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r.avgltiof!, till jr. iir>, a superiority would be obvious and felt—
'I he g. ntleman olfcrVed, that the < bje&ion to a tonnage duty, as
having a natnral tendency to discourage the exportation ot our
produce, did not apply—For the most- valuable of our exports,
could not he obtained from any other quarter—Tobacco, rice and
lumber could not be produced in fufficient quantities any where
dfe—The Weft*lndies could not be fupplicd from any other part
of the world.
Mr. Tucker was opposed to the duty of sixty cents—lt would
bear extremely hard upon some parts of the Union, and operate
as a bounty to others, without any advantage to the public—This
duty would be eventually paid by a few particular States : Some
of the States had more (hipping than was rtece'flary tot their own
particular employ—others, who (hipped the greatest quantity of
bulky articles, were deficient in ships : The burthen would there
fore tall on those States—For the tax on foreign veflels,would pro\e
a bounty on American, and cause them to enhance their freight :
He moved, for twenty cents per ton; which he (uppofed, would
he a fufficient encouragement to the building of ships, in the Uni
Mr. Benson queried as to the policy of a discrimination be
tveen those powers in alliance with the United States and thofc
who were not ?
Mr. Burke was opposed to a duty of 60 cents.
Mr. Shsr man observed", that the objedf of these duties was to
place the American veffc Is, upon a superior focting to foreign vef
fc)s—he feared -that object-would not be efFcQcd , as foreign na
tions, hsd it at then option, dill to r ncreafc the duties on our ships,
111 proportion to the taxes we might impose.
Mr. Madison was con fide 11 , there existed good reasons for a
diferimination ; but doubted the eligibility of fuddenlyeitablilhing
a very great uifrerer.ee; as our (hipping, from evciy document,
appeared at present, to be infjjffitient*: He w is in favor of a dii
-0 urination, because it coincided with the pul lick sentiment upon
the fubjeft : P<\licv and justice dilated it : France had recently rc
-1 xed her commercial system in our favor : American built vcifels,
could now be fold in France, fubjeft to a duty of o.iiy 5 per cent.
In Great Britain, no American built vcffcl can be f>ld, nor rep i -
ed, ror were Briti(h vefTds allowed to be repaired in the United
fctste*. From accounts itrppeared, that the (hipping of cur allies.
< mplnyed in the American trade, bore no proportion to that ot
the Bntifh ; he was therefore, in favor of advantages to
thqfe nations in alliance with us, -that they might enjoy their due
proportion of our trade, ard to transfer it from Great Britain, who
now enjoyed mor** than her proportion. Bifide*, Gr« at Br'tain
had (hut her* m< ft valuable ports in the Wrft-Indies ago r.ft us ;
while Brit ih (hips brought the produce of the. whole * oriu to the
American market. For thefr, and many otl er rrafons, the gen
tleman thought, that a discrimination fhcu'.d take ph»ee- : He there
f< ie proposed, an amendment, fpecifying a p. rticuW prnod, for
jhe commencing of the tonnage dutv, to prevent some ot the
quenccsapprehended from monopoly by some gentlemen, See.
Mr. Tucker again rose in oppoution t*» Mr. Goodhue's propo
rtion ; he observed that, if 60 cents were laid on ships of powers
in treaty with us, and a highei duty on the (hipping of those who
were not, the tax would operate intolerably, upon the southern go
Mr. Coodhu e coir.c'ded in opinion with Mr. Madifoil, in his
piopofitiorf for an amendment to :he refiihition.
Mr. Fitzs Imon sol je £le dto the amendment; freight he ob
served, was not higher in Virginia, fincc they had laid a dollar
pet ton, duty than it had been before that duty "was imposed; the
advantages resulting from any particular business, had an obvious
tendency to dirrin fti the profits; this would apply to freight; It
would equalize itfelf in a \ery lhort time.
Mr. Lawrence confidcred the principleof felf intere ft, as the
great motive that ought to govern us ; we had derived no special
vantage from nations in aliiaqce with us, in a commercial v iew : The
publick sentiment was not univcr/ally in favor of a diferimination ;
this State had not made any ; they conceived good policy did not
suggest the measure; France had given us fomt advantages, but had
resumed thtm again ; our oil was now prohibited: Itisaferious
inquiry whether we do not ooru r ow n ir.tereft, by deftroy
inga riv l(hip among foreigners for the'earryingtr-de: We are un
der no obligations to give one nation a preference over another; and
therefore, the gentleman concluded, by wiftvng that we might be
governed in the present cafe, by a regard to that principle, whtch
influences aTI commercial countries, felfintereft: He was decidedly
opposed to diferimination.
Mr. Madison : A free and liberal coYnmerce is my wish ; re
itri&ions on trade, I am averse to ; and I regret, tliat we are under any
nece flitv to firpofe (hacklcson our navigation; but, Sir, the poli
cy of other nations, does not leave us an*ele£lion : Intereftdoes not
always regulate its felf, to the heft purposes. Hence the propriety
rnd policy of the interference of commercial regulations ; of giving
bounties, ?nd laying refti *£Hens: The immense quantities of Ame
rican produce, eonfumed in Europe, contraftcd with the returns
from every part, except Great Britain, plainly pointed out the
.gu at dilprcportion, which (he enjoyed ofourtiade. It has been
a(Ved, what evidence <\ lis that the Statefc were in favor of a discri
mination?* Tothisit mujht be replied, that the legiflafive ass of
/cfcral*Statcs,proved the sentiment, Virgiiiia % Maryland and PennJ)!-
xania had made a very material d'llercncc, and dillin&ions, I be
lieve, were also made in other states.
Mr. Baldwin, of Georgia, observed, that he thought the fulled
evidence that the sense of the people of the United States was Jn fa
vour ofa diferimination,was apparent in thecxiftence of that house.
The commercial embarraffmentk and diftrefles of the country gave
1 ife to the meeting of delegates at Annapolis. That Convention
foTjnd it impracticable to effect their.object—and it terminstcd in
aflerotl'ng a New Convention, which gave birth to another revolu
tion. It was he fjid a prevailing sentiment through the continent,
that such a discrimination (hould be made.
Mr. Fit zs: mok s then made a variety of obfervatior.s in favour
of a modeiate encouragement to the navigation of this country.
Upon which Mr. Goodhue withdrew his motion for 60 cents.
The quefticn on cents was loft—and that for 30 obtained.
The duty ct 50 cents on veflels belonging to the fubje&sof States
rot »n alliance with us, vas then voted. Thecommittee then role,
and the chairman reported the following Resolution.
RF.SOLVFD, ?s the opinion of this committee, that the follow
ing dtries ought to be 'aid on goods, wares and meichandifes, im
ported ioto the United States, to titit.
On all diflilled Spirits of Jamaica p-oof, - 15
On all d,(tilled Liquors of inferior proof, - - 12
On Mofeffe*, ..... 6
On Madeira Wine, - 33L
On till other "Wines, .... 20
011 iv »y gallon ol Peer, Ale, or P imported in cadcs, 8
On -M Ireer,Ale,or Porter, imported in bottles, pr. dcz.n, 24
On Malt,pr. bushel, ... jo
On Parley, pr. bulhel, - -6
On Lime pr. hoglhead, ~ - - 100
On blown Sugars, > r. lb. - - - i
On lea' Sugars, pr. IK .... 2
On; !! other Sugars, pr. lb. - - -
On Cof)ee, pr. Ib. - - - 25
On Cocoa, pr. lb. - i
On all Candles of Tallow, pr. ,Ib. 2
On all Candles of Wax, or Spermaceti, pr. lb. - 6
On Cheese, pr. lb. ... 4
On Soap, pr/lh. .... £
On Boots, pr. pair, ....
On all Shoes,Slippers,or Golofhocs.made of leather, pr. pair, 10
On all Shoes, or Slippers, made of fxlk or ftuft, pr. pair, 10
On Cable s, for every cwt. - 50
On tarred Cordage, for every 11 e lb. - - ,50
On untarred Cordage, and Yarn, for every 11 zlb. - (/C
On Twine, or jsack Thread, for every 112 lb. -
On Hemp, pr. cwt. - 5°
On all Steel, unwrought, for every 112 lb. - 56
On all Nails, and Spikes, pr. lb. - - 1
On Salt, pr. bushel, *
On manufactured Tobacco, pr. lb. - - - 6
On Snuff, pr. lb. 10
On every dozen Wool Cards, 5°
On every bushel of Coal, - - • - 3
On salted Mackrel, Shad and Salnlon, per barrel 75
On dried Filh, pr. quintal, - - - 50
On all Teas, imported from China, or India, in (hips built )
in the United States, and belonging to a citizen 6r citizens >
thereof, as follows : )
On bohea Tea, pr. lb. 6
On all fouchcng, and other black Teas, pr. lb. - 10
On superior green Tt c.s, pr. lb. 20
On all other Teas, p . lb. - - - - 10
On all Teat importedfrom any other country,or from India
or China, in ships which are not the property of a citizen 01 >
Citizens of the United States, as follows: - )
On Bohta Tea, pr. lb. 8
On all souchong, or other black Teas, pr. lb. - 15
On superior green Tea, pr. !b. - 30
On all other green Tea, pr. lb. - - - 18
On all Window and other Glass, 10 pr. cent, ad valorem.
On all blank Books, -
On all writing, printing, or wrapping Paper, and on all Pafle
On all Cabinet Wares, -
On all Buttons of metal, - c :
On an Saddles, -
On ail Gloves of leather, -S
On all Hafsol beaver, fur, wool, or a mixture of either,
On all Millinary, -
On all Callings of Iron, and upon flit or rolled iron, f £
On all Leather, tanned or tawed, and on all manufa&ure of %
leather, except such as shall be otherwise rated, - w
On Canes, walking Sticks and Whips,
On cloathing ready made, -
On gold, silver, and plated Ware, and on Jewellery and Pafle
On Anchors, -
And on all wrought tin Ware, J
On evcrv Coach, charriot, or other four wheel Carriage, and or.
eveiy Chaifc, Solo, or other two wheel Corriage, 15 p».r cent, au
On a 1 other articles, five per crnt. on their value at the time and
place of importation, except as follows: Tin in pigs, Tin Plates,
Lead, Pewter, Brass, Copper in plates, Wool, Dying Woods, ana
Dying Drugs, (other than Indigo) raw Hides, Beaver and all other
Furs, .md peer Skins.
Thrt all the duties pr.id or fccured to bepaid upon goods imported,
(ball be returned 01 discharged upon such of the said goods as fhali
within months beexpoittd to any country without the limits
of the United States, except so much as shall be necefTary to defray
the expense that may have accrued by the entry and fafc keeping
That there ought moreover to be levied on all veflels entered or
eleared in the United States, the duties following, to wit :
On all vcdels built within the Uuitcd States, and belonging whol
ly to cilizers thereof, at the rate of fix cents per ton.
On all vefTcls not built within th; United States, but belonging
wholly to citizens thereof, at the rate of fix cents per ton.
On ill vefTeJs belonging wholly to the fubje&s of powers with
whom the United States have tormed treaties ; or partly to the
fubj< $s of fur h pdwer, and partly to the citizens of the said States, at
the rate of thirty cents per ton.
On oil vessels belong wholly or in part to fubje£ls of other pow
ers, at the rate of fifty cents per ton.
Provided, That no vcflel built in the United States, and belong,
ing to a citizen or citizens thereof, whilfl employed in the coaftinp
trade, or in the filheries, shall pay tonnage more than once in an\
one yaar; nor shall any ship or veflel built within the United States
pay tonnage on her firfl voyage.
The Speaker resumed the chiar, end the queflion on the report o!
the committee being poflponed for further consideration, the House
Wednesday, April 22.
Agreeably to the order of the day, the house went into a com
m tree on the bill for prefciibing the form and manner of taking th<
oath required by the sixth article of the Conflitution.
Some debate was held on the fubjeft, which was supported b>
Mr. Mr. Madison, Mr. Sturges, Mi 7 . White, Mr. Sher
ma.n, M. Baldwin, Burke, Mr. Sil vestee, Mr. Smith
and Mr. Seney.
Having gone through and amended the fame, the committee rof<
and reported ; and the consideration of the report beingpollponed
the House adjourned.
Thursday, April 23, 1789.
The House met agreably to adjournment.
The comm'ttee appointed to confer with the committee of the
Senate upon the modes or forms to be observed in fending papers,
bills and mefiages to either house, reported—consideration of which
L pon.motion of Mr. White, referring to the arrival of the Presi
dent, the House adjourned till to-morrow.
Friday, April 24.
The *"?port of the committee read yeflerday, was taken up and
difcuftcd. Some gentlemen conceived, that certain parts of it held
up a dillnflion between the Senate and the House of Reprefcnta
tives, unfavourable to the dignity of the latter—two Members beinp
required by it to carry a message from the House to the Senate, while
the Secretary was to be the Meflenger from the Senate to the House.
A considerable debate enfucd upon a motion for this
On one fide of the queflion it was observed, That a diftinfliou
was proper, and did not imply a comparison : That the Conflitu
tion favoured this diflinftion ; the House was the mofl numerous
body, and the propriety of a larger number on the part of the house
was fan&ioned by cuflom, used upon all occasions ; that the
real dignity of the House depended upon supporting the conflitu
t'.onal dillinftions of each branch of the Legislature ; that many ad
vantages might result from two Members beingon such committees,
as it would conducq to preventing miflakes : that the Senate had a'
right to determine their own mode; that it was evident, by an at
tention to the report, that the Senate did not mean to arrogate con
fe quenceto themselves ; but designed that the forms proposed fliould
be reciproc ally refpeftful.
On the other fide it was contended, That the Senate evidently af
<umcd a superiority : That it was necefTary to guard the eaHiefl
movements to ariflorracy : That the mode oropofed was complex
aid burdensome : That one Member adequate to all the pur-
Doses of carrying a MefTage : That the Conflitution held out no dif
tinftions : The House was fully equal to the Senate, and in some
particulars, were pofTeffed of powers that the Senate do not enjoy :
as the originating Money Bills, &c.
1 he Report was finally recommitted.
Mr. Sherman moved, that the House now receive the report nf
the Committee providing the mode for taking the Oath agreeably
othc Conflitution. This motion pa fled in the negative.
Mr. Gale, of Maryland, moved, that the enacting flileof 4 Senate
and-Houfeof Representative?,' of the United States,be amended *bv
'übflituting ' the Congress of the United States, as being more a
;reeable to the Conflitution. This was objefled to by several Mem
bers ; but the vote being called for, the ena&ing claufc wasrepcaled •
but without fixing upon a fubftitutc.
It was then moved, that the Report of t'r.e Committee ofM,
whole lioufe, in their Resolution upon the fubjes of Revenue
:aken into confederation. The Report being iead, the artici- )
distilled spirits, Jamaica proof, came firft in orc^er.
Mr. Bo ud i not observed upon the sum annexed to this article f
15 cents pr. gallon, that he thought it too high ; would Drod
fmugglmg, and defeat th'e purposes of government. The duty
proposed on Madeira Wine, according to a calculation he had mad
on a cargo of 200 pipes, would ( amount to 2600073000!. as.
which gentlemen mult be sensible would prove a moll powerful ft!
nulus to fmugglmg. To collect lo heavy duties, there mult be "
.jreat number of revenue ofHcers, who must be very vigilanttoo
r.d the collection would render them odious, and governmentu n '
popular. As an evidence of the bad policy of exceHive or high du~
ies, he beg'd to recitean instance: MolafTesa few years since uuh-*
port, was liable to a duty of 6 pence pr. gallon : The conference
was, that nothing was colleftf d ; but when the duty was reduced to
1 penny, pr. gallon, a large sum was realized in the Treasury.
would therefore move that 3 cents be struck off from the sum tun
Mr. Maddison spake in favourofthe sum proposed. R Um
observed, if any article, ought to bear an high duty. It was agree,
ible to the general ideas of the people ; and though he was sensible
that smuggling was the general consequence of execflive exactions
upon trade, yet the sum proposed was not lo high, he. believed aj
to produce that effect to any conliderable degree. He hoped to'tee
j difference in thp conduct of merchants, irom the opinion now
thrown out, and that they would combine to support the laws. He
hoped to fee the time when it would become infamous to defraud
the Revenue, injure the fair trader, and pour contempt upon <r C .
Mr. Jackson, of Georgia, was in favour of a diminution of the
duty. H ' observed that it would produce all the evils which. had
been mentioned : More especially in the State he had the honour
to _ rep reft nt, which abounded in creeks and inlets, exceedingly fe.
vourable to the smuggling bufincs.
Mr. Wadswor tk, of Connecticut, was eppofed to fohigha dr.
ty : He thought 12 cents too much, and would propose flrikingoif
>ne half the original sum. There was not money in the hands ot the
merchants, fufneient to pay such duties.
Mr. Fitzsimons a fked,. whether gentlemen had made a calcu
lation of the amount of the duties proposed, for it ought to be con
lidered. whether they were too much or not, before a redu&ion
ttflas made : For his pait he did not think they would be found to
exceed the sum required. Gentlemen had observed 44 that tlere
was not money fufHcient to pay these duties : If that w;s the
cafe, the duties might be collected in foine other way. As
:o the praft ieubility of coll ftions, that was merely matter of
□pinion. The bill upon thispart of the system, would beftexjlan
ihat part of the bufmefs. There were few large cargoes of *m:
imported : It was cafy to find a mode to adjust the payment of
duties ; time must be given. As to the smuggling to the south
ward referred to by gentlemen, it was counteracted by a Voricty
sf confidcrations. He was oppoled to a diminution.
At this stage of the debate, the Speaker received a message from
the Senate,the purport of which was, that they had appointed tlree
members to join a committee of the House, to connder whatftile,
ur title, or whether any, other than what the confti tut ion contain',
should be given to the Prcjidcnt vn&Vicc Prcjidcnt; alfoto determine
upen the time aud place, to adminiftpr theosth to the Presiee.nt,
ind by whom. After some debate, a committee, confiftin<; of Mr.
Benfon, Mr. Carrol, Mr. Sherman, Mr. Kadifon and Mr. Ams y wx
ippointed. The fubjett of the duty on spirits was then renewed.
Mr. La w r ence observed, that gentlemen appeared to have two
sbje6ts in view ; to be effedea by a high duty on rum ; but if r -
/enue was one,, high duties operated against them ; if the reform.-
rionof the people, smuggling was acknowledged to beunfavo
able to morals ; Hut on the contrary, had a powerful tendency 0
corruptthem : That no reliance could beplaced, but upon the effi
cacy of the laws, in the collection of the duties : He thought twelve
cents too high ; but if np gentleman proposed less he should vote for
Mr. Tucker thought twelve cfcntsmuch too high; he therefore
moved, that seven cents be (truck off frotn the original firm: High
duties had a tendency to reduce smuggling to a fyftem,which would
greatly add to the evil, and render the cure extremely difficult:
Bcfidec it held out powerful temptations to the officers of the reve
nue to swerve from their duty, and become corrupt.
XL". Madison observed, that he was not convinced by all that
had been that 15 cents were too much : Tfye peopleexpeftec,
that this article would pay a higher sum, than had been coin
ed from it : A duty ot one-sixth of a dollar had befft laid by oneof
the States,an evidence, that the proposed duty was within their:dez<.
Corruption of morals had been mentioned as the consequence of
smuggling; but it ftiould be remembered that other things had a£•
milar influence : Injuiticc and fraud, had a powerful tendency, anc!
tK:s would be the necefTary consequence of a deficient revenue; no
fut ftitute had been proposed for the defalcation this eflential di
minution would oecafion : And it must be observed, that smaller
articles would be smuggled with much greater facility : and if vc
abandon the idea of realizing a considerable sum from obvious and
bulky goods, such as rum, &c. there would a great deficiency
ensue. We ought to suppose that the people will be a&uatcd by bet
ter motives, than to risk their fame, their honor and justice by eva
ding the duties : For his part he expe£ted a different couduftfrom
the good sense of his countrymen ; and the united exertions oftbe
great body of merchants to support the laws. ,1
Mr. Fit zsi mons observed, that as there appeared a divifionc:
sentiment upon the fubje£t, he would propose an adjournment: TM
House accordingly adjourned.
Erratum—ln our last Debates, for Mr. Jackson, (Virginia)—read f
Mr. Jackson, (Georgia.)
DUBLIN, DECEMBER 2j.
THE froft at Paris was so intenTe a fortnight ag o '
that the Sein?, which is 18 or 20 feet deep in tnat
city, where the tide never flows, was so frozen in i\
hours, as to admit bearing multitudes, uho form™ 1
kind of fair on the river. But on the third day aMo"
thaw separated the ice, and 14 men, 6 women, a*" l " s
few children, from 5 to 10 years old, were irrecover
able 1011. The reft, amounting to about 10,000, c
tween the two bridges, made a (hist to scramble to .
but not without many broken limbs and fore boass.
Mr. Pitt has been molt absurdly charged by the opr .
fition writers', with a delii e to dillurb the harmon)
the royal family, and to divide a mother from* 0 ",
Such an intention, if it could really be proved,
certainly render Mr. Pitt an object of abhorrence «i<
people, whole chara£leriliic liberality it univerfaln '
mitted. But these men (hould diftinguifii between •-
unpleasant conlequences of a system calculated ' or .
national advantage, and the secret difpcfition? of" 1
thors. Mr. Pitt may fee with extreme regret 1
meakires unluckily tend to interrupt domestic tr3 "^ ;in
ty, yet, in the wide and general aim to accowp
important object, finds it necessary to disregard a
deration so amiable in private life, in the fupc" or