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D2-Lancast«r Farming, Saturday, May 14, 1994
NAXCEL FOR PIGS
Naxcel’s approval for use in
swine about one year ago is con
sidered by many to be significant
for .the hog industry.
Naxcel' is a broad spectrum
drug, with acdvity that surpasses
many antibiotics at our disposal.
Its label claims include several
respiratory pathogens, and one
more item makes this drug rather
unique it has no withdrawal.
Naxcel is Upjohn’s trade name
for ceftiofur, an antibiotic charac
terized as a cephalosporin. That
puts it in the same general class as
penicillin, but it’s advanced sever
al steps (or generations) beyond
that of the original antibiotic.
An early process with any
potential drug is to assess it in vit
ro, a term that roughly means eva
luation in a test tube. The result is
Kenneth B. Kephart
Penn State Extension Swine Specialist
usually reported as an MIC
minimal inhibitory concentration.
This is the smallest concentration
of drug, under these “test tube”
conditions that will stop the
growth of a-particular bacteria, fir
general, the lower the MIC, the
The bacteria that are stopped
with a fairly low MIC of ceftiofur
include a long list of beasts that
tend to wreck havoc within the hog
• Gram negatives; Pasteurella
haemolytica, Pasteurella multoci
da, Haemophilus somnus, Haemo
philus pleuropneumoniae, E. coli.
Salmonella cholerasuis. Salmonel
• Gram positives: Corynebac
terium pyogenes, Staph, aureus.
Strep, agalactiae, Strep, bovis.
Strep, dysgalactiae, Strep, suis
type 11, Strep überis.
With all of these bacteria, and
under these in vitro conditions.
Ceftiofur shows good activity
compared to Ampicillin, another
“advanced generation” antibiotic
in the same class as penicillin. Cef
tiofur is not particularly effective
against Bordatella, Pseudomonas
Follow-up testing in the animal
indicated that the drag concentra
tions in plasma and tissues are con
sistently above the MICs for the
sensitive organisms listed above.
This implies that after injection of
the drug, most of these bacteria can
be controlled in the pig as well as
in the test tube.
Testing in the pig has been
documented for Colibacillosis (E.
Coli scours). The drug is not
labeled for E. coli however,
approval is anticipated.
The label indications for swine
include four respiratory pathogens
multocida, Salmonella choletasuis
and Strep, suis type 2.
Concentrations of the drug in
the tissue, though high enough to
control bacterial growth, are below
the maximum allowable safe con
centrations for safe human con
sumption —even a few hours after
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injection. For example, noninjec
tion site muscle has an maximum
allowable safe concentration of 3
ppm. Following three injections, at
the maximum dose, the drug level
in noninjection site muscle is .76.
The maximum for injection site
muscle is 30 ppm. The observed
concentration in the muscle tissue
at injection sites is only 2.90 ppm.
Naxcel is available only upon
the order of a licensed veterinarian
that is, a prescription. There is
no withdrawal period. This a bit
incredible for an injectable. But
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