; but in the cafe of the En
glifli comic writers, it is an unpardonable injus
tice. committed againlt their own countrymen.
Who can be so little acquainted with the diverli
fied qualifications of the Englilh nation, as not
to know that they abound in luitable characters
for every description of theatrical exhibitions ?
Wit, and.ridicule, may have a full scope without
wandering into other countries for objects,—
\V hat excuse can therefore be offered, that theii
comic writers, Ihould neglect their countrymen,
in order to drag the lower orders of Frenchmen
on the stage. Such unpolitenefs reflects more
diflionor on the nation that countenances it,
than on that against which the ridicule is levelled;
I could wilh American politeness may bear telti
inony againlt such partiality and prejudice.
C I V I S.
SKETCH of PROCEEDINGS of CONGRESS.
In the HOUSE of REPRESENTATIVES of the
UMI ED SJ AXES.
Monday, June i, 1789.
Mr.BLANP afkedleaveof absence for fix weeks,
which was granted.
A meflage was recived from the Senate, inform
ing the House of their concurring in the report
lent up, respeCting the receiving bills and mella
ges from The Prelident.
It was then voted, that the Chairman of that
Committee, beinftructed to acquaint the Prefideni
with the arrangement upon this subjeCt, adopted
by both House s.
In Committee of the whole.
Mr. Trumbull in the Chair.
The bill, regulating the collection of the Re
venue, lia\ ing been aifigned for the order of the
day, was taken into conlideration.
The firft paragraph being read, which provi
ded, that " there Jbould be ports of entry," Mr. Lee
rose, to enquire into the necelfity of eftablifliin"
ports of entry only.
Mr. Madison answered the enqniry, by fay
ing, that it will be proper to conltitute some
ports of entry in situations where it would bi
productive of unneceflary expense to eftabliili
officers to fuperinterid the delivery of cargoes :
Long navigable rivers afford great conveniences,
for landing goods, as veflels may be proceeding
up such rivers to the port of deltination : This
fraud upon the revenue lliould be guarded aiainit
by obliging veflels to report their cargoes Imme
diately 011 entering such rivers.
Mr. Wadsworth observed, that it would em
barrass trade exceedingly to eitablifh ports ofen
tt y, that lliould not at the fame time be ports ofdif
clutrge : He moved to have the article itruck our
Mr. Lee ltated to the House the difficulties
which nad refilled from fiinilar eftablifhmentsin
Virginia ; and therefore leconded the motion to
expunge the article.
Mi. t* itzsimons said, that inltances no doubt
might be mentioned, which would plainly point
out the necelhty of such a provision as thea/ticle
referred to ; but as there appeared some difficul
ty in the way of determining upon the proper
situations for such ports, he movetl, that 1 lie ar
ticle should be passed over for the present ;
and the next in order taken up: Agreeably it
was voted to suspend the conlideration of the
firit article respecting ports of entry.
A meflage from The President being an
nounced, the committee rose. 0
The meflage was then received—by which the
House was informed, that The President had
approved of an ast, regulating the time and man
ner ot taking certain oaths, required by the con
ititution, and now returned the fame to the
1Io " fe llv1 I v l l lit V, C ori g™ted, with his fignaturc.
1 he CleiJv of the House was dlrefted to inform
the Senate ot the above circumltance.
Hie chairman of the committee then reported
progress in the bill, and a.ked leave to fit again
to-morrow upon the fame subjeCt, this palled in
Mr. Benson gavenotice, that immediately af
ter the buimefs now afligned, wa<> compleated,
lie should move for a relolution to the following
efiect 1 hat it should be recommended to the le
gislature of the State to calfa
coavention of the people-os that State, in
order to adopting and ratifying the fedora; cor
ltitution agreeably to the recommendation of the
late Congress. jvir. Beiil'on observed, that th
communications which had been received from
the executive of Rhode-Hland, refpetfting the pro
ceedings ofthat State upon the Conltitution, had
hot been noticed by the late Congress, in as much
as they had not followed their directions in the
mode of deliberating upon tnefubjetft.— He sup
posed, that an interference of Congress in foiric
such way as he proposed, might be proper to as
certain whether any tiling decisive had been done
by them in the business or not.
Mr. Baldwin from the committee appointed
on Monday last, to form an eftii,,ate of the con
penfation which it may be proper to allow 7te
Prefidenl, Vice-President, Senators and Reprefenta
fives of tlie United States, reported, that the sum
of twenty thousand dollars per annum, be allowed
The president, exclusive of thelalaries of Secreta
ries, Aids and Clerks—That be allowed
to defray the expenses of houfhold furniture, car
riages, &c. and for keeping the fame in repair.
That five thousand debars per annum, be allow
ed to the Vice-Prefident.
That the Speaker of the House of Representa
tives be allowed twelve dollars per day—and the
members of the Senate and House, fix dollars each
per day ; and fix dollars for each days travelling
cxpenfes, reckoning twenty miles to a dav.
This report was laid upon the table.
Mr. Smith (ofSouth-Carolina) introduced his
motion for the appointment of a committee, to
to bring in a bill for the establishing a permanent
system respecting bankruptcy, throughout the
United States.—This motion having palled in
the affirmative, Mr. Smith, Mr. Lawrance, and
Mr. Ames ,were appointed a committee, accord
Tdesday, June 2.
On motion of Mr. Pag t, it was voted unani
nioufiy, that those members who had not taken
the oath required by the Conltitution, lhould be
called 011 to attend the Speaker, for that-pur
pofe—accordingly eighteen members appeared,
and had the oath administered to them ;—after
which the Speaker administered the requilite
oath to the Clerk of the House.
Mr. Baldwin, from the committee appointed
to bring in a bill, or bills, pursuant to the reso
lution for instituting the three subordinate exe
cutive departments, reported two bills—One for
the arrangement of the War Department—the
other for the Depart?ner.t of Foreign Affairs
Tliefe bills provide in fubflance, for bringing
under the direction of these Departments, by
orders from the President, those national ob
jects which had come within their cognizance,
under the old Confederation.
It was voted, that 100 copies of these bills be
flruck off, for the accommodation of the mem
The House then refolvcd itfelf into a com
mittee of the whole; and rcfumed the bill tor
the collection of the revenue.
On motion, it was voted, that the considera
tion of the two fir ft articles, fliould be poitponei;
the third article, which is in these words, viz
" That there jhall a/so he confiituted the
ports, which Jhall he ports both of entry and delivery,
to wit was taken tip —when Mr. Livermork
Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, should beoneoi
the poits of entry and delivery,to fill up the blank.
Machias and Portland were next mentioned; up
on which many oblervations were made by differ
ent members—chiefly with res ';>ec r t to the number
of ports for entry and delivery, which it might be
ueceliary to constitute : The committee appear
ed to be divided in sentiment ; and fonie gentle
men having observed, that they were not fuflicient
prepared to decide what ports would be 1110 ft l ol '
table in the several States, it was moved, that the
committee should rife, and make the furthered]-
lide; ation of the bill the order of the day for to
The vote on this motion being taken, it
in the negative.
The Committee- then proceeded in filling ll ?
the blank, wlientlie following ports were agreed
Portsmouth, in Newhampjhire.
Boston, }. Mafachufe"'-
Sherburne, Nantucket, .
New Haven, K Connecticut. >
City of New York, l r ,, T , TV*
Sag Harbour, State of A etui ■■
Perth Ainboy, T
Egg Harbour, I New Jerfiev.
Salem, j JJ '