The Somerset herald and farmers' and mechanics' register. (Somerset, Pa.) 183?-1852, December 22, 1846, Image 1

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TUESBiL'iy DSCSrrlBSSt 22, 1846,
Vol. C.
ill E S S A G E
rricsiDST or Tsit: u. statics.
December 8, 1S1G.
I).wn i' tite i'n -!uiinti of ihe Florida
treaty, in tVbnury, I HSU. whieh this
tcrriury us reJed i, ihe U:iicd
ia -smcd hiii! uMiui;ii:if i! iheir ter
t'roriul rights to ilus extent. I.i t!ie
maaui ul June. 1618, dming Mr. Mon
roe's aihnMisr-iii u, iuiof uiatiuii hating
breri reVieU thai a iMlriitrr of hTeign
ail vci) uncrs had landed ai G.Ue.t:ni,
.ivawt'.l purpose of forming a
scc!eiii'iit itt thai vifM'iUy. a spend mes
ffiiifr .ts !i',-ui'Muil by the Govern
ment uf me Uninl Siaies. w jib iniruc
ti ms from ihe 5vi usury of Sute o
warn litem n desjM. hoih! tliry he
fonii'i iht-re "or any othtr jdacu north of
in? Ki t'ravo, ami wi bin the territory
claimed iy hu Unucd Slate." He
was instructed, houl j ihfV he found in
the cuiirry north sf lhat tiv r, i make
known t tlif m ihe surprise with
which the President has rem poises-ion
ll.iij lakeii, xvilhout 'iiiv from iht:
United Sla-es, of a place within ihcir cr
ri'ri d limit, ami upon wtu.-I no law
ful seitleooni ea:i be made wil'mut their
fanctiiMi.'" lie u J i.oorue.ed torall up
o: th'n to "avow tt.uSrr wliat itatioiul
auiltftii'v thv pn.ff!" io an.' and li
ji ll:t'm ih( wntitifj iht the p'aret
wiihiiuh Uni-eJ Siitu. u h w-ill til
fer rio perm nii'iit fiMih-mf nt to h made
there, uiuh r any auiiiyrny other lha;
tiirir own."
As late as the 8th of July, 1812, the
Secre:.-rv of Stntp of the United SLntcs,
i:t a ijol? nddrcssc! to our minister in
ioxico, maintains thxt, hy t'le Fionda
treaty of 1SIU, the ttrritv as far west 39
the liio Grande was confirmed to .Spain.
Ia thr.t no'.e he states that, -by ihe treaty
of the twenty-second of February, 1810,
between the United Slates and Spain, the
Sahine was adopted as the line of boun
dary between the two powers. Up to
that period, no considerable colonization
had been effected in Texas; but the ter
riiory between the Sahi::2 and the Rio
Gmnde bcini contirmed io Spain by the
treaty, applications were made to that
Jover fur grants of land, and such grants
or permissions of settlement were in fact
made by the Spanish authorities in favor
of citizens of the United States proposing
to migrate to Texas in numerous families
before the declaration of independence by
The Texas which was reded to Spain
bv l!.c Florida treaty of 1319, embraced
all the oir.itry now chimed by the State
of Texas between the Nueces and the
IihGf.tnde. The republic of Texas :d
wivs fHmrd thi river as her 'vesicni
bound.-iry, and in her treaty made with
fcLnti An!a in May 1835, h? recognized
it as su;ii. Uy the (Tins:iiu:io:i wliit-Ii
Texs adopted in Mar.rh, 1S3G, senatorial
and represenLitivc districts were oran-iz-
d extending west of t!;e Nueces. The
Cnnr??.-i'i"l, o:t l;ie li):ii of I.
innber, IbGG, passed "An act to deiliie
the bound irivs of the reuMi" of Texas,
In which thry declare; tha Uio Grande
f;-;:ii t's u:r,'jth to its source to be their
W.::vl-irv, and hv t!ie suid art thev vx
t"'i Jv-ii isieir ctvi! and political jurisdic
ti:n ' oer i!ic iN-'niiry lip to t!i.t boun
dary. Di'.rirsr a period i.f mere than nine
year?, whin iv.tervrned between l!ic a
(Inp'.io;) cf her eoiisiitiition and her an
nexation as oi:e of tlie States of our Union
Texas asserted and exercised many a.-u
of sovereignty r.r.d jurisdiction over the
territory :.nd irdiabitanis west of tlie
Nu.'-ecs. Si;e orjr.:nized and defined the
limits of counties i xtendin;r lo the Hio
Grande. She established ceurls of jus
tice and extended her judicial system
cr the territory. Slie eta'.!isied a custom-house,
and collected duties and also
posUo(Tices an 1 post-roads in it. She
established a land oiTioe, and issued nu
merous grants for land, within its limits.
A Senator and a representative residing in
it were elected to the Congress of the re
public, and served as such before the art
of ami -"xtswo:: inrdc puce. In both t!n
Congress and Convention of Texas,
which gave ficir assent to the terms of
annexation to the United States, pro nosed
by our Congress, were representatives re.
H'shl west of tlie Nuecc. who took part
in lite act of annexation itself. This was
the Texas which, by the act of our Con
gress of t!.o 2'J:h "of December, 1815,
nas admired as one of the States of our
Union. That the Congress of the U
r.i'cd States understood the State of Tex
as winch they admitted :nt tlie Union to
extend beyond the Nueces, is apparent
from the fact, that on the 31st of Deecm
1T, 18 15, only two days after the act of
admission, they passed a law to establish
u collection district in the State of Texas,
by which they created a port of delivery
at Corpus Christi, fiiLSted west ot the
Nueces, and being ihesamo point at which
the Texas custom-house under theluws
of lhat republic, had been located, and di
rected thai a survey cr to collect the reve
nue should be appointed for that port by
the President, and with the advice and
consent c the Senate. A surveyor was
fcccordingtyr uombau?wl SJiJ confirmed by
the Senate, and has Ikjcii ever since in the
performance of his duties. All these acts
i of the republic of Texas, and our Con-
gress, preceueu me oruers tor me aovancu ( ootn ol whtcii occom panted my message
i of our array to the cast bank ot the Kio to Congress of the eleventh of May last
Grande. Subsequently, Congress poss- l were received" at the Department of
ed an act establishing" certain post
routes." extending west of the Nu?ees. These' communications rendered it ! of that republic to the United States,
The country west of that river now con- : highly probable, if not absolutely certain, j which was rejected by the Senate. Fi
stitJtes a part of one of the Congressional that our minister Would not be" received I nail v. on the first of March. 18i5. Con-
districts of Texas, and is represented in ' by the government of General Ilerrcra. 1 gress passed a joint resolution for annes
the Iluse of Representatives. ' It was a!?o well known lhat but little hope ! ing her to the United States, upon certain
ine etiatcrs irrm mai oiue were
chosen by a IcghLnre in w hich the
country west of that river was represent- lutionarv movement which h? was prose
ed. In view of ail these facts, it is difii- rutin s!iou!d prove successful, as was
cult to conceive upon what ground it can highly probahb. TI12 partisans of Par
be "maintained that, in Occupying the odes, as our minister i:i the despatch re-
country west of the Nueces with our
army, witn a view soieiy io us oeiencc,
we invaded the territory of Mexico.
But tt would have been still more l:hicmt
to justify the Executive, whose duty it is
to sec that the laws oe laitiiiuuy cxecuien nerera ty lorce. 1 he reconquest of
if in the face of all these proceedings bolh.j Texas, anil war with the United States,
of the Congress of Texas and of the U- .' were openly threatened. These were
ni'ed States, he had assumed the respon- j the circumstances existing when it was
sibility of yielding up the territory west j deemed proper to order the army under
of t!ic Nueces to Mexico, or of refusing j the command of Ganeral Taylor to ad
to protect and defend this territory r.nd its vance to the western t frontier of Te vas,
inliabitants, including Corpus Christi, as " and occupy a position on or near the Rio
well as the remainder of Texas, against j Grande.
the threatened Mexican invasion. , The apprehensions of a contemplated
But Mexico herself has never placed ! Mexican invasion have been since fully
the war which she has waged upon the j justified by the event. The detennina
ground that our army occupied tlie inter- lion of Mexico to rash into hostilities
mediate territory between the Nueces and with the United States was afterwards
th? Rio Grande. Her refuted pretension 'manifested from the whole tenor of the
lhat Texas was not in fact an independent note of the Mexican Minister of Foreign
State, but a rebellious province, was ob- A 11 airs to our minister, bearing date on
iStinatcly preserved, in: and her avowed j the 12:h ofMandi, 184G. Paredes had
' purpose in commencing a war with the i then revolutionized the government &. his
United States was to reconquer Texas, J minister, after referring to the resolution
and lo restore Mexican authority over the f for the annexation of Texas, which had
; whole territory not to the Nueces only, j been adopted by our Congress in March,
but to th Sabine. In view cf the pro-j 1 845," proceeds to declare that "a fact
' claimed menaces of Mexico to this effect j uch as this, or, to speak with greater ex
1 1 deemed it my duty, as a measure of j aptness, so notable an act of usurpation,
! precaution and defence, to order our army j created an imperious necessity that Mex
,' to o-cupv a position on our frontier as a ! ico, for her own honor, should repel it
military post, from which our troops ; with proper firmness and dignity. The
'could best resist and repel any at-i Supreme Government heforehr.nd" dc
i tempted invasion which Mexico might ! dared thai it would look upon such an
make. i
Our army had occupied a position at i
Corpus Christi, wrst of the Nueces, as
! early as August. 1845, without complaint i
from nnv mmrter. Had the Nueces been i
J 4 (
regarded a? the true western "boundary of j It appears, also, that on the 4lh cf A
Texas, that boundary had been passed by j pril billowing Gen. Paredes, through the
our army many months before it advanced j minister of Avar, issued orders to the Mex
to the eastern bank ol the Rio Grande. ican general m command of the Texan
In my annual message of December last j frontier to "attack" our army " by cvery
l informed ("ongres, that upon the inviia-j mo- ins which war permits." To this
lion of both the Congress and Convention i Gen. Paretics had been pledged lv the
of Texas, 1 had deemed it proper to order j
a strong squadron to the coasts of Mexi-
I co, and to concentrate an efficient mihta-1
j rv lorce on tuc wesiern (rentier oi i exns,
; to protect and defend the inhabitants a-
yainst the menaced invasion of Mexico.
In lhat message I informed Congress
the moment th? terms of auncxaiion of-
fered by the th? United States were ac-
cepted by Tex: s, tiie latter became so far
a pirt of our own country as to make it
iir duty to aihird such protection
fene.?; au.l that lor that
purpose our
squadron had been ordered to the Gulf,
and our army to "aken position between
the Nueces and the Del Norte," or Rio
Grande, and "Jo repjl any invasion of the
Texan territory which might be attempt
ed by the Mexican forces."
It was deemed proper to issue this or
dor. because, roon after the President of' gard the relations- between the two coun
Tcxas, in April, 1815, had issued his 1 tries as peaceful, unless Mexico should
proclamation onveneing the Congrces of j declare wer or commit acts of hostilily
hat republic, for the purpose of submit
ting to that body the terms of annexation
proposed by the United States, the gov
ernment of Mexico made serious threats
of invading the Texan terrctorv. These
i threats become more imposing as it be
came more apparent, m the. progress 1
question, that the people of Texas wotdd
decide in favor of accepting the terms of
annexation; and, finally, they had assum
ed such a formidable character, r-s in
duced both ihe Congress and Convention
of Texas to request lhat a military force
should be sent by the United "States into
her le-i itorv for ihe purpose of protecting
and defending her againft the threatened
invasion. Il would have been a violation
of good faith towards the people of Tex
as to have refused lo afford the an! w Inch
they desired njrainst a threatened invasion.
lo which they had been exposed by their
free determination lo annex themselves to
our Union, in compliance with the over
ture made to them by the joint resolution
of our Congress.
Accordingly, a portion of ihe army was
ordered to advance into Texas. Corpus
Christi xvas the position selected by Gen
eral Tavlor. lie encamped at that place
i in August, 1845, and the army remained
in that position until the 11th of March,
1840, when it moved wc.-tward, and on
i tlie 28th of that month readied the east
j bank of the Rio Grande, opposite to Mat
j amoras. This movement was made in
, pursuance or orders from the War De
partment, issued on the 13th of January,
,1810. Before these orders were issued,
. me despatch ol our minister in Mexico'
, transmuting tlie decision of the Council
oi government ol Mexico, advising that
j he should not bo- received, and also the
despatched our consul residing ia the
city of Mexico the former bearin j' datc
on the seventeenth, and the latter on the
eighteenth of December, 1815, copies of
State. : ;
coutu lie cntertjined ot a I:(terent result
from General Paredes, in case 'the revo -
: ferred to states, breathed the firecust hos
; unty against the Linned States, denoun-
red t!io proposed negotiations as treason,
and openly called upon the troops and the
people to put down the government of
!lt-'t s a niauu ttlh ; and, as a eonsc-
quence of thi declaration, negotiation
was, hv its very nature, at an end. and
was the only recourse of the .Mexican
army and people of Mexico during the
military rovolulion which had brought
him into power.
un tne ciutueentn ol April, isiu, iien-
l oral Paredes addressed a letter to
commander on that frontier, in which be
stated Jo him " at the present date I sup-
j posp vo.i at ttie r.oao ol tnat valiant ar-
my, cither lighting already, or preparing
'for the operations of a campaign;" and
"'supposing von alreadv on the theare .of
! opcratim
all tlie
forces as-
semoieu, it is indispensable that iiostiii-
ties be commenced, voursclf takm the
initiative against the enemy."
The movement of ihe enemy to the
Rio Grande was made by the command
ing general under positive orders to ab
shun from all aggressive acts towards
Mexico, or Mexican citizens, and to re-
indicative of a state of war; and these or
ders he faithfully executed. Whilst oc
cupying his position on the cast bank of
the Rio Grande, within ihe limits of
Texas, then recently ndmiJled as one of
the Slates of our Union, the command
ing general of the Mexican forces, xvho,
in pursuance of the orders of his govern
ment, had collected a large army on the
opposite shore of the Rio Grande, cross
ed the river, invaded our territory, and
commenced hostilities by attacking' our
Thus after all the injuries which we
had received ami borne from Mexico, and
and alter she had insultingly rejected a
minister sent to heron a mission of peace
and whom she had solemnly agreed to
receive, she consummated her long course
of outrage against our country by com-
TT-nrinr rin n fT(Mi:i t f v:ir :md shrddiivr
the blood of our citizens, on pur own
soil. , . ,
The United States never attempted to
acquireTcxas by conquest. On the con
trary, at an early period after the people
of Texas had achieved their independence
they sought to be annexed io. the. United
States. At n general election in Septem
ber, 183G, they decided with great una
nimity in favor of "annexation;" and in
Nox ember following, the Congress of ihe
republic authorized the appointment of a
minister, to bear their request to this fov
This government, however, having re
mained neutral hctwecu Texas and Mex
ico during the xvar between them, and
considering it due to the honor of our
country, and our fair fame among ihe na
tions of ihe earth, that we should not at
aids early period consent, to .annexation,
nor uutil it should be iaaaifest to the
! whole world that the re-conquest of Tex-
1 as by Mexico was impossible, refused io
'accede to the overtures' made by Texas,
On the I2ih of April, 1841, and after
more than seven years had elapsed since
i Texas had established her independence,
alreatv was ronelndr:! for tho annexation
I preliminary conditions to which her as
! sent was ' required. The ' solemnities
which characterized the deliberations and
conduct of tlie government and people of
iexas, on the deeply interesting ques
tions presented by these ""resolutions, are
known to the world. Tlie Congress, the
! Executive, and the people of Texas, m
I convention elected for that purpose, a
purpose, ac
cepted witii great unanimity the proposed
terms of annexation; and thus consuma-!
ted on her part tlie great act of restoring;
to our leueral Liuon a vast terntorv
which had been ceded to Spain by the
l ioriJa treaty more than a quarter of a
century before.
After the joint resolution for the an
nexation of Texas to the United States
had been passed by our Congress, the
Mexican minister at Washington address
ed a note to the Secretary of State, bear
ing date on the .sixth of March, 1835,
protesting against it as 4 an act of aggres
sion, the most unjust which can be found
recorded in the annals of modern history;
namely, that of despoiling a friendly na
tion, like Mexico, of a considerable por
tion of her territory;" and protesting a
gainst the resolution of annexation as be
ing an act. "whereby the province of
Texas, an integal portion of the Mexican
territory, is agreed and admitted into the
American Union;" and he. announced
that, as a consequence, his mission to the
United States had terminated, and deman
ded his passports, which were granted.
It was upon the absurd pretext, made by
Mexico, (herself indebted lor her inde
pendence to a snceesfu! revolution,) that
the republic of Texas still continued to
be, notwithstanding all that had passed, a
province of Mexico, lhat this step was
taken by the Mexican minister.
Every honorable effort has been used
by me to avoid the war which followed,
buta!!"have provedvain. All our attempts to
preserve pence have been met by insult
nn I resistance on the part of Mexico.
My efforts to this end commenced in the
note of the Secretary of State ci the teruh
of March, 18 15, in answer to that of the
Mexican Minister. Whilst declining lo
reopen a discussion which had already
been exhausted, and proving again what
was known to the whole world, that
Texas had long since achieved her inde
pendence, the Sicrct oy of finale express
ed the regret cf this government that Mex
ico should h ive ti.ken offence at the reso
lution of annexation passed by Congress,
and gave assurance that our" most strenu
ous ellorts shall ho devoted lo the amica
ble adjustment of every eauje ot com between the two governments, and
j the ciibivation of the kin-Ut and
i incnmy relations uetwen tae sisirr re
rThatI have acted in spirit of this as
surance, will rppear from the events
which h ive since occurred. Notwith
standing Mexico had abruptly terminated
all diplomatic intercourse
with the
1 nited Slates, and ought, therefore, to have
been the first to ask f:r its resumntion,
yet waiving all ceremony, I embraced the
earliest favorable opportunity " lo ascer-
tnn lrom toe Mexican
pilious moment lor such an overture had
arrived. Texas, by the enthusiastic and
almost unanimous xvill of her people, had
pronounced in favor of annexation. . Mex
ico herself had agreed to acknowledge
the independence of Texas, subject to a
condition, it is true, which she had no
rigiil to impose rod no power lo enforce.
The last lingering Lope of Mexico, if she
still could have retained any, that Texas
xvould ever again become one of her
provinces, must have brer, abandoned.
The consul of the United States at the
city of .Mexico was therefore, instructed
by 'the Secretary of Stats on the 15th of
September, 1815, to make the inquiry of
the Mexican government. Ihe inquiry
was made, and on the 15th of October,
1815, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of
the Mexican government, in a note ad
dressed to our consul, gave a favorable
response, requesting, at the same time.that
our naval force might be withdrawn from
Vera Cruz while negotiations should be
pending. Upon the receipt cf this note,
our nax-al force xvas promptly xvithdraxvn
from Vera Cruz. A minister xvas imme
diately appointed, and despatched to
Mexico. Every thing bore a promising
aspect for a speedy and peaceful adjust
ment of all our difficulties.
At the date of my annual message to
Congress, in December last, no doubt xvas
entertained but that he xvould be received I
by the Mexican government, and the hope
xvas cherished that all cause of rnUunder
sU.ridir.g between the'two countries would
from the United States intrusted will, lull U.T of peace, invested will, fall powers to " I '
power to adjust all questions in dispute adjust all lie existing difference between cen. I ' hXl n?
I i t .i ... . . ..'..:.:,;.. - ,,r,-r ;cf i revo ution, hy vviiu !; ne b in outatncJ prv-
betxveen the two governments." In the two connes m a mamnr just am! I , -r
be speedily rcmorcd. In the confident
hope that such would be the result of his
mission, I informed Congress that I for-
bore at that time to "recommend such ul-
tenor measures of redress for the wronrs
and injuries we had so long borne, as it founded upon opposition to the ainbiii i
would have been proper to make had no projects of Paredes, would tend to pro
such negotiation been instituted." ; mote the cause of peace, as well as pre
To my surprise ami regret, the Mexi- ' vent any attempted European interference
ican government, though solemnly pledg- in the affairs of tlie North American con
ed to do so, upon the arrival of our min- j tinent boih objects of deep interest to i! e
ister in Mexico, refused to receive and ac- t United States. Any such foreign infv
creditl im. When he reached Vera Cruz ference, if attempted, must lnvelven rc
on the tJOlh of November, 1845, he found , sisted by the United States. Mv viewrj
that the aspect of affiiirs had undergone
an UDhappy change. 1 lie government ol ; ieu io congress m i;y last annual me -GenerailIerera,who
was at that time Pre- 'sage. In any event, it was certain ih;l
sident of the Republic, was tottering to its j no cliangc whatever in the government i f
fall. General Paredes (a military leader) Mexico which would deprive Parade i f
had manifested his determin ation to over- : power, could he for the worse, so far u-
throw the government of Ilerrcra, by a the United States wcro concerned, whi'o
military revolution ; and one of the prin-
cipal means which he employed to effect
his purpose, and render the government ot
Ilerrcra lious to tlie army and people of
Mexico, was by loudly condemning its tie
termination to receive a minister of peace
from the United Suites, alleging that it was
the intention cf Ilerrcra, by a treaty xvitli
the United Stater.
to dismember the ter-
ritory of Mexico, by ceding axvay the de
partment of Texas. The government of
Ilerrcra is belicud to hare been xvell dis
posed to a pacific adjustment cf existing
difficulties; but, probably alarmed for its
own security, and in order lo ward eff the
danger of lliP revolution led by Paredes-,
violated its solemn agreement, and refused
to receive or accredit our minister: and
this, although informed that he had been
invested xvith full power to adjust all
questions in dispute between ihe two gov
ernments. Among the frivolous pretexts for this
refusal, the principal one xvas, lhat our
minister h;ul not gone upon a special mis
sion.' confined to the question of Texas a
lone-, leaving all the outrages upon our
flag and our citizens unredressed. The
Mexican government xvtilknew that both
our national honor and the protection due
to our citizens imperatively required that
the two questions of boundary and indem
nitx' should be treated together, as natur
ally and inseparably blended, and they
ought to have seen that this course was
best calculated to enable the United Slates
to extend to them the most liberal justice.
On tlie thirtieth cf December, 1845, Gen.
I lerrera resigned tlie Presidency, and
yielded up the government to General Pa
redes without a struggle. Thus a revolu
tion wi.3 accomplished solely by the army
commanded by Paredes, r.nd tlie supreme
power in Mexico passed into thchunds of
a military usurper, who was known to be
bitterly hostile to the United Slates.
Although the prospect of a pacific ad
justment wiili the new government was
unpromising, from the know n hostility of
its head to the United States, yet, deter
mined that nothing should be left undone
on our part
o restore i rummy relations
between the two countries, our minister
was instrncted to present his credentials
to ihe new government, "nd ask to be :c
eredi'edbvit in the diplomatic character
m which he had been commissioned.
These instructions he executed by his
note of the first of .March, 18 id addressed
to the ?-Iexiean Minister of Foreign Affairs
but his request was insultingly refused by
tint minister in hi vaswer of the 12th of
the same month. No alternative remain
ed for our minister but to demand his pas
port and return to the United States.
Thus xvas the extraordinary spectacle
presented to the civilized xvorld, of a gov
ernment, in violation of iLs oxv:i express
agreement, haxing twice rejected aminis-
betxveen litem
Scarcely a hope of adjusting our diffi
culties, even at a remote day, or of pre
serving peace xvith .Mexico, could be cher
ished while Pavedc j remained at the hea l
of the government. lie had acquired the
supreme power by a military revolution,
and upon the most solemn pledge to xvage
war against the United States, and to re
conquer Tcxas.which he claimed as a re
volted province of .Mexico, lie had de
nounced as guilty of treason all those
Mexicans who considered Texas as no
longer constituting a part of the territory j
of Mexico, and xvho xvere friendly to the j
cause of peace. The duration of the war
xvhich he xvaged against the United States
xvas indefinite, because the end xvhich lie
proposed, of the reennquest of Texas, xvas
hopeless. Besides, there xvas good rea- j
son to believe, from all his conduct, i.Va it
v.,c I ta mlnnlM,, .r. ll,.-. mtV.i'.'.l-T I
of Mexico into a Monarchy, fMid to call a
foreign European prince io the throne
Preparatory to this end, lie h"d, during hi
short rule, destroyed the liberty oi ihe
press, tolerating that portion of it only
which openly advocated the establishment
of a monarchy. The better to secure the
success of his ultimate designs, he had,
by an arbitrary decree, convoked a Cci
jrress not to be elected by the free voice
of the people, but to bo chosen in a nian-
mouern nisuirv Drescms a parauei case, . . . ' .
in which, in lime of peace, one nation has J7 iil . San-
reluscd even to hear propositions from a- lf Aia h been cxpeded from power by
., . .i:in,.i.:, toe army, xvas known to be m enen hos-
nomer nr icrmiuaung cAisuug UIUH..UHCO - .
I O O till?,- In I' I r.. i ! .1 ' I n
' ner to make them subservient to h;s will,
and to give him absolute control over iheir
Under all these circumstances, it
believed that ar.v revolution in Mexico.
i upon that subject were fully ccnimnn-
it was highly probable, that any ch
must he Icr the b etter.
This was the state of affairs cx tir-T
when Congress, on the thirteenth of My
last, recognised the existence of the war
which had been commenced hv the
! ernment of Paredes ; snd it Lecame aa ob-
ijcctof much importance, with a view to a
speedy settlement of our difiicuhte tr.d
the restoration of an honorable peace,
Paredes should not retain power in Mex
ico. Before that time there were svmptr;:ns
of a revolution in Mexico, favored, rc i?
xvas understood to be. by the inure liber .1
party, and especially by those who were
opposed to foreign interference end to ibo
monarchical form cf government. S.nit i
Anna xvas then in exile in Havana, lur
ing been expelled from power and banish
ed from his country by a revolution which
occurred in December, IS 11 ; but it xva3
known that he had sti'la cun&iderabL par
ty in his favor in Mexico. It was also
equally xvell known that no vigilance
which could be exerted by our squadron
xvould, in all probability, have .1
him from effecting a landing soinewhero
on the extensive gulf cf Mexico, if h de
sired to return lo his country. lie lnd
openly professed an entire change of pr.l -cy
had expressed his regret that he hrd
subverted the federal constitution of 182 1,
and avowed that he was now in f-vor of
its restoration. lie had publicly tleclai d
his hostility, in the strongest terms, to t'.3
establishment cf a monarchy, and to Eu
ropean interference in tlie affairs of his
country. Information to thia effect h-l
been received, from sources believed to
reliable, at the date of the negotiation cf
the existence of the war by Congress, and
was afterwards fully confirmed by the n
ceipt of ihe despatch of our consul in the
city of Mexico, with the
documents, which are herewith transmit
ted. Besides, it was reasonable to sup
pose thitlie must cec iho r-imjus t.'
to Mexico cf a w ar with the Uni
ted States, and that il xvould be his inter
est to favor pence.
It was under these circumstances at:J
upon these considerations thai it xvos
deemed expedient not to obstruct hi? rc
iurn to ?Iexieo. should he attempt to J
so. object xvas ihe restoration i.f and with that view, no reason
perceived why we shouM take part with
Paredes, and aid him, by means of our, in preventing iisc return of hi.-;
rival to Mexico. On the rv, it xvas
I believed that the intestine division whL-h
ordinary s .gacity could not but air.icip.ita
as ihe fruit of Santa Anna's rr?tu.-a t-
Mexico, and his contest xvith P.ire;hc,
might strongly tend to produce a disposi
tion with both parties lo restore and pre
serve peace xvith ihe Unite. I Stated. i'.
redes was a soldier by profession, and a
gaiui ioeig!i in.ert enuo:i anu iuc rs-;ora-tion
of monarchy in Mexico. In view of
these facts and circumstances it xvas, that,
xv hen orders were issued to the comman I
cr of onr naval forces in the Gulf, on i'c.s
fifteenth day of May last, only two days
after the existence of ihe war hast been
recognised by Congress, to plaen the eoai.s
of Mexico under blockade, he xvas. direct
ed not to obstruct the passage of S;.;iu
Anna to Mexico, should he attempt to re
Utrsi. c : . .:. i .1 .
A revolution took place in Mexico i
; early part of August following, l.y
I !'
v. iiich the power of Paredes was ove.v
thrown, and he has sinr-e been be ished
! trorn
couutrv, rnd if v.j.v in cxik .
Shortly aftcrwaiK Santa Aa-ui return?-.?,
It rc:n-:in f. be .-cen whether his retttm
niay net yet prove to be i tveriblo lo a r-
iilC a'.Ji USllllCni CI l,iC CXtStt'Tg tliniCtli. U'S
it b'Mig m-.nifvstly his interest r.ot to p
s" vcre in t::e pro--e.t.tio:i cf a xv-r ce:---mer.ced
bv P.. redes, t ;.cconirhsh a per-
j po-c so absurd as ihe rcconquest of Tex
as to the Sabine. )!;;d Paredes remam
edin is morally certain that any
pacific idjustiuct.t xvould have been home
less. Upon the commencement of hosiiliiie.
by Mexico agamot th United Suites, ib
indignant ffirit cf t! natlcn was at oncj