The people's advocate. (Montrose, Pa.) 1846-1848, August 20, 1846, Image 2

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it promiLT.:.:Altelgetuiti of : extinguishing the
public debt sooneftan was anticipated,and
fiirniSbes strOatillustration of the praeti
-ealeffects jot the:Weisent tariff upon our com
mercial in'rrests.
"The o - ject ceihe tariff is objected to by
some as uncon.stiettional ;_ and, it isconsid,
Bred by 'aost • a .R. as defective in r many 4f
its parts. 1.• •
. "The power toi impose duties on import
originittly l belongfd to the several States.
Theright to •adjuOt those duties, with a view
to the encourageinent of domestic branches
of iiiduitry, is so recmpletely - Mai - dental to
that poiver, that if. is difficidt to suppose-the
existence.; of the ,One. ,withciut rthe other.—
'The-States : hive . delegated - their whole
authority over ,inkportato the :general gov
'cruinent, without pitnitation or .- restriction,
caving 'the' inconsiderable. reservation
relating to their 'llifpection: laws. This auth
ority"having' thug entirely, passed from the
-States,•the Tight ti) exercise it for the purpose
cr protection .114 s not exist in them.; and
couseipaltitly- :ifif , not possessed .by the
lenernl!gniemmebt, it must be extinct. Our
political systeniwimild thuspresenttheanom
-Idjr of a.people'stiipped of the right to foster
their-own industbr, and to counteract the
.most selfish and ; destructive -policy 'which
Might be ttdopte& by foreign nations. This
.surely cannot be the case. This indispensi
ble 'power, thus surrendered by - the -States,
must be
.within L tlO scope .of the authority on
the subject, expressly : delegated to Congress.
' "In this. conelnsion lam confirmed .as
well by the opitOns of Presidents Washinm
ton; Jefferson44disoa, and Monroe, who
have eachrepeatedly recommended the exer
cise of this right-Mader the. constitution, as
by the • uniform cpructice of Congress, the
continued acquit,scence of the States, and
the general understanding of the people."
• L"That our)ielibe rations pit this inter-
estingsubject shoOdbe uninfluenced by those
partitatueonflietsit. hat are incident to free in
stitutions, is the' fervent wish of my - .heart.
- To make this great question, which unhap
pily. so much divides and excites the public
mind subservien to the short-sighted views
of faction, must destroy all hope of settlaing
it satisfactorily tei,the great body of the peo
ple., and ,for the general interest. • I cannot,
therefore,,in takipg leave of the subject, too
earnestly, for rOsown feelings or the eom
mongood, warn •F; you against the blighting
consequences of
,ucb a course.
Extract of a me4age from Andrew Jackson,
President of Ile United States, to Con
gress, December 7; 1331.
""The eonfidence with which the extin
girishment of the 4 public debt may be antici
pated presents ad opportunity for carrying
into effect more*ly the policy in relation
to import duties *hicli has been recommen
ded in my forxner)nessages. A modification
of the tariff whic& shall produce a reduction 1
of revenue to Uri wants of the goven
and an adjustmtnt of the duties on itnports
with a view to e9mil justice in relation to
all our national interests, and• to the counte
raction of foreigil policy, so far as it may be
injurious:to thoselinterests, is decried to be
one of the princ,kpal objects whichdemand
the consideration of the- present Congres.
In the-exercise Of that spirit of concession
and conciliation ;which has distinguished
the friends of our Union in - all great emer
gencies, it is bellr'ed that this object may
be effected withcfut injury to any national
I think, Mr. I'resident, I have clearly
established- the democratic character of a
tariff for j , protection of American industry,
by proofs of the most convincing character. ,
The authorities
. ;:from which I have quoted
have all been reniirded as the lights of the
republic, 'and I envy- not the man who would
attempt to lessenthe weight of their opin
ions. • 1
In fecOmmending these views to Congress
at different times they but - adopted the views,
of every nation on. the world that has been
prosperous. No ,);nation ever flourished that
did not take care of its own eitiiens, and
develoye its own resources; but our modern
philosophers sect to be "wise above what is
.t .
In the olden time, Mr. President, when
dernocraey was, dertainly not less pure than
at prestmf., revenfle bills originated with the
represent.) . ives of the. people. The' fatheis
of.the country ev thought it wise, inform
ing the eonstituttp, to restrict their Origin
to the House oflOpresen : tatives.
. Now the repteoentatives of the people are
saved all ' the treithle of reflecting upon. the
difficult subject of revenue. The Secretary
of the Treasury, like the first Lord of the
Treasury' in Edgland, makes a bill, find
hands it ;to the - Chairman of the Commitee
on Finance in tl(e House. Cabinet minis'-
ters bring all them influence to bear s and, by
the nil) of the prC*us question,, force the
bill through. „.
It is sent to the :Senate, and some' mys
teliiiiiii4luence there prevents the bill froni
being -*ferred,.""
na taking the ordinary,
courseeflalltneti4ures of this kind, -
we are told th-*t the interests of_the dent
ocratie ' ' - 'l,egliii - its immediate passage.
Itionorab e "Senators admit that, it -is not a
goad' bill lint thb , cannot go
. againauthe
party. IS" bb sulifkMenee to =lusters would
do credit to a Eriiti . .gli Souse' of Lords but is,
in my.OpiniOn,l4ant keeping in A
an' meri:,
enate. ' ,i(vi proud 'to call myself a
deniiiirat: - I nm&oft of a democrat. I rip-'
resent .a State irbikse'deiaocVacy' no one Will
doubt;'add, 'for '4ne, LI must'' object to, this'
mode of fixing prriaciples ',on the ";parts: 1
was taught in 'early life to believe that the
democratii)arty 'vas the friend' of the poor
,--of the laboringgaSiiii that its principlee - '
were calculated to eleVate' the masses'; but
..the,:frineiPles ollthis southern;` democracy:ithern -
would - rob the poor 'it:an of iii, labor,' and
—Mae ) . 'hitn depeaMil- On.the ' eapitulisti Of '
Eitgiiiiiiiii his - 4eaiii - -,subSistenee.' -- Stich
Wiiii.tinl:o doe4e :Of 'sitcli democrats 44
ACC 'llim,"llfitiliso, ; Monroe, billaschia 4
1 have '&1,17;06 - -.- ' ' '' ' "-7- -' • '-
.it lira: eep - . - " :that the . MAI - Of 48.-ii* is.
d e r e otiVin *anyAi fits demils! ' li:44ai b e e ;,
but if 'lsiV-;•*h):-.. - d441coi - :,„1 - ,.entlee:teici,eint'67ut
th*laaf - likursike reiribdies, without
unpa 4
entiielY:ileafr( 1 iiiif ibe,iiliatileg 4oniihi'Ck`
iris laiiiii /`" 5 . Itiv r ijNfia die callatY*,
itistate*" ''''. AIN
.34 . 44.. f *.,
- NeffC-'-origiir 6 4 l !.'Pic‘; Wa r e'
there- such lit*' *a'aild.di Onia..V..oMidini
the'lvtele'elautiiiit - Niiiii/001 0 164e1,Y,
:not communities Auly,tat wiW.S.:(alis were
"Imm*,.iitv, auk i even'
• the4eneral;gtivintriciit .itailfsy4e*ithfiut
die r
F;4i..,,. ,of carrying:° 2 'o #n-.
ikt* 4 f
jniriqp*,4q: lot,l46,lupted,lo he re4nac.l
_ -1
ted, h gait ti;ial t lre T 4effect,4.hcredit of-the
Count; , :began to'iii4 t!rith !toy. added
to thes - ,t difficulties iiiiteadef retie \ "hg ihenii
until, tithe end of.:Mr.;,EYan Bu 's tiil
'minis 1i0n, „.40 : .- gtverilinplitiva4 *any
ininid,s in debt: - -ru ain did her fiscal. OF
cers I .to replenish the exhausted treasury.
Her Id editors received in many instances
Only ' ipmises to pay ;” and no one had
eourti,,e enou g h to inVest in her loans, even
4 a di cinint.
i' Th • ' ,trientortible tout of the democratic
party i i 1840, and the overthow of Mr; Van
Buten k l iidiniiiiStrtitidr4 - Wasthaeonsegtienen•
of this Tinto of thingsi.‘
T 124 ;:individual c9ses of • 'distress. Which
perind,::ifthe:countryl for a period preceding
tha Lat . -, Of 1642 were absolutely heart-ren- s
lag. i ; . felt men not Only lost their fortunes,
but P 'rimen losttheir means of living. Our
forint , and our forges and our workshops
were: ' ptied ; our ii;erchants were ruined,
midi) . I iihrmers, our substantial yeomanry,
triany- f them - With abundance of products,
for * . 4of'a market, found- themselves in
the lia [ ruc s. of the sheriff.: i
Nikt;a.isectiOn of :the whole country , but
afford 'cliabutidant evidence of the truth - of •
this:' lrincholy picture. You ' know, Mr.
Presi ent,' that this; is no fancy sketch.—
Thetiiketsiof your ! courts and the streets
of yOur Own 'city,. and all the business are
nueS cif that noble commercial mart, could •
be aPeiled to for its truth. -
I r member, and You doubtless know,ths.l.
• in the - organir.aticin cif a new co',rt iu that
1 city tl ere were over - liVe hundlvd applicants
rfor the Place,of tip-stave. healthy, vigorous
men) sbiight this station, to get bread for
1 their (hinnies. A pr.ontinent democrat of
Pennsy) ; vaitifi, ;alluding to the subject, uses
I the fo p aviiiig language,:lihieli fully corrob
orates: all 1 have said: . •
" I ' 1, will ,recollect the condition of our
cQun - v ain 18411 and '4l:- 'The political catn-
painand, the causes which controlled it
i must be fresh in rei9enihrance. Such was
' the d ndition of the ;productive classes, that
1 au elite, statesman,- - though aided by all the
patro age 9f the national and most of the
St* gcivernments, and sustained by an act
ive:i a d; powerful party, which had never
becit seaten, was hurled from the Presiden
tial c air ov6rwhehning torrent. How
dill this: happen) It was no philosophical
• abstrtietiou that occupied the public mind.
The, people of the United States . ; .are esseu
daily ii practical, matter-of-fact people. The
free t 'Cale system had been gradually work
ing si ce 1843, and was being felt in all
its eh ms at the time of that election ; a deep
gloom, 'pervaded our land; it was•• visible in
every' countenance, and a single idea con
trolled and
and determined th e • event. , Our
business can't be tenrse—lei us hare a change,' '
was on the lips, of - every one. Mr. - Van Bu
ren la d' -not contributed to the fearful de
pression, hut it had nearly attained its cli
max at an unlucky day for him. congress
found Ithe country, in 1842, in a molt deplo
rable, iondition of distress and 'despondency.
Every titan who n , as in any way connected
with.l4iductive industry will remember what
a daill t aloud preceded their action on the I
tariff in; that . year, and 'we all know how
confidence revived after the passage of 44
law; 4did all haVe realized the growth and !
of every pursuit in our country
froni that time to this." I
M gentlemen desire these scenes renew
ed ? 'Will .men never learn wisdom from
experience ? How is it now ? How changed
the scree I If a magician's wand had been
waved . ; over the face of our country, the re
sult wuld hardly have appeared more like
enchantment thaathe reality now before us.
No man. is idle who is Willing to work. Con
tented' smiling faces are everywhere to be
seen. :The busy hum of industry gladdens
the eati in all diredtions: Everybody ispros
perou4 and everybody is happy.
For/ the crop of the last year the farmers
of Perinsylvania received a high. price. The
prospeFity of your city will be seen in the
fact that a city has, sprung up, as if by
magip4 along side of you, furnishing employ
mentj gni shipping i nearly equal in amount to.
all thel rest of your tonnage. At thislnew
pointl ion daily seen more than 100 - ships
waiting for cargoes of coal. Our canals and
rairolds: are crowded with business, and
improvements fire springing up itt
every quarter. Nearly all the states hare
restored their credit, and the United States
Treaiilry had, when the present Congress
met, la isurplus of many millions. What has
prodticed all i1i.1.1? Shall a law that has
prodii+d all tlies~e benefits on the country.
be hasfily . throwniaside, and one adopted in
its place which nil' one is willin g to father,
and whichl no one' will defend ; Which, in its
.crude principles and undigested details,
shows its author to 'be wholly unacquainted
with the, , commercial, manntacturing, ~ me
'chanici,d,Hor- agricultural resources of the
,country 'I 1 . . '
I' he, i ve
,alreadi intimated what. J believe
will i beitlie effects . of this bill. I :hope, for
the Welfare of . mi couzitiy, that .I. may he
riilstakiti; but if_it, be„true . that the ” history
of: the liist is but the prophecy of the fu
tiiie," *ie. resultli4 too clearly foreshadowed
-to "admit of a dciulh. ;Pass this bill, and the'
derribe*tt , e Parir4atist again be defeated and
our;oppoPents again t riumph, and the policy.
of the cofintry be unsettled for years. This;
hurl's** ' may be I considered a minor eon
siarhtiki4 'compared'; with its disastnius el ,
feo , itior ~every brapch of trade and basi
-1 nesif itc; : the- couoti . x.. The lawyers • moy
!bailiff arid,gro*i rich, for they prosper by.
.tifli c iV 4 4i4ke of" other 1116 4• - They ; may
build tit oitnnes upon the ruined estates of
IfiA: : OW-citizens t . : and the bard -earned,
satitigko 4te:l4pimgnan: rk k other class.,
orthel - ifroituotti_ con derive . any benefit 1
1 fro
( It • 4) Of:-.ahotainations. 'Wow, •Sr
c4 t
...,. , . . ,
this pr est t, alltt . yr nine, to,ask, why , shall ig
eth4iiiiillOtelfer4eoiith the,best interests:
ot*teMpitij', lie ptirsireill :and,
our,whiihitft.. 44iirt u onweiihk. which -has:
bejiibitivili to. - the Okiitry-arid to the dem-,
ocrati# frilitr; . lie;iiiiide the theatre
..of 4,4,
diiitierii: a ndliiiii I _ What is there in, her,
trail %'.• ' WIVPInt;',F. JP. . qttetgr 0 . A
.0 : 04, 1? O t , Lt,- -* L 44,-44 5 .r1) 1 4Pik.:- att-Igkg.
- 11iee f fi ll..!:ir ir*Cti '74. l *OrY of her:.
t/li k 4t4 P - 61,11 ,4/ 3 ePt RClu,'47 P 4 uniiiie
liiiiC 11 . . ''..- .— ..i '.. 'i r , .. . '
~, , ,0.1.,., ..,PATilligenco, or _the Senate,--,lxtli
gA,pAto_ t i iCsoniewh at *tailed' statement. of
, 1 4:0;19,„z+,g branehes.4 , llint #ude..f:::l need
"say', pmr'44-4gricUlture ;Ote , init-.llmod.< . fore,
~.3 4; .° 4"?. 1 ... SPOW . SWei *4 the Knien; .Ihat
. " ,-, f , ffpl,Cill_e.444t:fizitilei, and' that it: Inn;
*,.. Fk*t,,/04g;#04licidtirated . Ij:that- her_
tormol,4o,lirnyerbMl . - - „ritheit-virtue,.their,
ilityPigep,,And : heir i$ lull ::- ; Niwhem his.
, , ,
'more attention kren„, paid to agriculture as ft,
iiiurirgiqor At a.ibiekee, ,4,i1 nowhere has.*
*ea.; thowiied=.ivith: grepter success, ..• :No
-Iwhe:i4 in this IThiori:is the";eYe of the traveler
delight4l livith such:,o l 4a l 4ll evidences of
comfort! and happiness as are presented in,
her Wl' utifully cultivated farms and their
hqat iiiid substantial dwellings. And yet,
.11Tr.Pisident, notwithstanding all we hear
within these walls of the injury sustained by
awriculitkre, in supporting manufactures; this
whole Ito . dation have been united as end
man it4lsust 'ning their infant manufactures
!arid - dkelopiii:, •ifie - re . Sisiireei Of Weil' tiiitiei.
Let its look 116 r coal trade; and if I
cannot instruct the Senate: by its details, I
shall aileast astonish.them , by the rapidity
:of its growth ; andl . ust I shall induce
some Senators to pause, be re they aid in the
entire destruction of this vast interest—an
interesi which has increased more" rapidly
than any branch of industry in.the country.
Theilcoal trade commenced in I'B2o. In
(hit yOtir oltly 265 tons of. anthracite coal
were sOnt to market.
lu 113t?1 , t ,.. , i0715k
, :\
2,240 "
" 18251 • 33,699 "
'" 1 030 1- - ------------- - • ------ 174,737 "
" 1835:1... ♦ •,• 550,815 "
" 1840,.) 855,114 "
" • 1,103;001 "
" 1345 2,021,074 "
And in 1i346 it will filly reach 1,500,000 Lou&
is :a remarkable fact, that in proportion
to the and extended by. the government to
this in - portant trade, not only has the quan
tity in&eased, but the price has been re
duced 'p the citizens; thus completely de
stroying the free trade theory of the. present
day. :Jpon the same principle, the price
will eiptinue to fall as the quantity - mined
rises, tot a certain extent; for, like all other
count - lit 01a! transactions, the operator unties
his.prorits from the amount of business he
does, ritther than the seperate items of it.
This trill be - seen by the table of sales in
PhilaOlphia, New York, and Boston,
the last stx years :
l'hiladelithin. N. York. 80....t0n.
1840 pel- ton $5.50 $3,00_. . $9.00 E 4 $ll,OO
1841..4"..._ 5.00 7,75.... 8.00 9.00
4,25 6,50.... 6,00 'z 6,50
1843 ".... 3,50...... 6,00 cry 6 . 50
1814_..;"....:3,37.._.._ 5.50.... 0,00 17. 0,50
6.00.... 6,0040
In 040 labor was from $5 to $6 a week ;
now itcommands from $8 to $lO..
Nei is a regular decrease for five years.
In the presentyear there is a slight rise, oc
casioOd by tho destruction of the Schuyl
kill caiml, and the codsequent inability of
the millers to send a sufficient quantity to
Twoity years ago good wood command
ed, neitrly every winter, in the Philadelphia
and Ne'w York markets, as much as $8 and
$lO a lord, and frequently, in ,extreme cold
winteri, it rose Mitch higher. So much
distress was there often in large cities from
the wain of fuel, that it led, as a matter of
_necessity, to the estatitishment of fuel-saving
societi4s, by which tl4 poor man could protect
hiinselr against the high prices in the winter
season 4 Now, a ton of coal which is equal to
a cord iind 'a half of hickory wood, can be
purchaled in either of these cities for what
was, tAenty year an, the lowest price of a
cord of wood. The introduction of this
new article of fuel, which has been fostered
and en4ouruged into use by our revenue
laws, htis brought down the price of this
necessury s of life, and has been more eche
fort to t i ke poor man's lin me than any inyen
tion'oflie age. Thirty years ago this arti
cle ( I tieati t%e.anthratic coal of Pennsylva
nia) was entirely unknown ; now it gives
employinet to labor, annually; equal to tire
millions of days' work.' It gives employ
ment tel about 700 ships of 160 tons each.
and it ail'ords a nursery for the education of
abbot :15,000 seamen, the importance of
which 4an only be felt in case of a war with
a maritime: power. Destroy this business,
and votttratisfer;this nu rse ry i to the coal mines
of Great Britain. It has invested in it more
than fifty millions of dollars, and it sustains
a popuintion in its immediate neighborhood
of someS6o,ooo or 70,000 people. Ii ?con
surges 4nnually more than two millions of
dollarstrorth or agricultural products, and
more than three and a half millions of dol
lars' wiirth of merchandise.
1 The hil alone consumed in the anthracite
1 coal region of Pennsylvania, in one year, is
i worth dver three hundred thousand dollars.
! The lent paid by the miners to the
ers of land amounts to an mutual sum of
Q6OO, , 00, and this suet is produced by a
I ._.
; .-very sniall charge. on each ton mineda-not
more tqati 20 or 40 cents—all the- reitmin
{der!beifig exppnded for labor in one fume or
'another; and the laud for which tins ,rent
' is paid :vas, until recently, a barren waste.
The iffect of the tariff upon this brinch
of our fildustry is illustrated by the folliow
jug fact::
In 1837 the amount of coal tent to market .
wast- 831,000 tons:
In 18424 with low duties, it had •
inc ,to only 1.108,000
Sliowink-an increase of 227,009 tons in five
years. 'Ain 1846 it will be over A 500,000
tops,. shOuing an increase, under the effects
of the Tariff of 1842, in a period of only four
plats, (if 1,392,000 tons.
I 14m4g the striking effects of the intro-
I drtioniof thisUrticle, fostered as it has ben
I b - our tariff laws, is one for the correctiless
i oil which I appeal to the Senators of AI Ra-
I cbusettii: the completion of the Re ng
Radroap, one of the avenues by whip!' he
coal teaches , market, has made , such a e
, dOctiortilin the price of fuel- in that :St e,
! that the ; amount saved annually to its , i
zetts eqhals the interest on her vrhole ;State
, &bhp thui virtually abolishing the debt
hselt:, fitake this State as a matter of cdt
venienov,• as it is . the great , !market of tile
east. • -Rs effect on - Other Btates; partietda y
' 'New. Y4rk, Must .be eqvally 'striking: A !
yet,-,if permitted to dig,*ess, we
putilictitien, professing to.represent the inlet
estultheir.constituents,. giving! their aid.'
the „de4uction of this business, so important
to.thostginterests. , ~. : ! - ! - i 1
. :the jmithracite coal confincilto'the east-
On bas4 ; offtlie Allegany Mottntains.' !On the
ivesterneope ,is found , bituinous , cOal; 444 n i ;
mtna eV'errwestent.county of Perinsilranil'
tind'netiar every one of the Western - States -
itboundit witliit. , !-I have! not !had . time' tii
investigitethe amoinitof busineia etitMentiiil
with 'it 4the Operations! of it liavuibqn :ton.
fuledkoilocal sectioos :- buttit hits- greatly. M.:,
ifeitsed*itsce.tho - taritfot 002'itatilefit 'tit:
Oritislf*oal'finto coinpethly with .it hi, i. - the
New.:o4montmatketi-, .I.Willi litivieitii - gisie
one, factiiining: the effect of, the `'trade Mid
1 18 0 of this article open' thei . prosperitif4fthe
"F.tiantr34:;3.The eitiOtPittsbutg, itishin6Wit
to. alktlless in 4 !basin! surrOunded witho:MiU
Vein,* 41. pi I ;!_onelvitst-woritshok atuf'it's
• • hole - growithi and•prospierity s oened from
c coal oa:reefed from . to. ft. *aing •Mottn;
otnit.',!whic"surround it. . Ed rf.ocie ef:itij
ifiii*. li 1 directly • t er in 'reedy, froitt
c li es
,i! e it•odu ;ter the coal inines'..i t r • :,,
The town of Pittsburg in 1813 had but
',784 inhabitants. In 1840 the population
f the city_preper was 21,00.1' it is tpw
' .s,ooo—mpre than doubled i krt six years
have not the date, but I presinnO nearly
this inettase hes taken place singe 1842,
- I know,: for some years preceding . the
II assage•of the tariff bill, business
.‘ wns al
•,,i oSt•entirely tl Siiiitended. Titei'popplafiee
tf the city and surrounding villages ; which
e actually IT part of the city; !minuets to
e, round number of 100,000, and its' . whew
,Ijia its origin' in its t Coal i and its
ron, and•the manufactures wb;C'n they have
irought . into • existence. - Tiic ' Coal now
sed by our. steatriships 'oil the! gulf is fur-
Oshed front 01.0 Mgitongolieln bciaL mines;
and the. mnvetlients of 'our fleet before' Vera
Ortiz, to which the eyes of tll nation arc
pow turned, will gently depend on an abun
• . ance of this 'ireportant neat ornational
. efence! within our own borders.
be trade produced by these mines; and in
time. of war we might have tei, depend on
our erte k tny , for a supply of this essential de-
Ment in modernwarfare. • . i
I beg Western Senators,' to look at the'
!picture whieb \ Pittsburg presents to them,
in the hope that, instead of aiclitig to destroy
ie tariff, they' w`R look 'to Many points,
Ceti:illy well situated, With Coal and iron
around them, upoit Lich • cities May be
made to grow up, and.;‘like
,ii, become a
market for the vast agricidtural precincts of
their fertile regions. \
: •
The next important prOduct \,. cfpennsylva
hia is her manufactures of iron.
By the census of 1840, the nuMber of
furnaces in Pennsylvania we's 213. Re
turns were prcicured in 1842 'from' a large
Cumber of them, showing; thete to he capa
le of producing 152p00 tons 'nf pig metal. \
l'llle tariff of 1842 found the fine; of nearly
all these furnaces extingnislie4, - their work
inen idle, and their farnilies in turbo cases
!tvitimut the means of subsistence. 4.nd it is
4 tnelancluily• truth that many debts then
contracted fir 'means of living , are : still un
paid front the savin g s of years 'of hard labor.
Since the passittg,e o f the bill df, 1842, more
than 100 new furnaces have been built,
which pructuce 178,000 tons oft tneicil—more
than 100 per cent or at, inert-16:e.
The investment of the capital to produce
one tun of charcoal pig metal hiestimated at
1.17, and for anthracite' pig metal $25.
nes.e • sinus multiplied hrtliti ambunts of
Charcoal and,tin' Utrecht: metal annually pro
duced by the furnaces that have been erect
,,ed since 1t42, shows a capital of $6,000M00
• invested in the business since] that time.—
This and the • capital previouSly invested,
with the amount necessary to p,ut the metal.
Into castings, &c., makes the Whole invest
ment about $20,000,000. Tl4s is wholly
independent of the current expenditures no-
Pessary to produce the iron.
. ,
The metal produced by these'ifurnaces an
mally, in its raw state, is worth '111,000,000.
one half of it, which is probable, is con
cried into bar or other_ coarse iron, it ean
tot be done.for' less than an expenditure of
9,000,000; and if. the ()uteri half be put
too castings, it will 'cost 54,000,000,, Thus
!rowing ail actual expenditure 421;000,000
I.dollars annually in the neikhborhood of
he furnaces ; the greilter part s of which is
mid to the farmer, the laboreroutLthe ,me
hanic, of the surrounding country.
A careful estitnate shows that! about seven
4ecn thousand Wen ore necessarly to produce
the iron made in Peausylvanialthis ye 4, in
the capacity of laborers arid int:ebonies , in ,
Connection with its immediatii production. 1
.lt flowing sii persons to everts family, and'
We have over a hundred thousand persons
anmediately connected with the labor of
these furnaces. The 'labor 4ccessary to
rionvert this metal into bars, hoilps, eagtings,
railway iron, &c., &c., would fully equal.:
another hundred thousand persrins: , In this
astimate there is no account takers of the i
thousands upon tht;usands of persons eugag-
dd in the various pursuits gr*ing out of ,
Lind indirectly connected with, the manufae- I
tnre of iron. . ' i i ! , 1
I have given here a statement of the man
ufacture of iron in its first stakes Only. I
have no means of estimating tile nuinber'of
persons or the amount of capittil eumployed
i.i converting it into machinery,ime4anical •
uses, and the endless variety oil fabrics into
Which it enters. 1
Every village in the State has;nne or more
f undries ; every large town haslits ii achine .
s op ; and the sound of the steam'engine
sets the ear at every turn.' 'I have not
ad time to pursue this investiation in all
'jos minor details. There - is no neans of es-
: mating the- variety of ; use to I which it is
stined to be applied. It is, ready used
ensively in boats,- and to sonic extent in
ills of the largest clash; and is the only
aterial of which ships engage 4 in the corn
mree of the gulf can be;made *of tigaiust
c destructive
.character ; -of Itlic.tnarifie
ortns of that .reg,ion.* j I
Whht I have done has been view
showing the great importance Of thiSirade,
i lwthreatened with destruction: With no
wive, that I 'can see, unless it be to build
in the South - a lordly aristocracy who
ye no conception of ithe 'dign#y of labor.
shall not be! said herenfterthat this paldm-
I. was brought upon the iaboiling men of
!y country without sill tlinefforS, in iny pow
to prevent, it. My Sympatl4es are with
iese people. , I come frbm anidng the ehil
ya olusil, and by constant appheatiOn and
• nestiabor,
have, reached the iproutl posi, n
I occupy to-day. The ii ''st legacy I
i t
',old desire to, leave my p
hildre , would be,
L fact that I , had contributed to defeat- a
eagure fraught with calumityt thoSo with
mn I have mingled 'all. my life:- (;,' Theic
~wring mien , are mostly.democrins. i Their
ii players are frequently, of thelci t pposite pol
es ; yet, s with,n freedom: and inilepeiidence
rat I hope will; ever i
cliaracterze , ,,theien,
• • I 1 --
I* As as illustration - of, the value ofla4or 114 isput
.11 it,l Ova to the curious, ; follitiviag table ; .
hequantity or i*stitain Worth - 4 aferlid&b e ..-
~ wortii , tbe following manta i •1 - • :j ~- 1;,..
ien converted into -ordnuiri• nine ' 174 . 4 0
.11 omaitental:work ... 4 • „ . ,'... l j ,45 .0
!eide J j, (Berlin' work) ' ' 'T; •-• ' ''' GO 0,
lai :chains .. 4 . i..! .. 4'.• ..- -L --- --.:". a ... ...' . 1,3136 6
I*.bottons.--_-4 -4-- • -- i • ' ,: o.
1 c Ouitity of horlirms wor'ili £1 stetlini i.l . - ..
ecotncs, when fornietflnto Tiorae43l;oisji " -
ark '' ' • '!' ' ',* ' ''' --' .-; .. . ri t . ..r. • .110 1
ire!, (table), . '''." •.: J.L .-.. 4 4 . 44.:-;'....14Jr 36" :0: i
n , Ps •:- • ',%,, . • -1 ' .., '.-',-,' i, , It' ,0 I
Fillfe,bliul ea, . . ~. ... ...... ...'- ' ''
lied hiltiatis pill intelltai. .. j ..... 1 -,. '"[loi ' - 6 - 1
,co iprings of:watches-1. - * ,:.180,000 It/jj
'mr;dfrAiis lan i'-. the : vote entirely
it mmellest ' Th '.ivill he tt rprised tilbe
, r
lo d - no*- , . that
,:th Anetrine ofl a protecOve
'tatiff, 'wine% they hive njwnri believe 4 in
',a44 stistahlea, is oideintie.ratie. 1 l•
1 (Conchidiii n4zt wear) ' ti
" I- t
to 11 pi _... e - • tre"
.vetited us from bil.stOwitig the attention to
ou editoriaLcoltufnisf which we could liwe
wiBhed, • 1! !- ; - ;
Indiana.7-7-Eno;gii has been learnect of
the result of the leetiott in thiS - Stat 4, to
satisfy us that WlOtcpmb is re-elected dpv
ernor. There 110 been a great falling of in
the number of voto l s given, both in Whig ind
'Democratic, : counles', bin the falling of ‘i is
greatest in the WI ig conatie's. - IA
The 'Whigs wi4 probably have a maihri
ity of the Represehtatives, and . the' Dario
s a majority (With Senators. 1
I 4
lliniliS.-4The HectiOil in this State *as
forimetoers of Corigicss and of the State t.e
gislature \ Mr. Nir6tworih, Dew., has 14en
re-elected.. s . Cowl - rests: i There is a dose'
1 •
contest between 111% Robert Smith, the pi3es
ent member,' and a Mr. Trumbull. . Thelre
. .
turns are not all in:, t :
Missouri.—The IMissonri election walfor
the same of fixers a in Illinois. McDc4.ll,'
the regular Demo retie candidate for ciat
gress in St.:Louis Idigtriet, is elected ov i iir a
Native American aid Fin independent Nin
nerat. I ,
.1 • !i
North Cardina:l--Tlicreturn continua to
indicate that Gralain is re-elected Governor,.
and that the Whigs havelearried the teirs
I • .i
Gen. Can; enn'TsSPeech.
• I e
In this week's number Of : the Adov4te
we publish a partOf Mr. Cameron's Speech
upon the Tarilrbill which has been official
ly smuggled upon the people: Its lertgth
precludes the 'possibility of publishing it:en
tire in one number of our . paper, yet the
truths it contains, land the convincing (ind
irresistable proofs that a protective Taritt is
not only sanctioned by high Democraticpu
thority, but is the true:policy.Of our goyim
ment, will lid.a sufficient excuse for the large'
space it occupies iq our columns.
We commend speech to Vie
candid consideratioln of our readers. The
doctrines it eontaitiS are old as the Constitu
tion, and, indeed, lid bad 'stifiliosed t the set=
tied policy of our . ebuntry'. The prOtection
of our iron manufactures, ,especially, could
have no opphsitiotb: except frommen ho
arc dead to every feeling except the aggrin
dizetnent of 'party, and the dii.ision of the
loaves and fishes. !
The Notinthintions. I.
.1 caucus of•Dele t o rates asseMbled at the
Court-house on M i nday evening, and. I,p- .
pointed ,Jtidgo Leet, of Friendsville, Pre,si
dent, Dr.'Shints, of Iliwmity, with onelor
two other Pine Presi!dents,4and Jos. L. MFr
rimun, of Fiankliii,tnnd I. N. Meylertileof
New Milford', .leereturies- : I
The list of TowilshiPs were called, rind ; j
the Delegates presented their• cretientijilq
and took. their seats ki -the Convention, the
President meantititelkeeping.hii eye on t i iie
list- a Comthittces o Vigil‘ned as publith
cd b r the Nerthern Deiffeerat, to
.see apt.
all was right. We 1 aye no doubt, had idfi,el-"
egates been icturne there,!ceitified by oili.Y .
er than those!, smite 'Ominitteei, l ikey'W4lif
1." s -
Bare heel! promptly :
4 ifejeett9. A. resc4tion
, 4
was . adopted,. to, tu effect, that the Dile
gates, in ,balloting for candidates; shotild
vote rive voce, and- t. tat tho Clerks keei a
tnllyi of each Delegat ',. vote. - This was 6-
ry.ploperol4 Demok.rt l itic.: ~ -
; •
Do bajhitikg for ti candkjato..fer P.oppe
seutativc, Dtivid - ThoineS,lF,sq.i-of•;94tit
Bentl, our late feeprdseiltii , e, was ret•nomit
- .1 : r , • . ii
itted , on the Asst 14itiat .. --!.. -, •- . . =
Nathaniel i yireetio Thomson' • was noia
hutted for Coiinnaissio •
fralleis Quinn, of boeonut, Wasnoniiii=
ated fur Auditor. 1 1 '' n
Pii Tuesday ovenulg flat
.Whigs ineti in
Coniention 'appoint (Ili Capt - ' - diddingil l of
Heriiiek, Chairman, .i. Russo , -Esq. Via` f
Auburn,.. am), -Pena %Carpenter, ofL ilik-.
tbrd,l Nice' Piresident , 1 and, A,'''', Chmill l n-
4i t
lin,' sq., of Montros4, jand Aelta Hernt' ;ghat.
of, I
slit Saaraiavies. h d / i •
At, the. - Hirst ball tih-Onniel Searie f lef,
Mon o,,: ro
so, wds nomin tilitii i tteatididiiteihr ,
'Rep Otientatiii from ti i l e' .. eudnti. -
...' / 4 . " r 1
1 14 I Lamle, n_fl,T)lO
.11 - :ilwasitorilir,lt i
for. ornmissioner. , fTi. !: .,-. 1 ~, . ./, -II ~
, Thomas ll'icholsoil i or Springville, lis
nomiaated for Auditor - .I' l , ;'' " ' ''' •'`" l ,'t
plirited Reseltitia ''iveie ' adOted 1 4,-
non bing the, Tariff O iB4fr ati an infultt, ) '
the l oot& of reausil . iin. I :.-- : , L
`, ' , C l ' L-Sniiti4i of : T, kh+ooict a ..
it d it,e Com - elation ,iti:. eloquent,. off-I#d
-speedb, ' - in W i liiuh lie resenied, 'too' tnOt
the rui ! La b ud de ola > i# itsiltat - tit'" • • '
Tariff. JtiignWfratn: Ids speech', ourl old
friend is certainly' no r-noviee on the -stump,
Be** kilkeif - Opinions: for himself from
loom,ibr e}stn-
Ments thisiveolc- - orr the nominat
% ions made.
._. l
The jpitependentirrOilairr
The 4 .pili -for the: establishnient of arila
&pea-ilea beanne.
the Jaw of dinland.• . .Standini upon a per
manent ,hasis4itiwill- form a landmark, i n
-the-historylof :i.pemocratic legislation. Its
prineiPleSArcl . Caeial with this adminst ra "
non of :i . v . UShitigton, entering i nto the con_
tests that divided his , cabinet,~ and finsdly
formed,,the. grand distinctive ;feature that
characterited Democracy fronaederalism.
True; it needed the strong, hand of Andrew
Jackson tCi 'er u :the monied Monopolies of
the 'nod; and place these.principles in their
just light • liefol:e the the people—and in
drew jackson : was
-not the mien to put his
hand to‘the :wheel and then tun back from
such a purpose.: In. 1840 we; fear it Was
defeated by its friends—we -fought for it
earn e s tly 4.m1; with might and main, and
saw it go downlike, a•well-maired hanre,
foundering amid the storms and tempests of
a disastrous 'Peptipaign. It is anw ; we think,
Placed upon . ‘ ti permanent foundation, and
as a regulator of our linancial:afrairs, will
give a healtl4 influence to o L iery depart_
ment of . husiness. - L We - hope ; it may, in
some measure; counteract th; baneful 'and
deadening effe,Pts . a Miura British Tariff
Bill. • Certain i we rtre .. it carq-:itever act in
harmony with that Bill, andook fotwa;•11
with an anxious fear lest the passage of the
one will prove the 'downfall oil!, the other.
pursuant to kowal, the
17th MOSES, STOPPARD,,Esu. of
.Forest,Lake i iurving- been appLinted Presi,
dent, Capt. 41..FREli JONES, Or Thomson,
and Maj. AuTUurt. &arm, of Clifford, Vice
Presidents,' aid Go. L Avery of Herrick;
with Atiet: Cdfr, Esq. of Foreo Lake, Sec
retaries, was 11,
Thate cattsider the manner in which
our Coan w
y ! Convention was called, and the
Mode in whiCli our primary-1 imeetin& in
most instance 4 were conducted, an insult to
.lionest men and a 'fraud upoli the genuine
HeMocracy of our county. !I;
That in common with a mirjority of our
fellow citizens, we much deplore the
sage of the ;neiv Tariff bill, wl4ch must seri
crusty injure the now flourishi7' iron
factures, depress `the nowlthriving coal blade,
and discourage in theirirdosrial pursuits
tbe already'oppressed citizens Of a debtrrid
en State. 1
That with u viewio having jibe wishes of
_I •
our Demociatic friends farrl represented
and the iniJre69 of the'North 'i dulY te+et,
ed, Montrose' and Waller
Olmsted, L"sq.lof Jessup, be ar pointed d Con
ferees to meet others from Bradford and Ti
oga counties, Surd put in nomiliaticin a Cnn
didate for: the_ office of i gepri: . sentitive in
Congress ; with instructions; in making a
selection, to, a:dopt the'One Tern Princi?le,
and favor a spredy repeal of tl4l Anti-Penn
sylvania .Tatiir or 1846.
Thai the Crinferees Or either l ;f thoth have
power, in cosef ; of inability to aloud the Con
ference, to Make substitution. • •
;That the several; Demcieratc papers lin ,
this Congressii?' nal District be rregnestei to
ptiblish die priieeCedings . of this' ; Convention.
._41.95t8 -.§TOPPAR,D,. POO
, 'ALFREE) JoriEs 4 '
" } : V. Pre is.
A RTHUR. ~ $)Irrol
Ariel.iCair.,f— Sc e'
t .
L. ikiery, rYs-,
!Tlel'e° will ' be
ori%-e ' tioi at the Court
Nonfitly:,o'etniug next ?
tiOn oftheAore procei
r For the P,
_'eopll. t o .
,;.! I:43TOCK, July g7th; 1846 i
NESaii.'.EniiiinS i--As the'lidvoctite int
Made - it§Cli`fhat it,.desiei3A i ' o be 'in the
entrt,, (viz...the jadvocate of tber One of man)
and I presum4 it • will contimiti to advocate
thOse rights 'ft of conseo; nces,.l.lvtgk
. 3brefoie;•fon4lc.: 44 tillman,Ri c iiits„ " op otfox,
j oe-tic one . ooilms.fabored so 1 ard„ with, all:
the obilantbroliy :they aro in Ili jr• way. caps-.
blO to awak4n , yolis, 4 inioid , OPitton, the Op
dition of "iii..'Ait li:Le ii . t'ilie: '`tio?,. ill l' Novi I
wishwish.tu nodi,Jnlcal. candor and 'airness,, why
thOiletaillluir 'nergie, , o, fop ihe rights; of
man fall;nimi'l 'the condition Of . southern , .
I.B 4 Vin Y I A 'lliii?p we . mil .irfrite slaves in the
ocirtkern itatesi4JY:4 - 40$ hi ter. o ,ir t 1 O,A .
a,1 1 ,-sautho :41 #.41 - 4Ylereiii 'aoaSisit'i4e-i
'oliffernce, whogter -you-take avrtty•the liberlo ,
oilman ; Or• givs4,4lihr. liberty ou'd -then take
oWay, , the:"pritileteria€ using it, :;Do` trei . t o
ne6d the' lief iititiO' en to fre 'the Mi . t
etla viltite_Aavt*frconi self.eretl-114§. 1 1
Wiiosetgond 'is t4ivip geld—who ' " ei4lenitali
=0 loinrt thel r „avocation fto 'daY: t,ll'4 ll yi l .
and`grlijol l tii 3 Oilitrao. iie 'the' linor in the'ditOpr .:
'i4l ( iiiiiiiio4 l- P, r iiiii.4'ei.rPin :: - fi i j ii i,:.o!ii*.
litlbelohapit'Ofi.rents - inmuses h:iadarles„
c i
alt!?1,--lieitty-,elerltsltiOs 1 . it' is.. nit' undolutt«,:
at faerithe taiiitalcis , arrays.. ageinetii-
bor. , - Not 0; Wkre'llaiis ia-ilic!cie, ►
a .
o's Advocate