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TWO DOLLARS PER ANNUM.?
JIALF-YEAULV IN ADVANCE. 5
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iIF NOT PAID WITHIN THE YEAR,
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PRINTED AND PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY JONATHAN ROW, SOMERSET, SOMERSET COUNTY, PA.
New Scries. TUESDAY, JANUARY 19, 1347, Vol. 5.-N o. 10.
. . , - .
From the New York Observer.
BY PARK BENJAMIN".
How coldly bright the silent moon
Above yon cloudy pillar shines;
How sweetly, on the trembling wave
Reflected, glow her silver lines!
The air is still, and from each sphere
Of saphire in the distant skies,
Like diamond sparkles, soft and clear,
Look down a myriad starry eyes!
Above, the heavens are all undimm'd:
Below, save on the horizon's verge,
Where one gold-tinted vapor stands,
There drifts no pale and misty surge;
Around, save where the forests throw
Their dark, collected shadows down,
The landscape's broad and smiling brow
Seems not to wear a single frown.
The peaceful silence of the night
Into my secret soul descends,
And dreams of high and holy thought
This scene of love, transporting, lends.
1 would not give an hour like this,
In heavenly musing sweetly passed,
lor days and years ol common bliss,
Or earthly joys that cannot last.
In such an hour my spirit goes
Beyond the narrow bounds of Time,
And soars away, on tireless wing,
To realms unfading and sublime:
To realms where pure and perfect light
Is faintly pictured in each gem
That glitters on the zone of Night,
Or gleams upon her diadem.
Correspondence of the Baltimore Ameri
can. Washington', January 7.
UNITED STATES SENATE.
The resolution of Mr. Cameron direc
ting the Secretary of the Treasury to re
port to the Senate upon what articles in
the tariff of '40, the duties can be in
creased bevond the existing rates, so as
to augment the revenue, and to what ex
tent the said duties can be increased, and
what additional revenue would accrue
therefrom, came up for consideration.
Mr. Cameron made some remarks in
support of the resolution, and quoted the
articles of coal, iron, copper and sugar,
among others, as those upon which he
thought a large increase of revenue would
arise from an increase of duty.
Messrs. Brcese and Spleight made some
remarks upon the position taken by Mr.
Mr. Dewis thought the rerenue could
be increased by a further reduction of du
ties, and suggested a modification of the
resolution so as to embrace an inquiry
upon what articles the duties can be re
duced so as to increase the revenue.
Mr. Nilcs condemned the financial pol
icy of the Administration, as every way
wrong, anti-democratic and inconsistant.
The feeble prosecution of the war was,
he thought, owing to the feeble state of
the Treasury. The Government needed
loans to the extent of thirty-five millions
annually, and yet no provision was pro
posed for meeting the interest on such
loans. Under these circumstances every
man could see tiiat the credit of the coun
try must suffer.
There was one way in which he thought
we could obtain loans m the present e
mcrgency, and that was by sanctioning a
paper currency in the form of Treasury
Notes, which would be taken by the peo
ple in the course of business, though not
for investment by capitalists.
The resolution having been amended
so as to ask also upon what articles in the
free list, duties shall be laid for revenue
upon what articles duties can be re
duced, to produce revenue, and whether
the imposition of duties upon articles now
free, will increase their cost to the consu
mer, how much? was adopted.
ENLISTMENTS FOR THE ARMY.
Mr. Benton, from the Committee on
Military Affairs, reported a bill to encour
age enlistments in the regular army.
The bill provides that the term of the
enlistment should be for the war, or for
live years at the option of the recruit,
and also that he shall receive a bounty of
12 one-half on enlisting and the other
half upon joining regiment.
Mr. B. stated that these provisions
would, he thought, have the invaluable ef
fect of filling up the ranks of the army
which was so much needed at this time.
Fhc actual force now in service was
11.500, and 5,000 more were required to
'1 up the ranks.
Mr. Crittenden said that as at present
advised he should vote for the bill. But
he desired to ask the Chairman of the
Committee on Foreign Relations what
was ihe prospect of the continuance of
the war? and whether any information
had !een received from the' Mexican Go
vernment or Congress hi reply to the pro-
position of this Government for a nego
tiation? Mr. Benton observed that the Chair
man of the Committee on Foreign Rela
tion? (Mr. Sevier) was not in his seat.
Mr. Crittenden said he was there when
he rose and he had not observed his de
parture. He was very anxious to see an
end to this war. The best mode would
be to adopt such means as were now pro
posed. There was anotner way, and that was
to fall back upon some portion of the ter
ritory which we have taken, and let the
Mexicans make war upon us. But this
would leave it in doubt wnen the war
would be ended. He wished he could be
convinced that this was the most effectual
mode. But, however deplorable was the
continuation of the war, he must say that
in his opinion the only way to obtain
peace was to carry on a vigorous war
to adopt the fullest measures, and to vote
for the most ample supplies of men and
Mr. Archer said that no information
had been given to the Committee on For
eign Relations of any answer of the Mex
ican Congress to our offers to negotiate,
and he believed there were no advices
from Mexico on the subject.
After some further remarks from
Messrs. Archer and Crittenden, the bill
was passed through all its Mages and sent
to the House, from which it was after
wards returned with a slight amendment
which was concurred in. It therefore
only wants the President's signature to
become a law.
The rest of the day was consumed in
debating a report from the Committee on
Printing against printing a memorial from
sugar planters in Louisiana for a repeal of
the tariff of '46, in which Mr. Johnson,
of Md., made some hits that told, in re
ference to Mr. Polk's denunciations of
treason against those who exercise tiieir
right to question his course in' the incep
tion of the war.
IIOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
Mr. Leaman, of N. Y., gave notice of
a Bill (to be reported to-morrow if possi
ble,) to prevent the importation of foreign
pauoers and criminals into the United
ARMY BILL. DEBATE UPON
Mr. Dargin, of Ala., went on to make
a speech that commanded much attention.
It was mainly upon the great question of
Slavery, and took high ground in refer
ence to it. Slavery, he said, was now
the question that threatened this Union.
Slavery, which was brought to us from
England and from the North. The North
had thought proper to get rid of tie In
stitution, and the condition of master and
slave yet retained with the South, but it
did not follow that England and the North
were free from all forms of oppression.
In regard to the Missouri Compromise,
Mr. D. said lie held it as most sacred, and
would abide by it. But would the North
would Northern men upon this floor,
say they were ready to abide by this
Compromise; not one of them.
Mr. Vinton, of Ohio asked the gentle
man to allow him to explain. He denied
that the North had violated the Missouri
Compromise. There had been no free
territory made South of 3G 30, since the
Missouri Compromise, and much of the
territory beyond was not now in the U
nion. Moreover the Missouri Compro
mise applied to the country then in the
Union, and not to the country which had
been acquired from foreign countries.
Mr. Dargin went on and said the coun
try did not understand the Compromise,
and he repeated that the Northern men
were ready to abandon it. Even more
than this. They would violate this com
promise which had now been preserved
lor twenty-seven years, and never violated
by the South. And there was not one
Southern man who would violate it or
suffer it to be violated.
Mr. Douglass. I am not willing to be
misunderstood by my silence. I am wil
ling to abide by the Missouri Compro
mised I recognized it in the Texas Reso
lutions. I recognise it now, and shall al
ways recognise it.
Mr. Dargin, coming to the war ques
tion, said that he regretted that the Army
had ever crossed the Rio Grande after the
battles of the 8th and 9th. If his hand
could have controlled the action of other
men, they should never have crossed.
And having crossed, he did not think it
necessary that the Army should go to the
Halls of the Montezumas. He would
rather mark out a line and defend it, and
thus show to the world that we had gone
to war for the sake of securing peace.
By thi remark he did not mean to cen
sure the Administration, but only to ex
press his own opinion. And now he
would ask, shall we take any territory
f fro in Mexico if the north will not divide
it with us? Shall our sons from Georgia,
Alabama, Mississippi, and elsewhere fight
battles to make free States.
I desire, said Mr. DM to see this ques
tion settled here, and that we may now
know for what we fight, and whether for
the North and South, or for the North
alone. Give us the territory south of
3030 for a slave country. This, he
said, to Northern men. If they refuse
to do this, this Union at once must sink. !
There could be no donbt of this whatever. :
The Union was instituted for our good
and our common good. If the Missouri
compromise was to be violated, from the
day it was done we might dale the down
fall of the American Union.
Take this as the admonition of a man
who may not address you again or repre
sent his constituents hereafter upon this
floor. His honest convic'ion was that
the Union could not last one day after the
Compromise was violated. He therefore
beseeched all men to act up to this com
promise, and to preserve the Union. But
there were real dangers hanging over the
country at this time, and it was time for
men, without regard to party, to rally as
one man to remove the difficulties.
Mr. Seddon of Va., continued the de
bate, and thanked the member for the
cool, temperate and timely remarks he
had made. He concurred in all that had
been said. For himself he was a South
ern man in birth, in feeling and in educa
tion, and when he heard some of the re
marks which had been made upon this
floor, he found it difficult to restrain him
self. Mr. S. then went on to speaii of the
Slave question as a momentous one, and
as one which the North had no right to
Tiie Noiili had no right to say all this
territory shall be free; and the country
could not carry on a war upon this aspect
of the question.
Mr. Grover of N. Y., continued the
debate in a speech in reply to the two
which had gone before. He thought
thought there was no danger of dissolv
ing the Union, and he believed the Union
would last that even these Southern
men would rally under it and enjoy it for
ages to come. Mr. G. argued this ques
tion with such earnestness and indepen
dence as to call up
Mr. Boyd of Ky., Mr. Chapman of
Alabama, Mr. Sedden of Va. all of whom
were disposed to put most pointed ques
tions to him, but ail of which he answer
ed by declaring that he was in favor of
the war in favor of the acquisition of
territory, but that he would demand as he
believed the whole Democracy of the
North would, that all territory hereafter
annexed should be free territory.
He would vote to put Slavery upon no
soil where it did not now exist. The
Compromise did not require that foreign
Country, now tree should be converted
into Slave territory and it was selfish to
ask it. He had voted for the admission
of Texas with Slavery, because the In
stitution already existed here, but there
was no Slavery in Mexico, barbarous as
that Nation was.
Correspondence of ihe Cumberland Civilian.
"Washington, Jan. 7, G A. M.
The unanimity of the House of Rep
resentatives, on Tuesday, in adopting tha
report of the Committee of Military Af
fairs, asking to be discharged from so
much of the late message of the Presi
dent as relates to the appointment of a
Lieutenant General of the Army and to
lay it upon the table, was intended more
to show Mr. Polk that he does not pos
sess the confidence of that branch of
Congress, than as an expression of opin
ion upon the merits of that proposition
which he had presented for their con
sideration. A motion was accordingly made yes
terday to reconsider the vote, which was
agreed to by a majority of two yeas
80 nays 84 and the report being again
before the House, a motion was made to
lay it upon the table, which was nega
tived yeas 93, nays 97 and the whole
subject was then referred to the Committee
of the Whole.
Persons ignorant of the views of a ma
jority of the House upon the subject,
may" be apt to form a conclusion from the
proceedings of yesterday, that there is a
probability of the proposed measure pas
sing the House but I repeat to you,
what I said in my last, that, in my opin
ion, it is destined to meet with a certain
rejection. The reason for reviving the
subject again, was that it would afford
members an opportunity of presenting
their views upon it.
The Military Committee in the Senate
(of which Col. Benton is Chairman,)
will, I understand, report a bill for the
appointment of a "Major General com
manding in Chief" in accordance to the
recommendation of the President, (who,
you will have perceived, docs not desig
nate the title with which he desires his
"Military Embassador" to be clothed)
and it is thought probable that the bill
will be passed by a majority of one or
two votes, not so much on account of the
merits of the proposition, as from a
friendly feeling towajds Col. Benton.
I regret that Senators should permit per
sonal feeling to influence them upon a
question so important, and trust that a
measure so full of injustice towards Gen.
Taylor and Gen. Scott may yet fail to
receive the sanction ol that body. Al
though it should not, as I think it will
not, beceme a law, its sanction by the
highest branch of the National Legisla
ture, would certainly be galling to the
just pride of those gallant officers.
I staged in my last that the ground upon
which the President asks for the crea
tion of this high office, is that the volun
teers are not satisfied to be led by any
officer of the regular army. This ground
is not taken in the message, but it is the
ground upon which the measure is urged
privately, and the fact was communica
ted to me by an administration member, .
upon whom it was urged in soliciting his
The monthly statement of the balance
in the Treasury has not yet been publish
ed. Upon inquiry being made at the
Treasury Department yesterday, the re
ply was, as I am informed, that it had
been published last week in the Union
but on looking over a file of that paper
I find that no such publication has been
made. I am informed, however, that the
bounce on the last week in December
was about 3,200,000 dollars. This will
keep the Government afloat for the bal
ance of this month and a portion of next,
but what is to be clone then? This is
the question, and it is a question deman
ding serious consideration. ,
Mr. Walker takes the refusal of the
House to tax tea and coflec in no very :
amiable spirit, and, it is said, is determin
ed to submit no other proposition but to
let the harmonious Locofoco majority
take their own course in devising the
mode of raising the Ways and Means.
Ho knows full well that money caunot
be raised without a repeal of the Sub
Treasury end yet he doggedly refuses to ;
ask for it. Necessity will bring him lo )
it, however, before Ihe month is out. j
The slavery question, in connection
with the Mexican war, has been again
introduced in the House by some of the
Northern Locolbcos, and, as the Union
says, threatens "to shiver the Democratic,
party to pieces." It is a topic I will net
dwell upon, and regret its introduction.
The "Democratic party" will be shivered
without its aid. The Union must not be
perinittdd to forget, however, the elation
it displayed upon the re-election of Mr.
Wilmot, by whom it was first introduced.
Ex-Senator Young, of Illiuois, has
been appointed Commissioner of the
General Land office and was yesterday
confirmed by the Senate.
TIieTarlflT-Mr. Edie's Resolutions
The following are the resolutions sub
mitted in the House of Representatives
a few days ago, by Mr. Edie, of Somer
set. They embody the sentiments of
Pennsylvania on this great and important
question, and will meet with but little, if
Whereas, The Tariff of 1812 answer
ed all the purposes of the Revenue, and
yielded to American industry, the en
couragement necessary to the develope
ment of the great resources of the coun
try: and whereas, a bill has passed the
Congress of the United States and be
come a law, which has injuriously affec
ted the important staple productions of
this Commonwealth, and retarded the
great Agricultural and manufacturing in
tercsts of the nation, therefore:
Resolved, By the Senate and House
of Representatives of the Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly
met, That our Senators in Congress be,
and are hereby instructed, and our Rep
resentatives requested to use every effort
to procure the repeal of the Tariff act of
181G, and the restoration of the act of
Resolved, That the Governor be re
quested to transmit a copy of these reso
lutions to each of our Senators and Rep
resentatives in Congress.
The following resolutions, introduced
into the Illinois House of Representatives
by Mr. Linder, on the 21st ultimo, exci
ted a loud and general laugh. "We are
afraid they will hardly pass that Loco
"Whereas, as appears from the message
of President Polk to the Congress of the
United States, Santa Anna has been guil
ty of the most black hearted treachery, in
failing to perform and make good certain
promises made to President Polk, (the
consideration of said promise being a
passport to Mexico,) one of which was
that, on his arrival at Mexico, he would
get up a fight with Parcdes and thereby
bring the war between the United States
and Mczico to a close. Therefore,
Resolved by the House of Representa
tives of the Slate of Illinois, the Senate
concurring herein, that we deeply sympa
thise with President Polk, inasmuch as
his reasonable expectations have not been
realised in consequence of the treachery
of the aforesaid Santa Anna.
And be it further resolved, That Santa
Anna is unworthy the further confidence
of President Polk, and that we lms!
respectfully recommend to the President
to place no further reliance upon the
promises of Santa Anna lo bring the war
to a close.
And be it further resolved. That inas
much as Santa Anna Ins heretofore, on
all occo-ions, te2n gov3rned by a strict
regaod to truth, fiedlity, and honor in his
conduct, that President Polk had good
reason to believe he would hold sacred
his word, thus solemnly pledged, and
which we still believe he would have
done had he received the two millions of
dollars as per contract with the President.
Position of the Whigs,
On the presentation to the Senate of a
memorial from the State of Delaware, i
praying Congress to use steady and etfi- J
cient means for terminating the war and
securing an honorable peace,
Mr. Clayton remarked, that the memo
rial was numerously signed by men of
both political parties. These petitioners
were not men who have any conscien
tious scruples about engaging in war,
when war became necessary; but they
spoke merely as patriots as men having
the interests of all American citizens at
heart, and prayed that all proper measures
might be taken for the purpose of bring
ing about a speedy and honorable peace.
But in the position in which he stood as
one of the Senators of the United States,
he felt bound to say that he did not see a
ny efficient means of procuring an hon
orable peace, except by fairly fighting out
the war. He should therefarc, without a
ny hesitation or reluctance whatever, give
his support to all measures which might
lie proposed bv t!io-e who ought best to
know vvli.ii was iiiuifpciisuule ior carry
ing on vigorously, and to a successful ter
mination, the existing war. He said no
thing now about furnishing the means for
purchasing foreign territory, or hi any
other way aggrandising the country; he
spoke simply of the supplies which were
necessary for carrying on the war; and.
in this respect, he should not be a whit
behind his colleagues in srpporting the
eflorts of the Executive, lie had heard
it stated, and had seen it stated in many
of the public prints, that there exists in
parts of the country, factions devoted to
party interests and hostile to the true in
terests of the nation, and ready to take
part with Mexico in the existing war.
lie did not believe a syllable of it. He
did not believe there existed any such
party. He did not mean to say that
there might not be some individuals who
entertain such feelinfis; but if there were
any, he had no doubt they were very few.
That there was any such feeling in the
great party which was opposed to him in
political opinions, or that there were por
tions of that party prepared to take part
with the enemies of the country, he did
not believe ; and he rejected the suppo
sition even as degrading to American
character. Least of all did he believe that
the great whig party of the country was
ready to espouse the cause of any foreign
power at war with this country. He
held, and he firmly believed, that althongh
there was a majority of their political op
ponents at this time taking part in the
councils of the nation, vet that the whig
party were, and did, constitute at this mo
ment a majority of the people of the
country; and that they wsre capable of
lending themselves in aid of a foreign
power was impossible. But the charge
had been made that such a party existed,
and it might be true that those who made
the charge desired to bring about that very
result; it might be that the wish was the
father to be thought; but no such accusa
tion no such raillery or calumny would
ever 'drive the whig party of the nation
into hostility with the government of the
country in prosecution of a war with
a foreign nation. With regard to the
means to be employed in the prosecution
of the war, those who understood the
subject better thon he did might devise
the means of bringing about a speedy and
honorable peace with Mexico; he was not
prepared to speak on this subject at pre
sent, but would only say generally that
he was ready to co-operate with all who
could produce measures aiming and cal
culated, in the view of responsible men,
to effect an honorable peace. But in his
humble opinion, at present it appeared
to be their duty to strengthen the arm of
the government by every fair and honor
able means in prosecuting the war so fur
as in their power.
ARMY REGULARS AND VOLUN
TEERS. Adjutant General Jones gives the fol
lowing as the amount of troops, regulars
and volunteers, now in service.
In the field, officers and men,
including general staff, 0,615
Troops at sea, and under orders
to join the army, 1,093
Recruiis en route for the seat of war, 762
Aggregate regulars in campaign, 8,115
In the field. 1G ,745
At sea, for California, fio
Aggregate volunteers in rarnpnign, 10.314
This makes the tuial force at that tune
within a fraction of 25,000. Of these,
we learn from iheMJnioii, Maj. Gen. I ay
lor has 18,332 under his command; Gen.
Wool, 2;6G0, andGeneral Kearney, 3,992.
Add to these, nine additional reigiments
recently called into sen ice, it makes the
whole amount to morc than thirty thousand.
Correspondence of the N. O. Mercury.
GCX. WOOL'S CXC.tMr JIIIXT.
Parras, (Lat. 25,26.) Mexico, Dec. 7.
After a most fatiguing and distressing
march we have reached Parras, one of the
most considerable towns in Coahuila, and
long celebrated for its superior wines.
We hive encamped in a beautiful valley
two miles from town. From this point a
very comprehensive view of the town is
obtained; you trace its narrow and crook
ed streets, which appear to have been
planned without method and built with
out meaning; you see its flat-roofed buil
dings, with the long lines of water-gutters
projecting from each front, having the ap
pearance of guns from a fortification;
you see the hospital, now going as many
of its inmates have gone before it; the
college, the lesser churches in ruins, and
the great cathedral towering above all.
The houses are, with few exceptions,
of adobe, the walls generally plastered &
of great thickness. Rude attempts at
sculpture are common among the better
class of houses; the doors and windows
are frequently elaborately carved. Thcro
seems to be no particular order of archi
tecture adopted, but the houses bave 3
general resemblance, strength and dura
bility being the ends principally aimed at.
E ich one is a castle of itself, and capable
of being strongly defended. Parapets to)
the roofs are common, from behind which
the most effective fire could be poured up
on an enemy, without exposing the per
son of the djfender.
The shops of Parras have been well
patronized, and the people, perhaps, have
not seen such prosperous .times since tho
Viceroy of Spain rehearsed in their
streets the mock heroics of majesty.
Our presence has been to them a jubileo
rather than a devastation, and we should
be hailed as deliverers rather than be re
garded as enemies. The cathedral of
Monclova is a building of imposing mag
nitude, being nearly 100 feet in front, and
about 175 feet in depth. The roof is
formed by six arches, and supported by
massive pillars, elaborately carved into an
architectural resemblance of the compos
ite order; a stone wall encloses the front,
with several niches, in which crucifixes
are placed. The front is plain, the door
large and elaborately carved.
At mass this morning the building was
crowded with visitors from the camp,
officer and soldier, Protestant and Catho
lic, realizing for once the equality of man
in the temple erected to the worship of
his Creator. Here, too, the master and
peon kneel side by side, murmuring the
same prayers, bending their knees upon
the same ground, sprinkling themselvea
with the same holy water, and figuring
the same crosses upon their persons.
The attitudes of the females when kneel
ing, with eyes bent on the images of the
Saviour, arc strikingly beautiful. Some
of their dresses were rich; none wore
bonnets, but instead silk shawls or rebo
zas, or tapolos of various but not gaudy
coloring. These were thrown over the
head and drawn down closely upon the
brow by the hand. What was most re
markable among them, the belles wore
bustles of no insignificant size, the first
I had seen since I left New Orleans.
The costume of the males is simple and
picturesque, partaking of the oriental
character. It consists of white shirt and
pantaloons, the latter very large and flow
ing, over which leathern ones are drawn,
with the exterior seam open from the
knee down. Sandals are the most com
mon protection to the feet, though shoes
are also worn.
The weather is extremely disagreeable
the mornings raw, bleak and chilly
the noontime hot and scorching the eve
ning cold and cheerless. Winter creeps
not upon us with the slow and solemn
pace which precedes its advent in more
northern climes. There is nothing of
the mellowness of autumn, the dreary
hours which the dim and hazy atmos
phere of an Indian summer always cre
ates; no foliage, rich in its green and gol
den hues, picturing tiie struggles between
the reign of youth and the deereptitude of
old age. Nature, indeed, presents the
look of life, but it is life-worn and hag
gird. The country through which we have
passed is a barren wild, immense moun
tains on every side, with vallies rich only
in a thousand varieties of cactus. These
plants arc frequently seen bursting from
the same point, rearing their horrid forms
like the hydra from a single stem. Cus
tom cannot "stale their infinite variety."
i r... ,i .-- rrmd-itinn ail with
i on nere uuu ,
I herbs and needles for the torture and ter
ror of unn and beast and creeping tilings.
Vet in tiie language of fiction, of poetry
and ignorance, "this is the land where
Nature Ins done so much and man so lit
tle; the land of golden suns and purpla
skies; the land of the olive and the vine;
the land where the sublime and beautiful
ara contending for the mastery, where tho
plains are garnished with perpetual ver
dure and cnammelled with flowers of pe
renial loveliness, and the mountains arc
crowned with an eternal diadem of snow,'
Alas! "the enchantment is due to dis
tance," and language s?cms but an un
meaning mockery when I'm perverted to
lnoiat a mora gr adorn a tale.'