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ianction of law, to gratify every criminal, and
hacetul paflion : It degrades civilization beneath
the nfoft barbarous Hordes.
Roule, and redress your brethren's wrongs, ye
abject, base, degenerate Britons.
1 lie gi.oll s of murdered tlioufands, conjure you,
to break thole hell-forged prison barrs, that (hut
out Iron the innocent, lweet hope, and mercy ; —
tin/ock the infernal doves that impioujly divide whoTti
God tilth joined and hear, O'hear/the Children's
cries !—Come forth, ye injured, pallid lhades of
men ! ye, who have lingered out an age of tor
ment ! lay bare your cruel wounds, and make
your country, and even Th urlow* blush ! your
tragic stories will unfold, that all the mileries
which Priloners fuffer, make but a slender poition
of the pungent woes that Prisons breed.
Ye iliinifters of Hell, who torture Innocence,
and sport with ruin ! Go liquidateyour black ac
counts with Heaven ! There fits ETERNAL JUS-
T ICE, the Balance in his Hand, weighing with
equal scales, DEBTOR AND CREDITOR, our
NAKED MO i J VES ! there, they Hand recorded
by unerring wisdom ! there, the OPPRESSOR
meets the AVENGING GOD ! there, MELTING
MERCY meets it's great REWARD ! and there,
the INJURED ever find REDRESS. E. C.
* The Lord Hi*h Chancellor of Great-Britain, who has i ni
formly opposed every motion tor the relief of diltreffed debtors.
SKETCH of PROCEEDINGS of CONGRESS.
In the, HOUSE of REPRESENTATIVES of the
UNITED SI ATES.
Tuesday j Del/ate on the Proportion of arranging the
Tuesday, May 19, 1789.
Mr. Boudinot, who the business as
mentioned' in our last, made many observations
upon the important fubjetft of finance ; and
adverting to the present state of the funds,
Ihewed the neceflity of appointing an officer, or
Secretary for that department : After the com
mittee had proceeded so far as to adopt the idea
of three departments, agreeably to the resolution
introduced by ,Mr. Madison, the last clause in
the preamble of which, fubjei r ted the head of
each department to removal at the pleasure of
ihe President, this occasioned a debate. It
was urged in objection to the clause, that it was
unconstitutional, for it fubjetfted an officer to lose
his appointment without forfeiting it, or having
any reason alhgned : That giving the power to
The President without controul, rendered
nugatory the article providingfor impeachments :
7 hat it would delegate a dangerous authority to
the fupremc magistrate, and make himabfolute :
Thatit ought to be the fame power that displaces
from, which appoints to, an office : That 110
such power was fpecified in the constitution, on
the contrary the powers of The President be
ing therein defined, without designating that pro
posed, ir was presumed, that this power could
be lodged with fafety only in those hands where
the constitution had placed it, viz. The Presi
dent by and with the advice of the Senate : It
was called a monarchical system, and would
enable The President to effect arbitrarily, a
change of ministry. Many other observations
were made by several gentlemen who spake on
this fide of the question. In answer, it was said,
that the mode of impeachment for crimes, by
the Senate, had special reference to certain offi
cers of government, the Judges : That to sup
pose it extended to all, iridifcriminately, was ab
i'urdthis would oblige the Senate to be always
fitting"; this ob'edtion proved too much—as
even waiters and inferior officers could not be
removed on this principle : 1 he clause it was ur
ged, would create thatjuft responsibility in The
Presidnkt, and all under him, which never
conld be foujidin bodies of men : This respon
sibility \yould be mutual ; The President would
feel responsible for the fidelity of those appointed
by him, and they would feel responsible to him,
and to the public : This refjjonfibility was of the
utm oft importance—it was expe<fled by the people ;
and by concentering in one, this accountability for
the faithful discharge of the duties of the subor
dinate departments, of the executive, it was the
dicftate of reason and experience, that the per
son thus responsible should have the appointment
of the officers, on v.hose conduct the honor and
fafety of the government and the reputation of
The President were fufpendecl.
Wednesday, May 20.
Mr. Goodhue q;ave notice, that on Friday next
he should move for a committee of the whole
Houfeto determine the refpet'tive allowances for
their public services, to be made The President,
Vice President, Senators and Representatives of
the United States.
In committee of the whole, Mr. Trumbull in
the chair, on the fubje«ft of the three great de
The question on the second article of Mr. Ma
nso»j's resolution re/pectins a " Secretary of
the United St::: es for treasury d -'partinent" occa-
fioned an interesting debate : In opposition to the
idea of giving an individual the abfolutc direction
of the finances, it was observed, that the powers
and duties proposed to be annexed to this appoint
ment, vftre so nuinerous and complicated, that
there was not a mail to be found in the United
States competent to their discharge : That the
danger from corruption and undue influence was
greater from one man in I'o important an ollice,
than if the power was divided equally between a
number, who would be mutual checks to cacli
other ; that it would be unconflitutional,asit would
fupercedein a great yieafure the interference ol
the Senate, who were appointed a council to ad
vile The Prefidentin the execution of the govern
ment —for the creation of u financier, with all
the pomp and powers of office, would be the ella
blifiimentof what might be called a ministry;—
that experience had taught us, that the appoint
ment of such an officer would not meet the ideas ot
the people, and no such officer had been created
in the individual governments.
>hefe ohfervations were followed by amotion,
for an amendment, by striking out " Secretary
for the treasury department," and substituting
a clause, providing for the appointing aboard ol
On the other fide of the subject, it was laid,
that the superiority of an individual, poilefling
competent abilities to conduct this department,
over a number of commissioners was demonttrated,
by the experience of the public ; that there was
a radical deficiency in the very nature of boards
-and commifiioners produ&ive of perpetual ob
ftrucftions in their tranfacftions, deftrudtive of har
mony,and that decision and difpatch,which are the
foul of public business ; that this was confirmed
by a retrospect of the late Financier's energy and
spirit, contrasted with the operation of boards and
committees: Under the dirertion of that man,
public business had been conducted upon enlar
ged principles, and with a simplicity and promp
titude, that had saved our finances from destruc
tion, and given a new face to our afFairs : Immense
savings were made in every department, and or
der reflored where before confufion and distrac
tion prevailed : Under Commifiioners, the finan
ces had been in a state of darkness ; uncertainty
and indecision marked their tranfaiftions : \\ e
have realized perplexity and delays necefl'arily at
tendant on these inefficient fyftenis ; the idea of
responsibility is weakened by them, till it loses its
influence intirely. The question 011 the amend
ment was negatived by a large majority.
It was then moved, that a clause" should be
added, inflituting a board of treasury under the
fuperintendcnce of the financier.
This motion was put and loft.
The question, whether this officer should be
removable by The President, pafled in the affirm
The third article, providing for the eftablifh
mentof a Secretary of the United States for the
war department, removeable by The President
was alio voted in the affirmative.
Mr. Vining then proposed the addition of a
fourth department: The Secretary of the United
States for the domestic department : He enforced
the proposition by a number of observations, up
on the expediency,importance and absolute neccf
fity of such an cltabiifhment.
1 he creation of this department was objecfted
to for the present ; as the various objects which
it was designed to take up, might come with pro
priety within the departments already voted ; but
if another ihould be found neceflary, it could
be ePablilhed at any time.
The committee rose without coming to a vote
upon the proposition—when the House adjourned.
Thorsdat, May 21.
Ilefolved, that the House now resume the
consideration of the three great departments,
when it was moved, that the words " to aid The
President in the difcliarge of his important trust"
be struck out, which pafled in the affirmative ;
the word " Executive" waS then added aftet the
Mr. Viking proposed, that thelloufe fliould
then resolve itfelf into a committee of the whole to
take into consideration the expediency of efta
blifliing a fourth department.
The riling of the House to form, into a commit
tee upon this proposition was opposed, and after
fomeconverfationMr. Vining consented to sus
pend his motion.
It was then moved, that a committee should
be appointed to bring in a bill, or bills, pursu
ant to the resolution for inflituting the three su
bordinate executive departments.— Voted in the
•Voted, that this committee consist of eleven
and the ballots being taken, the following gen
tlemen were elected, viz. Mr. ~Alr.
Madison, Mr. Fitzsimons, Mr. Burke' Mr.
G rry, Mr. Benson, Mr. Livermore, Mr!
Wadsworth,Mi\ Cadwallader, Mr. Vining
and Mr. Boudinot.
The committee of elections, to whom were re
ferred the several petitions from the citizens of
New-Jersey, refpcOiing the election in that State
for Reprelentatives in Congress, reported, that
a committee should be appointed, with authority
to hear evidence on the fuljcct of those petitions
that a day lhould be appointed on Wliith this con
mittee should lit for the above purpose ; and that
the Speaker should be rcquelted t:i tranimit"a
copy of this resolution to the Governor of N ew
Jerley, with a request that he would canfs the
lame to be publilhed in the l'everal newlnaiw,,
within that State. K 1
Ihe order of the day was then called for to
take up the memorial of David Ramsay, resett
ing the election of William Smith.
On which Mr. Vining moved to poll pone the
order of the day, and to go into committee for
the purpose of determining,whether a depart
hient for domeitic affairs Jhould be eltablii&ed.
The question on this motion being put was
The House then proceeded on the petition of
Dr. Ramsay, to examine the vouchers and evi
dence of the facts alledged by both parties, and
having yiade some progress in this examination
Friday, May 22.
The House this day resumed die confuleration
of the report of the committee 011 Dr. Ramsay's
petition, respecting Mr. Smith's eleiftion.
Mr. Lawrance proposed, that the report
should be re-coinniitted, and the committee iu
ltructed to report a Hate of facts to the House,
that a more competent idea may be formed pre'
vious to a decision,
Mr. Li vermore objected to a re-commitment;
the fatfls being different, it was probable that
quite different fentiinents would be formed upon
them—He thought that it would be preferable to
have the whole state of the evidence laid before
the House, and considering theml'elves in their
proper character upon this occasion, that of
Judges, they might form an opinion upon the
amount of the various facts, in which diey
might be more uiianimous than upon the plan
proposed by the motion.
Mr. Boudinot was in favour of a re-commit
ment, as he conceived it of the greatelt impor
tance that full jultice lhould be done to the lub
ject, by a very full and complete investigation';
it might save future trouble; it would be
blifhing an important precedent, in which the
greatelt precision should be attended to.
Mr. fhat che K--did not fee the propriety of
the motion—He observed, that to empower a
committee to form a state of facts, on which the
Houie was to found their judgment, would fce
iubftituting the Committee's opinion, upon a
very important fubjecft, instead of that of the
House : The House is the only proper tribunal
in the present cafe, and could not with propriety
trailfinit their powers to any other perlons. The
facts contained in the petition are full and clear ;
they speaK for theml'elves, and are not to be en
larged or curtailed. Can any new facts be ad
duced ? Can a committee investigate any which
the House cannot ? From the difficulty attending
the statement of tliefe facts, owing to the dif
ferent opinions of their importance ; and as the
committee might not bring forward tliofe that
some gentlemen might think the molt eliential,
he thought the motion would involve a very
tedious delay of the business.
Mr. Lawrance observed, that the House is
competent to an investigation of fa«ts, eitherin
itfelf, or by a committee—and so far from'alub
ltirution, or the divesting ourselves of a
power of judging freely, by the adoption of com
mittees, it is the invariable practice of the House
upon almost every occalion—it is done daily—
the question is, which is the belt mode of bring"
ing facts before us ? a committee has obviously
the advantage ; and when a calm and deliberate
investigation has taken place, the result is brought
before the for their determination, which
follows of course and with the greatest propriety.
Upon the plan which some men appear solicitous
to adopt, we shall not get through the bufinefsto
day but the House once in pofleifion of the facfts,
w ill be able to judge
Mr. Madison was opposed to a re-commitment,
as a dilatory meafure—wifnecl the committee had
1 eported a decision, for the consideration cfihe
Houie ; and proposed, that a motion which was
introduced yesterday, by the gentleman from
ork, (Mr. Benson) might now be brought
forward again, as the molt expeditious method of
lningirtg the subject to a cloie : This proposition
was, that the fe\eral fact;, should be read over one
by one, and a decision had upon each.
Mr. Page objected to a re-commitment —he
'opposed every member had made up a judgment
upon the papers which had been read, andthere
lore could fee no qje in adopting the motion.
«lr. Boudinot said, that he tliouglit it of
gieat consequence that the House should go into
aiuinute difcuflion of the subject, in order to haw?
a full entry made upon the journals —that
jultice could not be done without this investiga
tion this should be done either by the House
or a committee—he felt solicitous that Aich
a lecord might now be made of the present cafe,
as might apply iu all future ones; anyways finii
that as this was thefirlt instance of a difpu
tcd election, which had come before the Hovfs,