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TERMS OF PUBLICATION
THK BEDFORD GAZETTE is published e>ery Fri
day morninjr by MEYERS A .MENGEL, lt 00 per
annum, if paid "trictly in advance, $2.50 if paid
within six runnths; $3.00 if not paiii within sis
nrnnths. Alt suhstript ion accounts M UST be
settled annually. No pap/r will be gent out of
the State unless paid for tsiDVAStti, and all such
suhseriptiona will invariably be discontinued at
the expiration of the time for which they are
All ADVERTISEMENTS for a less term than
three months "TEN CENTS per line for cash In
sertion. Spertal notices one-half additional All!
resoluti'ns "f Associations; commenie (ions of
limited rf individual interest, and notices of inar-
Irigcee and deaths exceeding Ave line, ten cents I
, r line. Editorial notices fifteea cents per line.
Ml legal Notice* of every find, and Orphans' i
t and Judicial Sales, are required hy law \
, ■ e published in both papers published i/t this !
Jjjf All advertising due after first insertion.
A liberal disc tint is made to persons advertising
I by the quarter, half year, or year, as follows :
13 months, 6 months. 1 rear
"One square - - - $4 50 $0 00 $lO 00;
Two squares ... fi 00 900 Iff 00 1
Three squares - - - 800 12 00 20 00 i
gu trter column - - 14 00 20 00 35 00 1
: flslf column ... |8 00 25 00 45 00 !
i One column - ... 20 00 45 00 8!) 00 :
*one square to occupy one inch of space.
'l* PRINTING, of every kind, done with J
1 ceatness and dispatch. THE GAZETTE OFFICE has
9 _•( been refitted with a Power Press and new type.
, i everything in the Printing line can be execu
i in the most artistic manner and at the lowest
RTTES —TERMS CASH
IN" letters should be addressd to
! MEYERS A MENGEL,
TOBEPH W. TATE, ATTORNEY
f! AT LAW, BEDFORD. PA., wilt promptly
: "Kit to eollecrions of bounty, bntk pay. Ac.,
. i ill hurinefc entrusted to his care in Bedford
"h advanced on judgments, notes, miljtary
, 1 i iher claim".
II i" for sale Town lots in Tatcsviile, where a
; 'l Church is erected, and where a large School
j: -hull be built. Farms. Land and Timber
L-nve. from one acre to 5(8) acres to suit pur
office nearly opposite the "Mtngel Hotel" and
B.i ; of Reed A Schell.
April 6. IS66—ly
M!. srr U'.FE. E r KERR.
HIIARPE A KERR, ATTORNEYS
. - AT LAW BEDFORD, PA., will practice in
uirrs of Bedford and adjoining counties Of
t n Juliana St., opposite the Banking House of
Heed h Sclii'll |March 2. '66.
I. f: DFRBORROW. | JOHN LrTZ.
nr It BORROW A LUTZ,
j f ATTORNEYS AT LAW. BEDFORD, PA ,
il attend promptly to nil business intrusted to
• c care. Collections made on the shortest no
. v are also, regularly licensed Claim Agents
r i will give special attention to the prosecution
itirs ngainst the Government for Pensions,
Pay. Bounty, Bounty Lands, Ac.
>iffire on Juliana street, one door South of the
'•! : gel House," and nearly opposite the Itnitti rer
TOHN P.REED, ATTORNEY AT
LAW. BEDFORD. PA Respectfully tenders
• - rviccs to the pnhltc.
office second door North of the Mengel House,
i. Ifori. Aug. 1, 16J1.
FOHNPALMER, A TT<) It NE Y AT
I.AW. BEDFORD. PA. Will promptly attend
si! business entrusted to his care.
pMrticular attention paid to the collection of
11 : ry claims. Office on Juliana Street, nearly
-ite tfii Mengel 11 use.
: If : 1. Aug 1. 1.561.
\ 11 SPY M. A LS IP, ATTORNEY AT
| j LAM", BEDFORD, PA. Will faithfully and
;; ■ lptly attend to all business entrusted to his
,e in B-lford and adjoining counties. Military
•htims, bick pay, bounty. Ac., speedily collected.
Office with M inn A Spang, on Juliana street,
tw dome "nu'li of the Mengel House.
Jan. 22.19 M,
r V. KIMItELL. | J. W. LIXGENFELTER.
Kim mkll & lin< l enkelter.
ATTORNEY-AT LAW, BEDFORD. PA..
Hive formed a partnership in the practice <>l !
tin* Law. Office on Juliana street, two doors South
cf:h 'Mengel House,"'
/ t 11. SPANG, ATTORNEY AT
\ I, I.AW, BEDFORD. PA. Will promptly nt
■■■ ■!'" collections and all business entrusted to
-re in Bedford >nd adjoining counties.
'See on Juliana Street, three doers south of the
M i gel House,"' opposite the residence ot Mrs.
M y 13. 1364.
! F MEYERS. | J. W. DICKKRSON.
MEYERS A* dickerson, AT
TORNEYS AT LAW. Bedford. Pa., office
• -as formerly occupied by Hon. IV .P. Schell,
loora enst of the GAZETTE office, will practice
several courts of Bedford count j. Pensions,
v and ack t:iy obtained and the purchase
• -;de of real estate attended to. J may 11. *>b.
JOHN H. FILLER, Attorney at ham\
• I Bedford, Pa. Office near y opposite the Post
i'hiE.icußUi and scntists.
j) 11. PENNSYL, M. D., BLOODY
1 , KI N. Pa.. (Dte surgeon 56th P A \~) ten
■ hi- nrnfcs.-ioiial services to the people of that
tad virirdty. Dec. 22. u.i-ly*
jr w. JAMISON, M. D., BLOODY
. , P.T N. PH.. tenders his professional servi
■' Mi■: people of that place and vicinity. Office
nr west of Richard Langdou s store.
N .• 24. '6s—ly
j kit. J. L. MARBOURG, Having
I t permanently located, respectfully tenders
—Miiiulrvices to the citizens of Bedford
• A -icity.
-.!■ Juliana street, cast side, nearly opposite
-kit. ' House of Reed A Schell.
if'rd. Feb;u.try 12, Im>4.
N ai i j J. C. MINNICH. JR.,
j\I..\TLS T S ,
i t BEDFORD, PA.
•1.6 Battk Building. Juliana St.
r- r itious pertaining to Surgical or Mo
■i! Dentistry carefully p< rformcd. and war
-1 I' oth Powders and mouth \\ ashes, ex
articles, alw ays on hitt.d.
iford. January 6,1865.
* RRF.n, | J.J. SCHELL,
j > E E D A N 1) SC H E L 1.,
I I thinkers and
AL K 11S I N E XC'H ANG E,
4FT.- bought and sold, collections made and
O E. SHANNON F. BF.NIMHCT
[1 T'P, SHANNON&('<)., BANK
!I ERS, BEPEORH, PA.
HANK (IF DISCOUNT AND DEPOSIT.
KdIIOXS mode for the East, West. North
v ; it. a. 1 the general business -d Exchange
I ' I Ji'hipj and Accounts Colli*ctcil aiul
- ,i-s promptly made. REAL E.-TAIL
gat aad s .Id. Oct. 20, 1865.
i \AXIKL BOIiDEIt,
• ' Pitt street, two doops west ok the bed- j
aoTEL, Bedford. Pa.
'TCHMAKER AND DEALER IV JEWEL
RY. SPECTACLES. AC.
' son hand h sto k of fine 6oM nl v il-
Vu .Spectftcles of Brilliant Double He
-1 r h!s Scotch Pebble Glasses. Gold
• Chains, Breast Pins, Finger Kings, best
of <void Pen*. He will supply to order
thing in his line not on hand.
' 2), iB6O
- ill VINE,
. ANDERSON'S BOW, BKDFOKD. PA.,
"r in R>hi(#. Shoes. (Jueensware. and Varie
. -j-'Or ler? trout Country Merchants re-
1 2'). |Stis.
\) H. ANDERSON,
'■l Scrivener rrnil f bnvri/ancer,
, ' evtrkvillk, bei>fokd ror ntt. p >
" i to the nyh-. of Deeds. Mortgages.
Articles of Afl Aeiaout. and all business
<■./ A lr 'ttaitc!ed by a Scrivener and Conveyan
. ' patronage of the publio is respectfully
' M -tf.
BY MEYERS & MENSEL.
: GEO. BLYVYKR. | JOHN F. BLIMYKK
/ 1 KORGE B1 jYM YER A S< >N
a I hnvng formed a pArlnership, on the 6th of
Mwrch, 1866, in the
HA 11DWARE A- 710fTSE FURNISITIXG
B US I V ESS.
respectfully invite the public to their new rooms,
three <loors west of the old stand, where thev will
find an immense stock of the most splendid goods
ever brought to Bedford county. These goods
will be sold at the lowest possible prices. Persons
desirous of purchasing BUILDING H ARDWARE
will find it to their advantage to give us a call.
M HITE LEAD.—We have on hand a large
1 quantity of White Lead, which we have been for
i lunate to buy a little lower than the market rates.
The particular brands to which we would invite
attention, are the
1 Pure Burl Lead,
Liberty White Tread.
Sunto Franklin White In-ad,
Washington White Lend,
Washington Zinc White Tread,
A etc Yorf White Trend.
ALSO: — French Porcrlain Finish;
Varnishes of all finds.
Flaxseed Oil, ( pure.)
Turpentine and Afroho!.
All kind" of IRON and NAILS.
No. 1 CHRYSTAL ILLUMINATING COAL
LAMPS in profusion.
We would invite persons wanting Saddlery
Hardware, to give us a call, as we have every
thing in the Saddlery lute, such as Buckles,
Rings, Haines and Webbing Leather of all kinds;
also a variety of Shoe Findings, consisting of
French Calf Skins, Morocco I.iuiugs, Bindings,
Housekeepers will find at Blymyer A Sim's
store a great variety of household goods. Knives
and Fork of the very best quality; Plated Table
and Tea Spoons at all prices.
Give us a call and we can supply you with Barn
Door Rollers, the latest improvements; Nova Scoria
Grindstones, better than any in use; Shovels,
Forks and Spades.
Grain and Grass Scythes and Snathes; Fishing
Tackle: Brushes of all kinds; Demi-Johns; Patent
Wheel Grease, Tar and Whale Oil. and an infinite
variety of articles.
s2u UOO V\ ANTED—WouId like to get it if our
friends would let us have it. Less will do; but
persons having unsettled accounts will close them
up to the first of March, to enable us to close our
old books. This should be done
may4,'66. GEO. BLYMYER A SON.
tlrufl.S, iJttnlirines, &C.
IL. LEWIS having purchased the
s Drug Store, lately owned hy Mr. H. C. Rea
mer takes pleasure in announcing to the citizens
of Bedford and vicinity, that he has just returned
from the cities with a well selected stoek of
S TA TIO XER V.
COAL OIL. LAMPS
A Xlt CIH INEYS.
BEST BRA YDS OF CI OA US,
SMOKING AND CHEWING TOBACCO.
FRENCH CONFECTIONS, 4yc. \r
The stock of Drugs and Medicines consist of the >
purest quality, and selected with great care.
General assortment of popular Patent Medicines
The attention of the Ladies is particular y iuvi- ■
ted to thes'ockof PERFUMERY, TOILET and FANCY 1
ARTICLES, consi.-ting of the best perfumes of the
day. Colognes, Soaps. Preparations for the Hair, '
Complexion and Teeth : Camphor ice for chapped !
hands; Teeth and Hair Brushes, Port Monaies, Ac. j
Of Stationery. there is a fine assortment:
Billet. Note. L'tter, Leaf and Mourning Paper, ;
Envelops, Pens. Pencils. Ink. Blank Deeds, Power j
of Attorneys, Drafting Paper, Marriage Certifi- j
cates. Ac.. Ac. Also, a large quantity of Books, I
which will be sold very cheap.
Coal Oil let rap Hinge Burner, can he lighted j
without removing the chimney—all patterns and
prices. Glass Lanterns, very neat, for burning
Coal Oil. Lamp chimneys of an improved pattern.
Lamp Shades of beautiful patterns.
Howe's Family Dve Colors, the shades being light
Fawn. Drab. Snuff and Dark Brown, Light and 1
Dark Blue. Lijht and Dark Green, Yellow, Pink, !
Orange, Royal Purple, Scarlet, Maroon, Magenta,
Cherry and Black
Humphrey's Homeopathic Remedies.
Cigars of best brands, smokers can rely on a '
good ' igar.
Rose Smol ing Tohrcru.
Michigan and Solace Fine Cat,
Natural IrCaf, Tuast and Big plug.
Finest and purest French Confections, !
PURE DOMESTIC WINDS.
Consisting of Grape, Blackberry and Elderberry i
FOR MEDICINAL I SE.
* y The attention of physicians is invited to "lie
stock of Drugs and Medicines, which they can j
purchase at reasonable prices.
Country Merchants' orders promptly filled. Goods J
put up with neatness and care, and at reasonable |
J. L LEW IS designs keeping a first class Drug t
Store, and having on hand at all times a general j
assortment of goods. Being a Druggist ot several 1
years experience, physicians can rely on having
their prescriptions carefully and accurately com
pounded . [Feb 9, 66—tt
J) E M OVA Is.—CA LL AXI) SEE !
|\ NEW MILLINERY STORE'-Mrs. E. V. j
MOWKY would respectfully inform her old friends ;
and customers, as well as the ladies generally, j
that she ba- removed her store to the fine rooms, j
immediately opposite the Bedford Hotel, formerly j
occupied by J. Cessna, where she h is just received j
a large and carefully selected assortment of
NEW MILLINERY and DRESS GOODS, and j
NOTIONS, consisting, in part, of
BONNETS and HATS.
RIBBONS. FLO VERS, fir
ALL WOOL DELAINES.
ALPACAS. LA WNS,
CALICOES, fir .
and SUA 0 LS,
BEST KID GLOVES,
S /LKand TIIREAD Gloves,
BA IeMOR A LS.
CORSETS, fir . \c.
Also, a fine assortment of LADIES". MISSES' and
CHILDREN SHOES, made specially to order.
These goods will be Sold at the lowest prices, but
for CASH only. Mrs. Mowry returns her thanks
for past favors, and respectfully solicits a continu
ance of the patrunage of the ladies of Bedford and
vicinity. [apr.27, 66.
MISS KATE DEAL A MRS. M.
It. SCHAEFFER have just returned from
the city with a fine assortment of fashionable
ladies' and gents' hose, ladies' and gents' hand
kerchiefs and collars, fancy neck-ties, ruffling,
dress buttons and trimming, machine silk and cot
ton. hair brushes, tooth brush*'", clothes brushes,
soaps, perfumery, enamel, skirt braid, embroider
ing braid, ladies' corsets and hoops, bilmoral
skirts, lace veils, tissue for veils, cloths for sacks,
dress good-;, poplins, iawns, ginghams. Ac., Ac.
Mantua-making and all kinds ot Milliner work
done in the rhctrpesl and best manner,
JJH'HA Rl> LEO,
j Manufacturer of
I CABINET-WAKE, CHAIRS, A-C.,
- BF.DKORD. PA.,
I The undersigned being engaged in the Cabinet
making business, will make to order and keep on
: hand everything in bis line of manufacture.
! BUREAFS, DRESSING STANDS, PARLOR AND EXTEN
SION TABLES, CHAIRS, BEDSTEADS, V ASH
STANDS, AC., AC.,
1 will be furhished at all prices, and to suit every
taste. COFFINS will also be made to order.
L 'Prompt attention paid to all orders for work.
, Shop on West Pitt Street, nearly opposite
the residence of George Shuck
July 10, 1863.— tf RICHARD LEO.
I >RINTERS' INK has made many a
businessman rich We ask you to try it in
'he K OLU(IWI* of THK OAZKTTR
R I N11E Loral circulation of the BKD-
I FORD GAZETTE is larger than that of any other
paper in this s-etion ol oountry, and therefore of
ers the greatest inducements to business men to
fdverttse in its columns.
I;VERY VARIETY AND STYLE
RJ OF JOB PRINTING neatly executed at low
rates at THE BEDFORD GAZETTE office. Call and
leave your orders
'flic •-XlrdfoYil (!V.i?rttp,
IKHKOMEVS ITI RI'IR ivmrita-
lieiti-raH NtcMlii>an*u ami Firtlorton'w
Generals Steedman and Fullerton
| have recently submitted to tin* Secre
tary of War a final report of their in
vestigation into the operations ofthe
Freedmen's Bureau in the Southern
i States, from which we take the follow
; ing extracts:
A great reduction in the expense of
| the Bureau, and a reform which would
! render it far less objectionable than it
I is now would be effected by the discon
j tinuance of all paid employees not in
the military service of the Govern
! ment. This would reduce the expense
for clerks, contract surgeons, hospital
servants, Ac., the following amounts :
All the labor performed by these em
ploye"" except, perhaps, the occasional
services of a contract surgeon, might
be discharged by details from the
i troops. In previous reports we have
recommended the merging of the du
ties of the Bureau and the military.—
We would again respectfully urge this
amalgamation, ami that one set of of
ficers should !x' required to perform
the joint duties, thus avoiding the ex
pense of maintaining two establish
We have previously stated our opin
ion as to the effect of the operations of
the Bureau on the habits ofthe freed
men and their disposition to labor and
support themselves, and we have seen
nothing in our subsequent- investiga
tions to induce us to change the views
expressed on the subject in past re
ports. It is so apparent that a people
compelled to labor for a livelihood
must he rendered less industrious by
the hope or implied promise of support
in idleness, that we deem it unneces
sary to present further argument on 1
The Bureau in this department is |
more in need of retrenchment and re-!
form than the Bureau in any other
State we have visited. More money has
been collected and more money squan
dered in Louisiana than in any other
three Southern States. The expenses
of the Bureau, as accounted for, for the J
fiscal year ending the Ist of June, I SFIFI. !
were over s3B(),L>bo. To meet this ex- I
pendilure there were collected, in fax
es and rents, the following amounts:
For school purposes, $!MJ,.387 36 I
From rents, 62.431 60 I
From poll tax, 40,966 11 j
Fronu'orps d'Afrique tax, 23,000 00
From fines, 673 10!
Leaving a deficit of $66,067 33, to be
paid out of the National Treasury.—
These expenses are in addition to the
transportation, rations, and Quarter
masters' supplies furnished by the
Government. It is difficult to deter
mine to what use the vast amount of!
property held by the Bureau ha- been :
applied. At the very lowest estimate!
the property taken posso-sion of, as !
confiscated or abandoned, amounted in i
value to ten mil lons of dollars, and the I
rents returned above are LC - than one
percent, on trie entire amount.
The expenditure ofthe Bureau, un
der tlie present administration, for a- 1
gents, civilian clerks, and employees ,
about IT" headquarters alone, amount
to not less than $40,236 a year, oxelu- ;
"ive of the pay of staff pffie rs, and or
derlies in the military service.
A large proportion ofthe money ex
pended on the public school" under the ]
administration of the Rev. T. W. Con
way, late Assistant Commissioner, we
we are satisfied was squandered. Mr.
Matthew Whildon, formerly chief
clerk in the school department, in evi
dence given before us and hereto ap- !
ponded (marked 81, states that in Sep
tember, 1866, Captain Pease, the school
superintendent, reported officially that
TIKWE were forty schqpls in operation
and in flourishing condition, when, in
fact, there were but two. It was also
sworn to before us that the books and I
records which would have shown this
report to be inaccurate were destroyed
in Captain Pease's office and others
substituted. We can see no object for \
the fabrication of this false report, un- J
less it was to account for payments
made to persons who were not engag
ed in teaching. <>n examining the pay
roll No. 2 for the month of August,
1866, we found that after it had been
certified and appoved, names bad been
added, and the totals erased and chang
ed on every page. We found also a
diserepency of several hundred dollars
between the pay roll for this month
and the labor rolls No. 15.
From the sworn testimony also here
to appended it will be seen that ('apt.
Morse, appointed Provost Marshal of
the Bureau hy Mr. Conway, made the
Provost Marshal's office, a slave pen,
arresting freedmen and selling them to
planters at $6 a head, and sharing the
proceeds with his special policemen
who made the arrests. This officer
further collected a large amount of mo
ney from freedmen and white person
arrested by him for various offences,
and the hooks only show receipts from
this source amounting to $673 16.
The Bureau is cultivating a large
plantation in this State, for which it
BEDFORD. PA.. FRIDAY MORNING, AUGUST 24. 1866.
1 pays $15,000 a year as rent. We can
scarcely imagine the excuses for rent
ing land on account of the United
States, when the Government, through
each Congress, is giving away millions
of acres of public lands to corpora
Major General Absoloiu Bairdisthe
Assistant Commissioner of Louisiana,
and was also in military command of
the department when we visited it. —
He has undoubtedly improved upon
the administration of MR. Conway.
The facilities for traveling in Texas
beingsolimited, and the State so large,
we found it impossible to make such
an investigation as would enable us to
report fully upon theeoudition of affairs
in that department. The headquarters
of the Bureau are located at Galveston,
and a few agents are stationed in the
most accessible and populous parts of
the State. As to the condition of af
fairs in the interior, we were unable to
obtain accurate information, either
from the agents of the Bureau or from
any other sources. We visited Rich
mond and Houston, where we met sev
eral of t he agents,from other districts,
who were there in attendance on a
At Richmond, Captain Sloan, the a
gent ofthe Bureau, Is engaged in plant
ing, in connection with his former
clerk, Captain Porter, and an ex-officer
of the Rebel army, Captain Mitchell.
Captain Sloan denied, under oath, that
he was or over had been interested in
the plantation of Messrs. Porter and
Mitchell, but Major Pearson, comman
dant of the troops at this post, and Dr.
Bovd, Post Surgeon, both subsequent
ly swore before us tliat Captain Sloan
told them repeatedly he was interested
in the farm, and had mentioned to
them the amount lie expected to real
ize by it. Complaints were made to us
by other persons that Captain Sloan
had employed the ~o\ver ofthe Bureau
to take negroes from their plantations
and place them on his own. We ap
pend the testimony taken in this case, j
Among the agents we met at lions- 1
ton was Lieut. C. F. Harden brook,
First V. 8.C., agent at Beaumont, Jef
ferson county, who stated to us that the !
freednien were doing well in his dis
trict, and that the disposition ofthe
people was very fair. Most of the
freedmen were engaged in herding
stock, and were paid from $lO to sls a
month in coin. lle subsequently men
tioned that he laid recently arrested
Dr. Houston, a citizen in his district,
on the report of a freedman that the
Doctor had said he did not regard bis
parole; but finding it was impossible to
obtain evidence against hie- prinoiJ-r.
he had been obliged to release him. —
This officer reported to us other actions
of his own equally absurd as this, sat
isfying OS he was. utterly incompetent
for his posi .ion.
Having heard unfavorable reports
from the Breuliam district, we exam
ined the agent, Captain S. A. Craig,
seventeenth veteran reserve corps,
whom we also met at Houston. He 1
stated that hi- predecessor, Lieut. .Ar
nold, of the 12th Illinois cavalry, hail |
kept no records, and left nothing in the
office hut a list of contract- and a file
of orders, and he could give us no in
formation of hia official A'DS. We are
satisfied that most of the complaints
made again-T < -.qitain Craigare ground
All the Bureau agents in Texas exer
cise judicial powers in both civil and
criminal cases, and in the discharge of
those arbitrary and dangerous func
tions frequently arrest and imprison j
respectable citizens upon mere rumor.
Captain Sloan, the Bureau officer at
Richmond, IKTOIV alluded to, whileat
Galveston, our of his district, arrested
it respectable citizen and put him in
prison, on the plea that lie wanbd him
as a witne— in a case which lie only
knew from rumor would tie brought
Ten iif rhe thirty-live agents in this
State are citizen planters. < )ne of them, :
Col. MeComiaghe, agent in Thornton I
county, was formerly a Colonel in the'
ltehe! army, and was appointed an a- i
gent ot the Bureau by General Grego
ry, tlx N Assistant Commissioner of the'
State, wliii •.-till unpardoned.
We heard many rumors with respect |
to Gen. Gregory himself being engag
ed in planting, hut on investigation we ;
concluded that these statement.- were
unfounded. While we believe Gen. J
Gregory to have been honest in his ad- :
ministration, we think iii- extreme!
views and policy produced ill-feeling J
and bitterness between the whites and J
So far as we saw or were able to get
information in Texas, the iVecdnien
were working, well and the crops were
very promising. The wages paid— all
the payments being made in specie—
were better than in any other depart
Brevet Major Gen. J. B. Kiddoo is
the present Assistant Commissioner
IN pursuing this investigation, which
has now extended over four months,
we have found extreme difficulty in
complying with that portion of our in
struction- which requires us to report
upon the operation of the Bureau and
its mode of administration. The BU
rea has no settled mode of administra
tion. There is an entire absence of sys
tem or uniformity in its constitution.
In one State its officers exercise judi
cial powers; in adjoining States all case
are referred to the civil authorities;
while in a third State the Bureau offi
cers collect the cases and turn them
over to the military provost courts to
dispose of. In some departments the
officers of the Bureau have attempted
to regulate the rate of WASTES;* one form
of contract between employer and em
ployed i prescribed inoneState, while
in another a differeht form is adopted.
In Louisiana the expenses of the freed
men's schools, have been wholly paid
by the Government; in other States
the schools are partially self-support
ing, and in Texas they are entirely so.
In some localities the Bureau officers
interfere arbitrarily between the plant
er and the freedman, in favor of the
freed man; in other localities the Bu
reau is used as a means of coercing the
freedman in favor ofthe planter. The
expenditure of the Bureau varies as
much as its made of administration. —
In one State the expense- are over
$300,000 a year; in another State, with
an equal population, the expenses are
not more than $">0,000. In some States
the expenses have been met by taxes
levied on and collected from the
people; in other States the COB is en
tirely borne by the United States Trea
We found it impossible to investi
gate the accounts of the Bureau Quar
termasters, for the reason that where
the funds used were received from tax
es, rents, lines and sales of abandoned
property, there were no means of as
certaining.theamounts received except
from the personal statements of the of
ficers themselves. While -A Quarter
master in the army, drawing his funds
from the Government, ha- the amount
charged up to hint and is * bliged to ac
count for it in his return, the looseness
ofthe administration of the Quarter
master's Department of the Bureau
and the absence of all cheek upon the
officers give no security except the per
sonal honesty of the men themselves.
We examined the accounts of Brevet
Brigadier Genera! Whittlesey, Bureau
Quartermaster of the Department of
Mississippi, who satisfied us that he
had honestly administered the affairs
of his department, and had accounted
for all the money received; but wheth
er his predecessor, who collected a.
larg°amount from taxes, rentsandsales
paid over to General Whittlesey, all
the money in his hands belonging to
the Bureau, we were unable to deter
mine. We do not make this statement
to reflect upon that officer, against
whom there were no charges, hut to
illustrate the looseness of the system.
The official report of Col. Reno, Rro
vost Marshal General of the Bureau of
Louisiana, a copy of which is herewith
forwarded, marked "D," shows a defi
cit of upwards of S7, OOOin the accounts
of the officers who were engaged in the
collection of taxes in New Orleans,
which deficit Reno -ay- he is unable to
explain in consequence of the loose
manner in which the books were kept.
One of the defaulting officers, Lieut.
Foster, who Col. Reno believes appro
priated to his own use the largest a
mount of the deficiency,carried off his
cash-book with him. This officer, on
his own re-poixdbility, levied an 'unci- j
dental fax," which Col. Reno call- "an
invention of bis own, "and which, "with
the exception of one or two hundred
dollars, went into his own pocket."
We are of opinion that at the close I
of the war and for some time after the I
cessation of hostilities, the Freedmen's ,
Bureau did good. The people of the ,
South, having at first no faith in the ne- j
groes working under a free labor sys- J
tini , were desirous of getting rid of'
them, an L during the summer of 1.-66, :
judicious Bureau and military officers j
did much toward restoring order and j
harmony, and inducing the people of
the South to resume the cultivation of
their plantations by employing the
freedmen. Before the close of 1-66
there wa.- an entire revolution in the
sentiments of the people of the South
with regard to negro labor. A feeling
of kind.;, -s irung u p toward the freed
men, resulting perhaps mainly from
the conviction hat the labor was desi
rable and profitable, and the only labor j
to be had. The necessity for the Bu- 1
reau then ceased. Since then, while it !
lias been beneficial in some localities, it
lias been productive in the aggregate
of more barm than good, it has oc
casioned and will perpetuate discord as
long as it exists, though administered
by the purest and wisest men of the na
tion. The freedmen regard its presence
as evidence that they would he unsafe
without it; and the white people con
sider it an imputation upon their in
tegrity and fairness, an espionage upon
theolficial action of all their courts and
magistrates, as well asupon the private
conduct of their citizens. Both races
are tlui- made suspicious and bitter, by
an agency which in the present disor
ganized condition of civil government
and society in the Southern States is
powerless to advance the interests of
The best protection the freedman has
in the South is the value of his labor '
in the market, and if he is left free to
dispose of this at all times to the high
est bidder, unshackled by contracts
made for him by Bureau officers, no
apprehension need be felt for his safety
or his success. If the freedmen cou d
at this moment demand the wages
which the high prices of the products
of the South would justify, $1 per day
and board would lie the ruling wages,
instead of $lO or sl2 per month, the
prices now paid. But they cannot take
advantage of the demand for their la
bor.- Theyarebound by contract—en
slaved for twelve months through the
VOL. 61.-WHOLE No. 5.361.
agency and influence of the Freedmen'-
Bureau. The hands on'the Mississip
pi steamboats are not required to make
contracts, and they are getting $lO a
month and their board for labor less
exacting than that of a plantation ne
gro. The freed men on the Ogeechee
and Savannah Rivers are receiving, on
the rice plantations, from $lO to sl-"> per
month under contract for the year,
while the laborers employed on the
Georgia Central Railroad, which runs
between these two streams, are get ing
$1 :>o a day. Some complaints were
made to us by the planters on the Sa
vannah river that their laborers were
discontented and did not work as re
quired by their contract.-. One of the
planters, a practical, liberal-minded
man, explained the cause of the dis
content to be the low wages at which
the negroes were hired, lie said: "1
can get hands enough, and good work
dohe, too, by paying a dollar a day and
rations; and T anipaying that, and ex
pect to pay even more. I can give $3
a day and make money. The negro is
going to make all he can out of his free
dom, and hehas aright todo so." The
enlightened policy advocated by this
gentleman—a policy strictly in accord
ance with justice and sound political
economy—is defeated by the contract
system, inaugurated and forced into
practical operation by the officers of the
Freednien's Bureau. We met with in
stances of freed men working for $lO a
month and rations, under yearly con
tracts sanctioned by the Bureau, while
in the same field,doing the same work,
other freed men, not under contracts,
were getting $1 a day and rations. In
all the large towns in the Mississippi
valley, during the months of May and
June, planters were offering*! Tier day
and rations for freed men, while under
the sanction of Government, given hv
the officers and agents of the Bu
reau. thousandsof freedmen were work
ing under contract for $lO per month.
If the freedmen are left free to contract,
the demand for their labor and thccom
petition among employers will secure
them good wages and kind treatment.
They will not contract with men who
treat them harshly or fail to pay them,
as is abundantly proven by the fact that
many planb rs who treated their for
mer slaves cruelly are now unable to
hire freedmen to work for them, and
have been obliged to sell or lease their
We are unable to discover why the
simple rules which regulate and con
trol the relations of labor and capital
in the Northern States should not ob
tain as well in the South—why the. na
tional Government should permit the
laboring man to sell bis labor to the
highest bidder in one section of the
country, and appoint an agent to seil
it for hini in another section. It is un- | i
doubtedly rue that if the freed peojtle i
of the South were not bound by eon- 1
tracts their wages would beat least fit'- j
ty nor cent, higher at this time than 1
they are, and there would be less dis- j
content among the freedmen than now | j
exists, and tar less duty for the agents | j
of the Bureau to perform. Almost the i j
only dissatisfaction existing at litis j
time among freedmen results from the !
low rate of wages at which they have I .
been hired, under the influence and i.
with the approval of the agents of the j (
Bureau. This discontent makes the
freedmen unwilling to work, and their !
indolence provokes the planter, who :
not ull frequently resorts to violence to
enforce his contract, and this makes 1
business for the officer who sancfiom d j .
the contract. Investigation follows, !
resultinggenerally in findingtlie freed- .
men at fault for refusing to labor ae- j
cording to their contracts, and they are j
required to return to the plantation,!;
while the planter is admonished to curb |
his temper. In some eases of this na- j •
tnre the contract is declared forfeited]
by the conduct of die planter, whogoe>
away from the Bureau feeling that a |:
decision lias been made that freedmen
are not hound to fulfil their engage- I
meats. The fault—the cause of the !
dilti 'u!ty—is in the contract, which ha- j
been unjustly forced upon the poor j
It must not be inferred from what we j
have written that we are opposed to the j
i'reedmencoiitraeting with the planters. j
By no means. We believe the very I
best thing they can do is to make con- '
tracts, either for a share of the crops or j
for liberal wages; but we are opposed j
to agents of the National Government
assuming to hire them out, proscribing
the term of service and stipulating the
wages to be paid them. They are not
free so long as any such control is ex- j
ereisedover them, nor tain they ever r< - !
ceive a just reward for tle-ir labor while i
they are compelled to hire within a giv- j
en time for a specified term. In Alis- j
sissippi and other State- the freedmen j
wore compelled, by ord rs from officers ■
of the bureau, to enter into contracts •
within limit d periods, which enabled j
all who wauled hands to get them at i
low wages, while if the freedmen had not |
been interfered with, the demand for la
bor would have enabled them to.secure
just remuneration, ft is a great error
to suppose that the freedmen are not
competent to enter into contracts ft r
themselves. They are sharp at a bar
gain, know weli what a good contract
is, and are much better collectors than
As an evidence of the rigid manner
j in which contraetsareeii forced by agents
of the Bureau against the freedmen, we
may mention a case which came under
j our own observation. A colored black
smith, who fled from his master during
the war, and enlisted in the United
! States army, being about to bemuster
;ed out of.-service, wrote to his wife, re
questing tier not to contract for more
than a month or two at a time, as he
! intended to return home as soon as lie
: was mustered out, and set up shop and
Igo to housekeeping. His wife accord
ingly declined at first to make a long
contract, but was finally compelled to
engage herself for a year. 1 lie soldier
0:1 hi.- return, went to the plantation
where his wife was working and ap
plied for her release, but failed to get
her. lie then sent a written statement
of the case to an agent of the. Bureau,
who forward's! it tothe Assistant Com
missioner of the State. It was return
ed from headquarters with the follow
"lint-much as the wife of W in. Car
ter has made a contract for the year
i si;g -1k must observe its requirinenbs,
i'he sub-commissioner will inform Win.
carter that theinterestsofthefreed peo
ple religiously observing their agree
ments are paramount to the wishes of
individuals, and that the power of the
Bureau will only be used to protect
hem from manifest injustice. There
•eing no positive evidence of such in
gest ice in this case the Bureau has no
interference to make."
It is evident that this officer consid
ers a labor contract more sacred than a
The system of contracts now existing
in the South, and enforced by the Bu
reau is simply slavery in a modified
.orm. What is thedifferenee to the ne
gro whether lie issoldforfive dollarsor
for five thousand; for thirty years to
thirty masters, or for thirty years to
>ne master'.' It is in vol notary servitude
in either case, and a practical defeat of
die Emancipation proclamation of the
lamented President Lincoln. If the
freedman leaves work to seek employ
ment at better wages he is arrested a-a
vagrant by order of the Freed men's
Bur an, and put to labor on the roads,
with ball and chain, as is provided by an
order recently issued by General Scott,
Assistant Commissioner for South
Carolina. If fatigued from overwork
he 11 sires rest for a day; if he leaves the
plantation to visit a relative or friend it
is made a penal offence, and a fineof $•>()
is imposed, as will be seen by Circular
No. 14 of General Kiddoo, Assistant
Commissioner for Texas, hereto annex
ed and marked E. If lie refuses to con
tract at all be is arrested by the Bureau
Provost Marshal and sold for a few dol
lars to the nearest planter, as in tho
ease ol'Captain Morse of New Orleans,
already referred to. The coercive pol
icy adopted by the Bureau in this and
other respects has been node a justifi
cation for the discriminating legisla
tion of some of the Southern States. The
only remedy against a white man for a
breach of contract is a suit for damages,
and we can see no reason why the same
remedy should not be applied and con
ceded in the case of the black man. The
freedman has nothing to sell but hisla
bor, and we are strongly of opinion
that he ought to be permitted to obtain
for it the highest priee it will bring. If
he is a freeman it is neitherjust nor law
ful for any person to assume control of
him and certainly not morejustor law
ful for an officer of the Freed 111 en's Bu
reau to do so than for a Southern plan
J as. B. Steedmax, ! r . .
J.S. H-LLEXTON, j-Com'K.
Drmxuthe past few years the Rad
icals mobbed, exiled, or massacred
hundreds of white freemen of the Re
publie who claimed the right to exer
cise the liberty of speech and the free
dom of the press. Then, at all times
and under all possible circumstances,
as they do at present, the Democracy
disapproved of and denounced all such
revolutionary and criminal practices.
Now, when a great dread comes over
the Radicals, and they causelessly fear
the goring of their own ox, they agree
with the Democrats that such things
are brutal, barbarous and infamous.
Ben Beast Butler, Major General of
the Massachusetts "braves,"(militia) is
"playingsoldier" again, ft;est week he
appointed an uidc-dcenmp, a quarter
master and a judge advocate—all gor
geous staff officers to the great doctor
Butler himself. Next fall they propose
to trait) in some quiet pasture in Mas
sachusetts. B> n wi'l miss the spoons
and plate when training day comes a
gain. If his soldiering is done in the
vicinity of any city or town it will i e
as well for the inhabitants to lock up
their valuables. We do not say Ben
will J hut he had a mighty (rtkiitf/
way with him in New Orleans.
A number of officers were descanting
on the 1> isiness sacrifices each bad nn.de
by entering the service. Several had
cxpn -sod their losses in high figures,
when the ('ajqain broke in with—
"l have lost more by entering—the
service than any other officer present;
i lost ten thousand dollars in gold."
"Mow did that happen?" said an offi
cer who ; ad placed his figures above
"When 1 entered the service," said
Ike, "1 thought of marrying a girl
worth 610,000, but soon after 1 left the
Suite she married another chap !"
The motto—"A fool and his money
are soon parted" snould be slightly
changed to meet the case of a young man
at Grand Rapids, Michigan, who got
very much intoxicated and went down
on all-fours to have a fight with a bull
pup. Puppy got hold of the young
man's nose, and after much scuffling,
tore it off'.
TIIB tears we shed for those we love
are the streams which water the gar
den of the heart, and without them it
would he dry and barren, and the gen
tle flowers of affection would perish.
"To BE on NOT TO BE."— That's the
question. To be for negro suffrage and
vote for Geary—or not to be, and vote