Presbyterian banner. (Pittsburgh, Pa.) 1860-1898, December 28, 1861, Image 1

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    II
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Original.
The Absent,
11Y A SOLDIER
Away-from home and friends most dear,
In this disastrous day,
Far off toward . the rising sun,
Eight hundred miles away.
CHORUS-Eight hundred miles away,
Eight hundred miles*away,
Far off toward the rising sun,
Eight hundred miles away. .
Along with those whose hearts are brave,
,My country's call t' obey,
„.1 grasp the deadly firelook,
Eight hundred miles away.
Cnonus—Eight hundred, Bto.
While dangers threat and duty oalls,
'T is here I mean to stay,
Prepared to fight the enemy,
, Eight hundred miles away.
Cncyaus—Eight hundred, &o.
But while uponTotomac's Nhnk
I'm called awhile to stay,
civi I forget the ones I love,
Eight hundred miles away,?
Cuonus—Eight hundred, &o.
Can I forget the partner dear,
With whom I used to stay ;
The many joyful , hours we passed,
Eight hundred miles away ?
Cuoans—Eight hundred, &c. •
And then those prattling cherubs who,
Amid their childish play,
Have often swelled my heart with joy,
Eight hundred miles away.
CrlOßUS—Eight hundred, .Sto.
Alt, no' While life's warm currents gush,
And cause this heart to play,
not forget the ones I love,
Eight hdndred miles away.
Cimus—Eight hundred, &o.
And while beneath an Eastern sky
An exile I shall stay,
I know I'm thought of oft by those
Eight hundred miles away.
Cnortus—Eight hundred, &c.
qt. should disease or rebel foe
ptrikl.down this feeble clay ;
[r should death's shafts be hurled at those
Eight hundred miles away :
GMAT'S-Eight hundred, &o.
Still there's a home, a blissful home,
Within the realms of day,
Where they and I shall meet again,
In heaven, far, far away.
Cnoaus—ln heaven, far, far away,
In heavtr, far, far away,
Where they and I shall meet again,
In heaven, far, far away.
H. H.
For theVreabyterlan Banner
The Christian Rico.
"Ilustration gives us clearer views of
and causes it to make deeper impres
s. Paul knew this well; dad he most
ipil alludes to things with which men
familiar, that he may both convince and
te. Among the honorable and popUtar
ests, of the day in which he lived and
people to whom he wrote, is the foot
The course is prepared. The
,e is set forth. The athleta3 are en
ed, trained and ready. Tens of thou
ls of people are collected. The signal
iven, and the eager expectants of glory
reward, spring at the instant, and press
Ard in the course. The mighty multi
e look on with breathless attention, as
and another lag behind or fall by the
At length one has reached the dis
, goal, his name is shouted by the pub
herald, and his temples encircled by the
1-earned crown. The palm branch is
!ed in his right hand, in token of vie
-, and his native city, exulting in the
ior of her successful son, conducts him
with the most extravagant demonstra
is of joy.
uch was the Grecian race, and such its
ird. Now we will look at the Chris
i's race, and the reward he shall receive.
his course are many difficulties, but he
it " run with patience," not heeding the
in tongue of temptation which would
ace him to loiter, or, altogether turn
le from the way. Think you the ath
., as he strove for the Orowri, cared for
t else ? Did he stop to pluck the way
flower, or encumber himself with par
es of shining dust ? No ; he ever
ised on, disdaining even to glance at any
Ig, of minor importance. So the Chris
disdaining the petty and dangerous
.ments of earth, must ever loolc for-
I, fixing his eye with an unflinching gaze
the pleasures of eternity.
He, too, is surrounded by " a cloud of
,nesses," who watch every movement
ch intense interest. I have often thought
we could but realize this, what a great
luen cc it must exert on our daily life. Not
,y are human friends and enemies watch
; over every step with closest scrutiny,
,her wishing us " God speed" or rejoic
in our halting, but other eyes are upon
, , some of spirits dark and malignant,
who busy themselves in placing stumbling
blocks in our way, and whispering evil
'thoughts and blasphemies in our ears; oth
fors of spirits bright and pure, who have
'charge over us, and, by high and holy mo
[tives incite us to persevere.
These are .thoughts which might well
duce us to take heed how we run ; and
love all, did we but remember that " our
;avenly Father " is ever present, chiding
ld bringing us back when we stray, or
Ith his strong and gentle, hand raising
lid strengthening us when we stumble and.
1 .1. Surely such a consideration would
impel us to watch each step .as we press
•ward. But is there no reward offered in
race ? Are we to have the - Oil, and
, and strife for nought ? Yes ! Thanks
t o God, Who giveth us the victory, there
a reward 'offered ; one which far exceeds
we can conceive; for we run not to
iin perishable crowns and withering
ins, but those ghat are incorruptible. In
language of one of Zion's sweetest
"Palms of glory, raiment bright,
Crowns that never fade away,
Gird and deck the saints in light,
Priests, and kings, and conquerors they."
When we shall stand within the walls of
New Jerusalem, and " look o'er life's
ished story," all aglow with the bright
it'd nide, we shall almost forget the trials
the way i while
" On a green and flowery mount,
Our happy souls shall sit,
And with transporting joy recount
The labors of our feet.
" Eternal glory 'to the King,
Who safely brought us through ;
Our tongues shall never cease to sing,
And endless praise renew."
Melt is like a snowball; leave him lying
idleness '
against the sunny face of pros
rity, and all the good that is in him melts
ray ; but let the jealous and envious per
ute him, and it gathers strength at every
!volution, tiil it grows to an avalanche.
rviliiyfirian
.•
•
•.,
VOL. L. NO. 15.
EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENCE
THE "TRENT" BOARDED, AND THE SOUTHERN COMMISSIONERS
ARRESTED — OPINIONS OF TIkE PRESS—A UNITED STATES
VESSEL BURNT BY THE " NASITVILLE'—"FREE CHURCH CON
FERENCE AT EDINBURGH—FOREIGN Hisenoms AND LACK OF
VOLUNTEERS—DR. DIM/ AND HIS UIRAND IDEA—Do. Tormor's
EXPOSITION OF IT—EDUCATION, AND EVANGELIZATION IN
INDIA—DR. CANDLISH AND HIS ADDRESS—Da. DUFF'S LET.
TER ANALYZED—THE EDUCATED EINDOOS, AND INFIDELITY—
GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES —NEW PLAN FOR THE
EDUCATION OP FOREIGN MISSIONARIES—THE POST OFFICE
AND ITS STATISTICS.
LONDON, Nov. 30; 1861
TFIE SEIZURE OF THE SOUTHERN COM
MISSIONERS by a United States vessel, on
board the Trent, West India Royal Mail
Packet, has awakened a,profortild sensation
here and all over the kingdom. Happily
we have amongst us such a man as Mr.
Adams, the United States Ambassador,
who, at the Mansion House Dinner, justly
said that one great duty devolving on
diplomatists like himself was to give ex
planations, and smooth the path of peace
and brotherhood. A painful feeling exists
in some breasts, from the idea that Mr.
Seward seeks a quarrel with Great Britain.
I trust it is not so. The Times and Daily
Telegraph both calm the public mind,
while yet indicating the, tendency of such
events. They show, as does the Morning
Star, that, strictly speaking, the right of
search on the high seas does exist, and
quote both American and British jurists on
the question ; but then, that this case is not
within the rule. They evidently write in
harmony with the views of the Govern
ment, which studiously desires to keep the
peace; and it will be a woful day for both na
tions if ever they shall be hurried into actual
collision. May God forbid it! and let all
goad men, in spite of tdie preachers of an
tipathies, revenges, and " satisfaction," say
Amen. The Times' leader, on the day
after the' news arrived, was studiously calm
ing in its style. The Daily Telegraph
wrote in a similar strain, and the Morning
Star said : " It is at any rate to be desired
that questions of this sort should be dis
cussed without heat, and decided without
haste. If it should turn out that the San
Jacinto has , exceeded the authority which
the law of nations concedes to belligerents
over the ordinary rights of neutrals, we
doubt not the United States Government
will disclaim the act, and refuse to take ad
vantage of its performance." The Con
servative Standard, which represents a
party which likes fighting more than oth
ers, was quite vehement. 'Chase great hopes
that by the spirit of Mr. Adams, and his
conveyance .to the
,of
of the reasons
of the British Cabinet's decision, as well as
by,Lord Russel's own letter, peace may be
preserved.
Last week we had the first realization of
the American contest, as brought very near to
us, in the appearing on the Southampton
bars of the Southern ship Nashvilfr, having
on board the officers and crew of a merchant
Federal ship, which had been seized and
burnt at sea.
The dismissal of General Fremont, and
the avowal
,of the Government that slaves
in the South would not be emancipated,
but that those eMployed would be returned
to loyal owners and their services paid for
—while more easily understood by yourself
and. other friends of the negro than by
English people—have undoubtedly dashed
the hopes of thos6 who were looking at the
war as likely to have an anti-slavery issue.
But the end is not yet; and who shall ven
ture to say whether the abomination may
not, in spite of human calculations or
counsels, have an issue which will destroy
forever the plan of those who so long
sought; extension of slavery ? The reported
speech of Col. Cochrane, and his proposal
so vehemently applauded—of putting arms
into the hands of the slaves, seems to indi
cate tendencies which may end in all that
has been hoped for by philanthropists.
The difficulties surrounding the whole
question of slavery, can only be appreciated
by yourselves.*
A' MISSION CONFERENCE has just been
held at Edinburgh, in connexion with the
meeting of the Commission of the Free
Church of Scotland. A serious diminu
tiou in the number of laborers in the In
dian field has taken place. Dr. Duff, and
those who remain at their posts, are over
worked, and there has not been that
promptitude of volunteering on the part of
the students, licentiates, and ordained min
isters, at home, which might have been an
ticpa.ted. It was felt that a free and full
'conference at Edinburgh might be the
means of giving information as to the ac
tual condition of things, both discouraging
and encouraging, as well as of rousing a
spirit of prayerful zeal and self-consecra
tion. It is well known that the Mission
work of the Free Church has from the first
been largely and directly educational. This
was the grand idea of Alexander Duff,
years ago, and the great men of the past.
Chalmers and others thoroughly and heart
ily endorsed it. This feature is still to be
preserved. And as Dr. Tweedie said at
the opening of the Commission, their in
stitutions arc educational, but it is for a
purpose, or rather for a crowd of purposes.
These purposes are as follows
41 First, to train up a native ministry and na
tive teacher& for India, as the grace of God shall
prepare converts for the work. For reasons
which it would be superfluous to explain, that is
one of our great aims, and in that aim we have
been blessed, in no common degree. The con
verts laboring in connexion with our missions as
teachers, catechists, preachers,. and ordained
ministers, are such as prove to some minds that
the Spirit of God has blessed of a truth the la
bors of our missionaries. But besides the aim
now, referred to, our missions keep in view
another vita object, the grand terminus of all
mission woilr—vis., the converting of souls to
God. In the class-room, in the chapel, in pri
vate intercourse—in short, in season and out of
season, that is kept in view, and, as the result,
110 have been baptized: in our mission at Madras
on a profession of faith in the Saviour; 137
have been baptized at Calcutta; 61 at Nagpore;
88 at Poonah ; and 116 at Bombay—malting 501
in all, mainly the fruits of the. Spirit's blessing
on the labors of our missionaries among the
young, This is no doubt only the day of small
things.' But Omniscience itself, Omnipotence
itself, asks the question— , Who path despised the
day ? ' It. assures us of a brighter day to come.
But our missions are more than this. They have
other work in hand 'along with that now men
tioned. They are in principle, and in, practice
evangelistic also—they are so, ,I venture humbly
to think, far, more than is commonly known. In
considering .this point., we have to keep in view
that for some months in the year, firstly,, that by
reason of the heat, and secondly, by reason of
the rains, it is impossible for Europeans to itin
erate and preach in India with safety ; and mak
ing allowance for that, I for one am of opinion
that 'our home 'church has not, as a whole, un
derstood the extent to which preaching the Gos
pel, even in the usual technical sense of the
Word, has been going on. There are some of
our missionaries still alive, and some who have
gone to their rest, who gave themselves heart
and soul to the work.. One of the missionaries
.of, this Church—the late Rev. R. Nisbet—took
his place among the foremoSe Mahratta speakers
and preachers in India. Others have preached,
and do preach in Bengali, in -Tamie, in Telugu,
and other Indian tongues—not merely in schools
—though these are one special agency; but,
*This last remark is judicious. Surely no
Christian, understanding the state of affairs,
could recommend the sudden emancipation and
general arming of the slaves. In freeing the
slaves of robots, it is necessary to give them em
ployment, and , to govern them; and circum
stances may show it to be both needful endwise,
for a time, to enroll a portion of them as a mill
tory corps, lo'aid in erecting and guarding for
tifications, and thus to bo under more perfect
government. We trust that those who would
turn Ahem loose, uncared-for—to suffer and
cause suffering—arc but few in number.—Ens.)
PITTSBURGH, SATURDAY, DEC EMBER 28, 1861.
moreover, in long tours, from time to time, the
Gospel is'preached, discussions are held, and all
the tunial appliances are employed for winning
souls to • the Saviour. On the one hand, and I
crave special attention to the fact—other Chris
tian bodies in India are largely adopting the
system in our schools, as fitted to undermine the
stupendous superstitious of India; and on the other,
our missions are from year to year expanding
in the direction of preaching. At Madras this is
signally the case. At Bombay, Poonah, and
Nagpore, it has always been the case. At Cal
cutta, where the educatioual'element is so promi
nent, there has been far more of direct preach
ing, I believe, than the home church at all sup
poses. And slowly, but steadfastly, that is ex
tending. Regarding the preaching of the Gos
pel in every possible form—to young and to old,
to Baboo and to. Pariah—as the grand result of
all our, missionary undertakings as a missionary
Church, the end is kept in view; too tardily for
the Charch's longings, but yet according to the
means which are put at our disposal. For years
past it has been the aim of the Committee and
of the missionaries to extend it more and
more."
It will be observed from the foregoing,
that if education is the means, evangeliza
tion is the end in view ; so that this grand
end is every year more largely aimed at
and attained. " The system is outspread
ing—preaching the Gospel is ite.necessary
terminus." Besides this, several of the
Free Church missionaries have been em
ployed with other missionaries in revising,
translating, or perfecting translations of the
Scriptures, along with other bodies, into
some of the dialects of India. Some of
them also are the authors of books and
tracts bearing upon local superstitions.
The Free Church has also Missions directly
Evangelistic, among the Caffres and Fingoes
of Africa. Dr. Candlish, Moderator of the
Assembly, delivered the, first address,, or
rather, as a lengthened and very important
letter had just arrived from Dr. Duff, he
analyzed the letter, and expounded it as
bearing on' the theme which he himself
had, undertaken to speak upon, namely,
the Constitution of the Missions of the
Free Church, especially,as regards the cen
tral institutions in India. Dr. Duff's let
ter began thus : " Our system ought to be
judged of, not with regard to heathen na
tions generally, and 'least of all, barbarous
and savage tribes, but with reference to the
special peculiarities of Hindoo society, anti
providential circumstances connected with
its government by Great Britain."
Starting from this, Dr. Duff proceeded to
argue that the great object of all Evangel
ical Missions is to save sinners, and that
out of this arises the question, How is
this end to be most' satisfactory accom
plished .? To begin with schools among
savage tribes, would be absurd; but in the
case of Hind'oostan, with whom for, the
last three thousand years there has been a
knowledge both of reading and writing, we
may safely begin by educational appliances.
Dr. Duff's 'second proposition was as fol
lows: " Although we may begin at once
with the multitudes of theyoung, we must
do what we can for adults.", And he
affirms that the Free Church system of
Missions, contrary to what has been some
times supposed or said, "was deliberately
planned to be an all-embracing system.'
"If all the parts," he continues, ",did not
come into immediate operation, it was be
cause time was wanted for their develop
ment—even as all the parts of an oak, or
of a cedar of Lebanon, are • not developed
when the seedling is committed to the
ground." He then points out that " the
main strength of the European agents
hitherto has, doubtless, been given to teach,
convert, and then train converts for the
office of teachers and preachers, believing
that in this way they were multiplying
their own personal agency ; believing that
dod thus .enabled them to train evert _a
few of well-qualified native teachers and
preachers, it was doing more for the evan
gelization of India than if they spent the
whole of their own time and strength in
directly attempting to preach through the
vernacular to adults."
There are few thoughtful Christian min
isters and people who do not increasingly
feel that a native ministry is the grand
hope of blessing to heathen nations, wher
ever they are found. if Judson were
living now; if the living, loving, laborious
Lodiana band; if those who, like Ander
son, of Madras, died in the fullness of their
strength upon the field, but who had the
joy of seeing such a' preacher as Rajah
Go-Paul declare the glad tidings with a
freedom, force, and fullness to which after
a quarter of a century probably no Anglo-
Saxon missionary could attain--were these
able or alive to testify, surely their verdict
would be unanimous. .Even with Jews in
Europe, we find that to deal with them
most effectually we must pave converts from
among themselves, fired with zeal, full of
love to Christ,'and able to deal in a way
almost impossible for a Gentile, with their
Rabbinical prejudices on the one hand, and
their Rationalistic tendencies on the other.
And thus it is that by far the majority of
the various agents , of modern Missions to
the Jews—Episcopal and Nonconformist,
Home and Foreign--Lhave found their mis
sionaries mercifully raised up fur them from
among the first fruits—from the early con
verts. This, too, must be the hope of
India.
Infidelity is not, as has been sometimes
said or insinuated, the result of the system
of teaching in English literature, science,
&c., introduced to India by Dr. Duff. On
the contrary, he writes as follows':
" Our Central Institution, in Calcutta, has
been greatly blessed of God, as a counteractive
to the rampant infidelising tendencies so ram
pant around us. It is a simple fact, that emit
paratively, very few, indeed, of those trained in.
it have openly joined the anti-Christian infidel.
ranks. Many years ago, when the infidql host,
under chosen leaders, openly challenged rae, and
we met, week after week, in assemblies of be
tween five hundred and one thousand, for public
discussion, it is a fact, that not on educated in
our institution was found associated with the
leaders, or taking any active part in favor of
their cause. On the contrary, again and again
did some one student—who, though he bad not
openly embraced. Christianity, was fully alive to
the fallacies in the arguments..of its opponents,
from the instruction he bad received in our In
stitution—rise up, and boldly, in the presence of
assembled hundreds of his countrymen, deal out
the most triumphant refutation of their sophis
tries! • The immediate effect -was quite electrical,
and the result, as regards the,Christian or Bible
cause, in a general way, unspeakably beneficial.
As time rolled on, atheism, under the assaults
made upon it, fell into discount. Young men,
educated in Government' institutions, ignorant
of, yet hating Christianity, but feeling the want
of some religion, fell back on the supposed Mon
otheism of their own ancient Vedas. But here,
again, the effect of the tea Ching in our Institu
tion became very noticeable. Accustomed as
our young men were to the examination of his
toric and other Christian evidences, they saw
and could prove that the Vedas had not a
shred of solid evidence to vindicate their Divine
authority. Accordingly, very few indeed from
our Institutioni; either directly or indirectly,
joined, the ranks of ; "the great and numerous Ve
dantic party. At last, the real nature of these
books and their contents—often as puerile and
false as the popular Turanie fables—came to be
better known, and it was felt that their high pre
tensions were untenable. Then they entered 'on
a new career, and formed a new-fangled system
of theism,' still erroneously styling it Vedant
igni, bnt to which we gave the name of Neisr
Ve
tlantism, to distinguish it from the Old, as also
from any definite European system of theism.
For several years they kept tinkering at their
new theism; but it wits found to be very cold,
and left many, wants and cravings of nature un
supplied. Well, they did keep drifting about
Very strangelY. And not later than 'lust year
they got into what they now reckon their final
haven. And what is that? .The haven of in
tuitional religion! On this new light, which they
have obtained fromthe spiritual Pantheists of Bu
rope and America, they have published a large
series of tracts, alike in Bengali and English.
They have renounced the name of Vedantism,
and substituted that of 'Bra'hmism'—Brahma, in
its neuter form, being the term of the Supreme im
personal essence of old Veda.ntistn. Brahma
they have connected with personality of some
sort, and all the truths concerning him, and
our relation to him, are discoverable, not by rea
soning or revelation, but- by intuition. • When
religion,' say they, lies in our intuitive con
sciousness, its truths we directly perceive, we re
quire no argumentation, they approach us as
self-evident realities. They are t spontaneous,
instinctive, involuntary, praccioitl, universal,
primitive, original, self-evident, idiomatic,' &c.,
ftc. All this, and muoh more, they attempt
elaborately to illustrate, and in so doing, furnish
long corroborative quotations from the writings of
Parker, Emerson, Morel', Nelson, Poston, Greg,
Francis Newman, Sir William Hamilton, Kent,
Cousin, and many others. For aggressive put=
poses, they have for years past been organized
into a regular Society ; they have their house or
temple for weekly worship; they have a sub
scription fund for the sending out of preaching
agents and the establishment of propagandist
schools; they have classes of disciples and in
quirers, and a large body of full or initiated and
recognized members, gathered from the higher
and wealthier educated classes—their influence
is at once persuasive and powerful.
It will be observed how "intuitional re
ligion," under the name of Christianity,
and as now with hellish subtlety affecting
many minds on both sides of the Atlantic,
(as indicated toward the close of the above
passage from Dr. Duff's letter,) has assumed
an associated form, full of 'evil and danger.
But says Dr. Duff, "I have bean watching
the effect of all this on the minds of young'
men admitted into our institution. E:of the
number who have joined their Rranks must
be small indeed." In fact after closein
vestigation it has 'been found'-that " only"
an infinitesimal fraction of Free Church
students and ex-students are members of
the Samaj. This is a very telling state
meat, because that " During the last, thirty
years there must have gone forth at least,
about a fifth of the educated' youth of Cal
cutta, and that they are to be found in all'
the mercantile and government offices in
Calcutta. It, is-," the Government Schools
and Colleges" (wherein Christian and Bi
ble teaching is excluded !) " which almost
exclusively furnish the leaders and Mem
bers of the Brahman Saniaj." Dr.'Duff,
therefore, argues for an extension and ele
vation, rather than a ,diminution and low
ering of the system of educational insti
tutes in Calcutta. Dr. Candlish thoroughly
agrees with his views. • •
It now appears, as , indicated by Mr.
Braidwood, that the 'Wesleyan Society has
established an institution of this kind at
Madras, that the Church of England has
hid . it down as ,a rule, that-an educated
native Ministry is essential_t6 success, and
that a missionary of the - London Society
had established Iv school , iipthe heart of 'a
native townon 'the Free Chtirch principle.
Doctor Duff- says : " Many of our young
men are in• that state of mind and of ac
tual knowledge, that in a day of the 'Spir
its outpouring, hundreds of them mightrat
once be awakened v q4ickenedi and-led joy
fully to embraciiitettagh as it is in Jesus,
becoming at once a well-equipped and well
furnished host of believers."
In the'course of the conference, the RevA
Mr. Johnston' very ably showed that We??
Free Church,'Missions would be quite
adequate, and as to their educational as,-
pect, scarcely defensible—as souls needed'
immediate attention all "around—but that
they formed a part of .a great catholic
whole. And so we regard then]. the more
complacently when we find that in India
there are now four - hundred European and
American missionaries, forty-eight native -
evangelists, seven hundred. , catechists,
three hundred and thirty-on'e native
churches, eight thousand five hundred
communicants, one hundred thousand
converts, one thousand three hundred
and fifty vernacular schools, ninety-three
boarding schools, one hundred and two
boarding schools for girls, one hundred
and twenty-six English schools; three
hundred and fifty day schools for girls.
Besides these agencies there are twenty
five printing presses and several other
means for translating and publishing the
Scriptures in native languages.
The Rev. Dr. , Wood i ex-Moderator of the
Free Church, and one, of the holiest and
best of men, spoke admirably on the abso
lute necessity of raising up a native minis
try by educational institutes, and also
showed that in teaching there was really
evangelistic work : " I confess I have no
sympathy with any brother who can find no
evangelistic work in our missionary educa
tion in India. My missionary brother may
have no genius for mathematic's or meta
physics ; but with his warm' loving heart,
he will hardly tail in finding congenial
work in leading to Jesus, by various paths
of knowledge, the youths who come day af
ter day, to listen to his instruction." As
to the future of Christianity in India, Dr.
Wood said : " I have long had a conviction
that in some such way as this will India be
Christianized; an extensive spread of the
Gospel, without many conversions first, and
then a sudden extension, a glorious day—
nations born in a day."
The " Mode of Training for the Mission
Field," formed a second theme for confer- ,
ence ,e c nd was discussed at length along with
kindred topics, by Principal Cunningham.
He referred to the fact that among students
at home 'there were " qualified men," but
that these do not seem- willino• b to embrace
the opportunity, or listen to God's call."
He does not consider that young men who
are willing to be missionaries should; be
sent out too early," or " educated apart."
The solution of the difficulty as to fresh
laborers, must be found in looking to the
Lord of the harveSt himself, and'thus both
educational and evangelistic work would go
forth to the satisfaction of all. •
Dr. Begg thought that the health , and
lives of many missionary volunteers might
be spared if they were kept long enough
in this country" until at least they had ac
quired a knowledae of the Sanserit." There
should also be experienced retire&mission
aries near the students in their preliminary
preparations. Dr. Begg also referred to
the number of the young men in Scotland,.
who had been converted in recent revivals,
and who were full of love and zeal. He
considered that special training might be
given these, and a shorter term of study be
recognised ; provided they were found oth
erwise adapted to missionary work. As it
is likely that Scotchmen will go out as Col
onists, for the cultivation of cotton in In
dia, and that among these and for the ben
efit of the natives employed by them, the '
converts who were not to study in the reg
ular way, might at once take an important
position, and acquire an immense influence.
An intelligent gentleman, in a
. .very promi
nent position in 'lndia, had' written him
(Dr. : 846) . in answer to his InqUiries,
that he , believed .that "a very large infu
sion of Christian life might tbe, directed to
India ,at the present moment, in connexion
with this movement."
Mr. Mclntosh, of Madras, gave Some '
very gratifying fedi to show that at Mad
ras &large amount of directly evangelistic
effort was being carried on. -
,The Earl of Dalhousie.,was present at
the Conferenceo, .Lieutenant Colonel Da-,
vidson delivered an address on " The,Dufy
of the Church to' the heathen, and espe
cially India, and the best modes for calling
forth sympathy for the eause.".„ fte re.
ferred to the self-sacrifice of the Haldanes,
as to evangelistic work in dead times, in
Scotland. He dwelt ou the duty of parents
to consecrate their sons, and not tolkinder
them going forth to the missionary- field.
He related the case of a young man of
promise, who was willing to go to India;
but whose mother hindered him, and how
a friend had remarked "It is not heathen
mothers only who are hindrances to the
Gospel in India." Intercessory prayer,
also as an all important means of securing
blessings, was specially upon. Ai
the Old School and ocher Presbyterian
Churches, have missions in India,
and as I
have given this full analysis of the Confer
ence at Edinburgh, that as many as possi
ble both of the ministers and churches at
home, and the American missionaries
abroad may have accurate information, let
me give you the concluding portion of Col.
Davidson's address—adding-that as a ref
erence is made to the Lodiana missionaries,
and past responses to their invitations to a
New Year's Concert of Prayer, that I trust
and believe that special rgaijrer for India,
in January, 1E62, will begine Of the happy
issues of this Conference at Edinburgh:
Col. Davidson said
" There is another nnportant, an-Important
subject on which, if' time admitted, I should
wish to say a word ; but as it is to be spoken to es
pecially by my esteemed and respected friend, the
Rev:Mr. Charles BrOwn, I cannot do bettor than
leave it in his hands. The subject? Prefer refer to - is
intercessory prayer for,lndia. Much has been
said about the chalacier and fitness of our mis
sionary inadhittery ; and 'it is important 'to look
to it, and see that it is framdd according to the
apostolic model, and impelled by n e real love to
souls and loVe .to God;' bid 'be our - machinery
- ever so- perfect, it-will not do its.: work unless'
God is pleased to, pour out the influence of his
blessed Spirit.. In this view I believe the most
important question for the oonsideration of this
Conference is, whether the extension of the
Gospel by means' of our missionaries in
India is not hindered by the iestrairiing of
prayers on the., part of those who send
them 'forth. Might not something be done
in the way of making our prayei's . for India more'
special than they are - at present? Individual
missions, paracular localities, and particular ef
forts might be especially prayed for. We have
had in our- own land many precious examples of
God's readiness to hear and answer prayer for
the 'outpouring of his Spirit. A very ;striking
instance of this in India is - related by Mr. Mor--
risen, of Lodiana, which, in conclusion, I will,
lay before the Conference. You are aware that
Mr. Morrison is that missionary from whom origi
nated that - work of intercessory prayer for In
dia, which was responded to throughout America,
and also in this country a sermon of. Mr.
Morrison's, the following- passage occurs It.
would appear tbat in consequence of the appeal
to America, unknown to the missionaries in In-'
dia, the first Monday in January, 1858, was set
apart for special prayer, for humiliation before
God, and prayer for the misssofiary work in In
dia. Now, one of the - missionaries at a station
in India on that very same day makes the fol
lowing entry in his journal, perfectly unaware
of the pleading on behalf of. missions that was
taking place This has been the most solemn
and interesting day I have witnessed in India.
At our morning prayers in the native language,
three strangers were present, who said ,they had
come to inquire ahout, the new way. I found,
on inquiry, ,that two of these were the parents
of a blind4nan, in the asylum, who had expressed
a desire publicly to profess Christ. ' Our son,' said
they, 'has been blind from his birth, but now he
,says that. he can see us.' A heavenly influence,
I am persuaded, is with us ;
,our Christian friends
America Must -be praying for us.' " This is a .
most encouraging, evidetce of the power of pray
er.; ,and:can we ,despair of thepower of prayer
for 'lndio.? I tritst.' that brie - result of this Con
ferenCe. will be,.thet; there will be humiliation
and . prayer throughout the - churches—earnest
prayer to God' that' he may pour out his Spirit
upon us—that he would thrust forth Itibbrers
into his harvest, for truly the harvest is great,
but the laborers are few. (Cheers,)
It appears certain that one of Dr. Begg's
practical suggestions, namely, that mission
students should, iu- the Summer vacation,
undergo special training by retired mission
aries, will be adopted. Dr. Candlish em
phatically endorsed the idea. And as to
the result of the 'Conference, he joyfully
said that there had been a large measure 'of
unanimity, and " we are all with one heart
and one soul, determined to support our IEI 3 ,
borers out in India—Dr. Duff, Dr. Wilson,
and the others----to the utmost, in their la
bors, which have been so manifestly owned
and blessed of . God in times past."
THE POST OFFICE ANNUAL REPORT is
a remarkable document, as illustrative of
the working of a machine especially identi
fled with, and essential to, the dev . elopment
of modern civilization. Last year the num
ber of post offices in the United Kingdom
was increased by 29, making the whole
present number 11,441; of which 818 are
headoffiees, and 10,623 sub-post offices. To
these must be added road letter boxes, (pil
lars in the streets,) 515 of which were,
erected last year. Thus the Whole number
of receptacles thr letters is nearly 14,000,,
while before the establishment of the penny ,
postage, they did not much exceed 4,000.
The number of letters delivered through
the Post Office in England in 1860, ma'
462,000,000; which'is at the rate of twenty
two letters for every man, woman and child.
In Ireland the number was 48,000,000,
being at the rate of, eight for each person ;
in Scotland, 54,000,000, 'being at the rate
of seventeen to each person. In the Uni
ted Kingdom, there were 564,000,000 let
ters delivered, which is 19,000,000 more
than in the previous year. This increase
is at the rate of 3f per cent. for the United
Kingdom; and it is, pleasing to observe
that. Ireland participates in die increase to
the extent of 3 per cent. In Liverpool the
proportion is 27 letters to each person ; in
Birmingham and Nanchester, 28; in
84,; in Edinburgh, 86; and in Lon
don, 43.
The facility of postal communication
contributes powerfully to enhance these
figures. Thus of the 19,000,000 of addi
tional letters in London, 3- were London
local letters—that is to say written in Lon
don., as well as delivered there in one or
other district or suhirb in - theXeiropolitan
postal'aree, extending in some cases ten
miles from Charing Cross.
Nearly 71,000,000 newspapers were de
livered last year, and about 11,700,000
book packets. Theincreise in book pack
ets was /00,000; of newspaperS, 450,000.
Of the boOk packets, half a million deliv
eries took place in London alone.
Faaures in, delivery, from the fault of
the writers, in 'part at least, were startling
ly extensive. Thus, nearly two million.s' of
letters, or one. in 256 of the whole, were
returned to the writers, owing to failures
in attempts to deliver them. Three out of
four of these' failures arose from insufficient
or 10 incorrect addresses, and more than 000
,
were'posted without, any, address at all.
" More than 20,000 letters now arrive daily
in London bearing only the name of the
addressee with the simple addition of Lon
don." Of these last I may say, a consider
ablle number will reach their destination,
because the names will be - found in the
Trades, Commercial, and "Court, Guide"
tists-,--the last comprising a large Tropor
tion of the upper middle class, as also cler
-
gy, ministers,&o. Bit others will' be irre r
vocably sent to the Liminis literarum, (to
coin a phrase) or " Dead Letter" office, or
else sent back, after opening, to the writers.
There are many letters which come to
London' which, must drive the postmen
almost to despair—particularly if addressed
to " Mr. Jones,';', • ." Mr. Brown," and'"Mr.
Robinson,""Mr. il*orp r
psimf' ` But the
Smith family are even larger than that of
Thompsolb, otherwise called by ,the, tor
mented Frenchman " lodging in, London,.
knoeked so often--"Konsieur ".Tontion.:"
WHOLE NO. 483.
Mi.. Punch once said that the greatest
misfortime for a stranger arriving on Sat
urday night in London, and without any
money in his pocket, would be that of a
man who had an introductory letter to
" Smith, Esq."
But returning from this digresSion to the'
matter of letters, let me close the statistical
record by adding, that for' the distribution
of this mass of correspondence, the mails
are conveyed, every week-day over above
144,000 miles, namely, 39,047 by railway,
32,297 by mail-coaches and mail-carts, 69,-
994 miles on foot, and 2,838 miles by pack
ets and boats. = There was an increase in
1859 of 4,000 miles of railway conveyance.
The staff of officers in the British Isles is
25,192, of whom 11,298 are postmasters, and
11,880 carriers and messengers.
The gross revenue of the Post Office in
1860 was £3,267,662 from, postage's, and
£121,693 from commissions, or money
riders. £1,066,920 was disbursed in sala
ries and pensions. Nearly the whole net.
revenue was derived from inland letters.
For the sake of trade, and for political and
other reasons, it is considered necessary to
carry on the foreign and colonial correspon
dence at a loss. Ve - are told that if the
whole of the cost were charged, not only
would the sea-postage be absorbed, but the
operation would show such a loss as amount
ed last year to £410,000. On each letter
to the Capb of Good Hope there is a loss of
about 91; on each letter to the West In
dies, a loss of Is. ; on each leater to the
West: Coast of Africa; a loss of about is.
8d;; on each letter •to the United States,
via Galway, (a bad prospect for Father
Daly to get the Port Office, contract made
permanent,) a loss of about C shillings.
OHO of Hymns.
The. origin of &rhymn, Or of any literary
,produCtion, is often the source of the high
est interest. , we tut knew the biogra
phy of the sacred songs which are the fa
vorites of the chnrches, we might frequently
see, at a glance, the explanation of their
power, and of the strong hold they have
upon the heart. As deep feeling in the
orator:kindles deep feeling in his hearers,
so the personal experience, or irrepressible
emotion of the sacred poet, poured forth in
the hymn, perpetuates itself in the 'hearts
of multitudes, who feel its power, though
they think not of its source.
The deep solemnity of the hymn,
," When rising from the bed of .death,
erwhelrae with guilt and fear,"
came;_heyond question, from the circum
stances in which Addison wrote it, just as
he was recovering from a dangerous sick
ness, in which he had gone to the very
verge of eternity, and looked over upon its.
realities. And so that beautiful and im
pressiVe hymn of Cowper,
"'God moves in a mysterious way,
'His wonders to perform," .
had its origin in the mysterious dealings of
God with hip own spirit, and in the faith
that, in the darkest hour, could say, "It
will all- yet be well." Both these hymns
were wrought out from the experience of
their authors, and thus clothed with their
singular and wonderful power to thousands,
to whom the names, even, of those authors
were never known.
As other illustrations of the same general
truth; it is said that the beautiful and
touching lines,
"I would not live away,"
were written just, after the death of the
lovely and accomp4shedelady who, was soon
to have been the Wife Of its author ; and
that it was when Cowper had taken refuge
from a terrific storm, in a cottage, that he
penned the hymn,
S' Jesus, Saviour of Illy SOUL"
We have lately met with. the history of
another hymn--one of Wesley's—that is
sung in every quarter of the globe,; and
though it originated rather in a locality,
than personal experience, yet that locality
was such as to give to a truth all the vivid
ness of an experience, and clothe its ex-,
pression with a thrilling and heartfelt
power. At Land's End, on the Western
most point of England, where a high and
narrow cliff of granite stretches out into
the broad Atlantic, while the boundless sea
is on either side, the Bishop of Litch
field was told by, his guide, a Cor
nish miner, "It was here 'that Wesley
wrote his famous hymn." " What hymn ?"
asked the Bishop. Surprised at his igno
rance, the man replied, " Why, the hymn
on the sixty-first page 1" as if all the world
must, af course, know what that was. And
the prelate was struck with the pertinency_
of the anecdote, when he found it was the
hymn beginning, .
t' Lo on a narrow:neck of land,
'Twist two unbounded seas I stand,
Secure, insensible ;
A point of • time, a moment's, space,
Removes me to.that ileavenly place,
, Or shuts me - up in hell."
And so, doubtless, almost every striking
and impressive hymn has its history, which,
if known, would reveal the secret of its
popularity and power over the soul. Such
hymns as
"Just as I am, without one plea ;"
" Rise my soul, and stretch thy wings ;"
"Rook of ages, cleft, forme;':
and many others that might be mentioned,
each probably, had , something peculiar in
its origin, clothing, it with its peculiar in
terest to Christian hearts and for every
aae. Would that all'ibese historic% might
.
be searched and Written, aud "thus made'
permanent for the Church. Who will give
us some of them ?--Baston, I?eeorrier.
Pulpit Oratory.
Rev. William Taylor,- in the ":Model
Preacher," dwells much,upon the power of
" surprises " as a means of (raining and
keeping the attention of an audience. In
the form 'of letters to a brother he writes,
after speaking of the difficulty of arresting
attention : " You have no right to complain
of their, inattention, and it, will do no good
to scold them about it. It is your businesS
to arrest them; knock 'their thoughts and
reveries into pi, and, sweeping -them away;
insert your theme into their minds and
hearts. To do this you must wake, them
up, stir the sympathies of their souls, and,
thrill them by all sorts of unanticipated
means." He further shows this " surprise
power is abundantly used in " nature;
providence and inspired word," and; illus
trates its appropriate, use,by instances from
common life. His suggestions on this
point are original and striking. Aremedy
is here proposed lor a wide-spread evil.
The eccentric preacher carries out this.plan
to extremes, but hewins attention. Others
in shunning . his errors, should learn wis
doni'byhis success in this respect.' A 'Wood
Conversationalist will varyikth hii'matter
and manner, and When he &ids- his
wearying' of one. subject .te will, adroitly
turn the conversation into a new channel;
but the preacher talks on and., on in the
same unvarying strain, though' his congre
kation'yawri' and 'slew; no plensant turns
nor unexpected openings into' resh fields of
beauty atid'of wisdom. Where-it -the use
off preaching when _the, people domotimar ?
If the truth% important they ought to. hear
every word ;, and , if thefaTult is the minis- 7
I,er',s, great is his responsibilitil "When
preaching no 'longer interests- ork"l3i
_ :„,1!=
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palls, it is time that the sermon should be
brought to a speedy close.
When thought and expression have both
received due attention, it remains that the
manner of delivery should be a subject of
the utmost care. " The basis of delivery
in preaching should be a dignified and
earnest conversational tone." If inch speak
as they would talk to us, we listen with in
terest; but in the wide range of truth to
be used by a preacher of the Gospel, and
the minifold varieties of form hi which it
exists, there is much to call for the exer
cise of the highest, art in order to present
truth most effectually. "Sometimes men
will tell us," says a writer before quoted,
" that they prefer a natural and artless elo
quence, and that very diligent preparation
is inconsistent with such qualities. We
verily believe that this, fallacy, ,though it
lurks under an almost transparent am
biguity, is of most prejudicial consequence.
Nature and art, so far from being always
opposed, are often the very same thing.
* * * It is natural for a man who
feels that he has not given adequate ex-,
pression to a thought, though he may have
used the first words suggested, to attempt
it again and again. He each times approx
imates nearer to the mark, and at length
desists, satisfied either that he. his done
what he wishes, or that he cannot perfectly
do it, as the case may be. A Writer with
this end is continually transposing clauses,
reconstructing sentences, striking out one
word and putting in another. All this
may be said, to be art, or the deliberate ap
plication, of means to ends ; but is it art
inconsistent with nature ? It is just such
art as this that we ask of the preacher, and
no other ; ; simply that he shall' take dili-
gent head to do what he has,to do , as well
as he can. Let him depend upon it that
no such art as this will ever make him ap
pear* the less natural."
UM
We think Archbiihop Whately, in his
admirable treatise on Rhetoric, has inclined
too mud' toward .discouraging a proper at
tention to preparation for public speaking.
After comparing the natural and artificial
methods of reading and speaking, and very
preperly deciding in favor of the former,
he thus writes : The practical rule then
to be adopted in confirmity with the prin
ciples here maintained is, not only to pay
no studied attention to the voice, but stu
diously to, withdraw the thoughts from it,
and to dwell as intently as possible on the
sense, trusting to nature to suggest spon
taneously the proper emphasis and • tones."
This is a different conclusion from what
we arrive at by hearing of Demosthenes in
a cave by the sea-side, declaiming with
pebbles in his mouth, and of some of our
most 'eminent orators gestictilating before
the mirror. Unless public speaking be an
exception to most desirable accomplish
ments, excellence therein must be attained
through effort and cultivation. "But this
will make the speaker unnatural." No
more than the careful training of the me
chanic will make him an unnatural work
man if 'it is properly done. Are young
speakers always natural'? Witness the exhi
bition performance of young meti in semi
naries, or the " commencement" exercises
of a college ; what stiffness and restraint,
what awkwardness of gesture and monotony
of voice ! How many do we know who
who might have been eminently acceptable
and useful in the ministry but for some
grievous defects in delivery. One has
affectation in manner, another utters his
sentences in a sing-song style, another one
storms from beginning to close, no matter
what the character of the 'thoughts he is
expressing, while a fourth is void of that
life and energy, the natural index of feel
ing, which alonecould gain the sympathy
of his hearers.
Much attention could be profitably be
stowed upon the early correction of those
faults to which speakers, and especially
preachers, are liable. It will be acknowl
edged that a minister's usefulness may be
crippled, if not destroyed, by certain ex
ternal defects witnessed in his ministra:
tions. And if these defects can be reme
died, who will say that undying usefulness
is , not sufficient motive for making the
effort?
To be inexperienced and to be natural
are two different things. The young ea
gles of the nest untaught to soar have to
learn the art by slow degrees; their first
attempts are failures; the parent eagle soars
with a grace that isnatural to her perfected
powers. The babe who attempts to walk,
and the man who does walk, both- follow
nature, and the latter is none the less nat
ural because art has been employed in his
ease. Yet we are, told that men may be
conae perfect ()raters without the use of art.
"Does not 'the little child naturally and
forcibly -describe -the occurrences of its
daily life ?" Aye, but the inexperienced
public speaker has neither. the advantage of
thenie or circumstances to make his case a
parallel one. The great aim of his efforts
should be to gain, amid all the disadvan
tages of •his new position, the simplicity
and artless power of a little child.—Chris.
Advocate and. Journal
Lame and Lazy.—A Fable.
Two beggars, Lame and Lazy, were in
want of bread. One leaned on his crutch,
the other reclined onhis couch.
Lame called. on Charity and humbly ask
ed for a cracker. Instead of a cracker he
received a whole loaf.
, .
laiy, seeing the gift . of Charity, ex
claimed, "What! ask a 'cracker and receiVe•
a loaf? Well, I will ask fora loaf, and I
shall expect a lead of , bread • or , if I ask
a biscuit, she will give me a batch of
bread." ,
LaZy now 'applied to Charity, and called
for a loaf of bread. " Your demanding a
loaf," said -Charity, "proves you a loafer.
You are of that class and character, who
ask 'and receive not ; you ask amiss."
Lazy, who always found fault, not for
tune, and had rather whine than work, com
plained of ill-treatment, and even accused:
Charity of a • breach of an exceedingly
great and precious promise—ask and you
shall receive.
Charity pointed him to a painting in her
room, which presented to his vision three
personages, Faith, Hope and Charity.
Charity appeared fairer and larger than her
sisters. .
He noticed heiright hand held a pot of
honey Which fed a bee disabled, having lotit
its wings. Her left hand was armed with'
a whip to keep off the drones.
Don't understand it," said Lasy.
Charity, replied : "It means that Charity ,
feeds the lame and flogs the lazy."
Lazy turned to go. ,"8,t0p," said Charity,
"instead of coin give you counsel;
Do:not go and - live on your poor mother,
foryl you'a rich ,
Rich ant," eclioed Lazy., " Where
shall I find her ?"
"Yon will find her hi Prpverbs 6th - chap-
ter and 66. verse.
HOW long may it, tad a Man 'to embrace
Christ as life 'StiviOur "';A s' as it takes
adrowning man ta= let! go a straw , andlay
401(.4 an offered-W,,
iitue,goodnes.shiunotruos when no eyes,
ex t eept that,of , lienven„,[ire upon it..