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men in our •dily-iii6 i. sti , tlikletitilier .
the writing of the„mo 4tbat of the anterior
copyist. I :q ,
The schoolmen eagngisi in , formingtiew'
libraries I but slowly. kind with
, extreme Alfa- I
culty, because' the 44 of was not
yet discovered, and he intercourse of the
nations of Europe wO.s often interrupted by
war. euriotis inde4l! that recourse must
be had to the Arabs Of 'Spain to recover the
most illustrious comgositions of ancient phi
losophers: these disii. pies of Mahothet were
then more_ eplight,9*(jorqe adyarmed
civilization —an th ' christiri 'B.ut soon
after, a new 8666 0 nod literary life, was
; 1 . j
imparted to a •ii ,' a EitroPe. -Leained
men, drive.o ' from onstantinoplo by the
Turks, came into tidy to awake, a taste fly
study. The art of printing was invented.
The Reformation orthe' sixteenth century
gave a powerful • initiulse'to all the mental
researches. • Ever) , P priace; every people
made it a duty ands glory to gather large
collections of mant4ripts and books. There
were 'public libritriti everywhere.
One of the mostirenowned is that of the
Vatican. The podtiffs. of Rome have at
last acknowledged til at they would hot remain
behind On this .sub ct„ sand their relations
withothe priests sea, erect over the face ofthe
earth have enabledfthem•to collect the tith
ed, manuscripts which exist in ' Europe.—
There are in the library of the Vatican cop
ies of the Bible which date back to the sixth
century of the chritiman era, and many print
ed or manuscript sitorks which are found no
where else. i
Germany possentes many public libraries,
and is perhaps theteountry in Europe where
are the most books compared with the pop
ulation. The leaped Germans are noted
for their book-11=4. Several thousands of
new volumes are published every year and no
philosophical or hititorical question however
small, upon which the doctors beyond the
Rhine do not compose great books, full of
profound erudition'i Goettingen, Jena, Ber
lin, Halle, Heidelberg, all the universities '
have, each, a public library and aim to sur
pass the others id the 'limber of their vol
umes. In genera) the .governments favor
this tendency ; they would rather spend
money for books than give to their subjects
free constitutions 4 . .
In Spain are rdre and precious books.—
The library of thti Escurial contains numer
ous manuscripts from the pen of Arabs. But
these treasures iieiburied under the dust of
ages. For, on tab one hand, the civil wars
of the Peninsula iluspend all scientific stud
ies, and on the Other hand, the learned of
this country havegnot yet contracted habits
independent eno4gh to dare to utter freely
the truth. We must wait for other genera
tions more enlightened and free.
. I will say nothing of the public libraries
of England. Your readers must have heard
oftener of them than of those of the conti
nent. The Bod4ian library at Oxford, is
one or the most Complete which exists ; it is
especially rich its works of theology, and
,ossesses some ;manuscripts which have
b-red to revise the text of the New Testa
ne.... 4 ,
Fra me was tiirdy in forming public de-1
Nitwits for b4ks. She was half-barba
roks whenltaly and Spain possessed flour
listing - civiizatiin. The struggles of the
• &add lords,theq the atrocious persebutions
against the Alki&nses had checked the pro
g jets of sciene/and learning. Under the
French king Cherles V. who lived from the
year 1364 t 01341, the library of Paris con
tained 910 volu es. You can indire,tlr or
what was_the:gttsn, who invaded our
country in the following century, carried off
the most import* manuscripts, and history
assures that the dike of Bedford committed
this pillage witlq much 'dexterity. King
Louis XI devoted himself to repair the loss
but was himself too much absorbed by his
quarrels with thehigh feudal barons to suc
ceed in this literary enterprise. Francis I,
surnamed the Father of letters, because he
loved and endo4ed the professors of the
Universities,had sibout four hundred volumes.
Now, the humblin village pastor has more.
Henry , lV; was liappierin this respect than
his predecssors. r.lle succeeded in collect
ing several thowinul volumes, and was the
first who opened i ` this library to the public.
But in 1622, dumps to say twelve years after
his death, the royal library contained still
but 6,000 manoeripts ,and nearly 10,600
printed hooks. What feeble beginnings for
an establishment which now comprises so
. vast a number of volumes.that it is almost
impossible to icoulit them !
Louis- XIV, aided by his minister Colbert,
really created thii i royal library of Paris.—
This prince had' ileplorable vices and faults.
But he applied hi=mself to protect literature,
because he viewed it as the most lasting
glory of his reigni and he spared nothing to
increase, his eolloction of books. He ,crave
orders to all his 'd ambassadors to purchase,
either original, * copies of Arabic, Turk
ish, Persia.n,C• se manuscripts. He paid
their weight 'in Id for some rare works.—
He iustrocted.co uls, catholic missionaries,
all his agents to second him in this generous
design. , Iliseffokts were crowned with full
success. When he died, he left a library
which could rivalithe greatest in Europe.
The tirosecuti of his work was con
timed m the ei ghteenth century, and the
Royal , lihw contained about 200,000 vol
umen:iiill—M. At this last - period, it re.
ceivetr4ionsile increase, because the
national', convey, on ordered that all the
books scatted ,inkcoovents, and' churches,
shouldhe placed ,11 a common depository.
This legidatiye nieasurel, brought ata single
stroke wore, than 6400,000 new volumes.—
Biit thit surfeit ogbookslwas attended with
one sad evil : .4 1 :p i r e bakility from the
mass and confusion of k ping an. exact cat
alogue.bfiall,thesii To this day it is
IreMilitrimakto OA the works which you ask
fia., and it ints,,b4ome a .proverb: you can
SiOsoik4g.ii a! kings larcw,af. .
7 Napoleon . m ight, amidst his remote con
quesss,;tiave;enri: , • • very much the libra
ries orgatisiz. , • . was zoo much occupied
in °Tapia*. hit _ , 'les to employ his time
ja-iiterary: , - 4 '.',-,The governments of
the. iteilitaratiou - , itthat. of Louis Philip
have *ow. , 1 i . '. lsorth.Julgotioning for the
...Yid:4lll'aq; they have
ouli , ctattailued, : :appoptiateiovery. year,
frem4bai tieasurii si,-, considerable sum de.
•"*"441 ,10 , Pura+• , the new publications
wbeckappast Out Off:owe; rforin fiance
p! W? tgOiryi iiiii=ilti the ni la Place
tit*pies of dieir works* the
Amu, — -; i ~, :, - f -- ; , ,:- -,..: i
, *WI* *9. Msent iluuttiers of ,whin es
which at:v*4w. kgintatawet to thisquer..
tion is o d L 4Smile'
5ay4700,000; otheri -
1;200,1. ' Thitilastl nuniber is no dotibt
exogoe 1 , ' but the first is ii, at higkenough.
Prolln 1 e numberof volumes is between
8 and I i
e i i . -.; Whit a vnit amount _Of la
her froin 't human brain !,what an amount
of seienc • .' learning, facts', reasonings, •and
also .of toll : and extravagance ! How many
unknown names in this =Altitude pf authors
who sleep by the side of one another! and
how 'are we imkessed whit the nothingness
of • hunian glory! Here are in this library
thousands,, of writers who have exhausted
. tiiiie. their strength in composing books
which tliey judged worthy of the regard of
.postetit ;' and now moat of them remain un
disturbedi.on the shelves I Hardly a htin
dred: or n 'hundred and fifty names have ac
quired it tasting populariti: • the rest are alt
most eritteely forgotten:
Theliniallibrary is divided into four sec
tions. . 1 14 Manuscripts; 2. Medals;
giaving.4l3n. tqis and plans; 4. Printed books.
The rant 'scripts are very numerous ; they
form 89, i I t volumes,.arattontaininore than
a milliti detached parto. Here are auto
graphs'., CI almost all the great men who have
done 10 or to France :_ for example, manu•-
scripts!O Corneille, Pascal, Moliere, Bos
suet, Be don, Montesquieu, &c. This is
the secti n wkith attracts most the attention
of strait.' rs. There are remarked in it the
prayeti-h ,, .ks of Charles the bold, Louis IX,
Mary . St art, With a great many little pic
tures slii i ing the patience and talent of cop
yists of .be dark ages. , =
The edaW number :one hundred and•
forty th., 'sand; of which 80,000 are ancient,
and 60, i, I I modern. This collection of coin
is unii i ' leled in the world. The collec
tionsart of medals of the Roman emperors is
nearly . omplete ; there :are pieces which
.date bad to the age of 'the remotest Pha
they • inzi
try, or t
engravings, maps and plans, the
ffers every imaginable resource. It
y some military maps, which the
ent retains in. 'its hands, because
ry serve for the defence of the coun-
ie attack of foreign countries.
;Royal library is ls kept by four libra
,..iled consemators. They are learned
men ivo obtain this post as a just reward
of their labors.. They have under their or
ders it rent many clerks, who bring the
book; t those who come to make researches.
These young men are of good family and
good e ucation. About
_four hundred per
sons; iial every - day, to spend several hours in
the vas halls of the library ; and there are
besides one or t'o hundred stranger ' s merely
to vie the collections. In general, this es
tablish ent is well conducted, and the offi
cers .dicliarge faithfully their ,duties. All
visitor I are received with politeness. But
as I hale already observed, there is disorder
in thel arrangement of the books. The
govertilnent gives 40,000 francs a year
to cor4pose a good catalogue, and this
work iii not yet accomplished. It would seem
that it resents obstacles almost insurmoun
table; kecause of the prodigous number of
volunils. The difficulty is especially to
classif l the books in order of subjects, and
yet it the only way to render such a cata
logue seful. Readers complain very much
of this'state of things; for out of ten works
which they call for, they are happy if they
get four. For the other six they are told :
the book is not in its place.
A wbrd only on . the public libraries in the
provinces. There are in France 16,5 cities
which have such essigthAhriver co ntgi n a s ig
7:;bolr,000. Most of these libraries are not
frequented by any body. They are too ex
clusively theological or literary, because
they come from suppressed monasteries. It
would he very useful if the government would
form; to our small towns popular libraries,
which , ' would serve to diffuse a taste for
- readink, and expand the minds of the people.
M. Grtizot thought ofit, when he was minis
ter of 4 ) ublic Instruction; but this laudable
plan; has not been executed. X.
n ... .1
IME /AGNETIC TELEGILAPII COMPLETE
FROMr ASIIINGTON TO BOSTON.—The New
York un of yesterday announces the com
pletio of.the Magnetic Telegraph from that
city In Boston, which places the latter city in
cumin nication with Washington Ciy, a
distan of seven hundred and twenty-one
miles, 'n an instant of time. In announcing
this. gi I at triumph of; American genius, the
Stm,p oposes that the .event shall be pub
licly; c lebrated, a proper testimonial to the
skill, ' d enterprise of those who have assis
ted in arrying it out with complete success.
We py from that paper the following ap
prop,ri to comments upon the subject:
7en, Hartford, Springfield, Wor
iston, hare thus been removed
t, New York ! It is really so,
teal purposes. We are also within
'Albany, Utica, Syracuse, and
And in a few weeks, when the
is complete, and extended to
Le great cities of Massachusetts,
New York, New Jersey, Penn
aryland, and the District con-
Seat of Government (forming
Titory seireral times larg er than
and Ireland,) will b e able to
:s with each other simultane-
ierful achievement of American
ite'the highest honor upon our
r. Morse, the great inventor of
Telegraph, has just cause to' '
-most sanguine expectations
realized, and we heartily con-
upon these magnificent results
, ears of toil and industrious ap
pjie4e. An event ~so important to our
haPpy ; i. Union, as the opening of a new
node pf communication calculated to unite
us still closer, should be celebrated by a
pirbliC demonstation. , The following lines
of Electric Telegraph are now completed
and in operation in. the United States :
to Baktux#, 40 mile s .
Baltimore to Philadelphia, • 97
hftadetphia Neurierk, 88 "
New York to New Haves, (al)out) 84 "
..Neirilarentoilartford,l 36 "
BartrordtoSpringfiel4...... ... . . ~..26 "
. f ffield to .Boston; 98 "
.. y to Rochester, 252 . "
tt, , •
otid, •p 721 miles.
Whileprivate enterpise in ,America was
constructing these lines, the British GoVern
meai thuilt only one hundred and . twenty
mil 41 England As, we were the first to
inve4t: it, so we lave been the foremost in
put urg it into practical operation.
• Mit. Year., of Arkansak, is styled , 6 a very
amiable wan, with a noisy name." -
From I.lle ViTilkesbftire Tramicript
Tit NOrth BOinclCCanal.
y Were' opened lust ummer,
6f . 'l di t
i i s t; c g o e t tie 4n ridly kknown,thOwhen the books
Of few of thef,people of this valley had an op
thlyebygtkmr New ew inl Y il t d k ili g t e e n i te t m ak en n, . B u t very
hour after the books were ope ned,
panortunitysubscribing for the stock, for in
whole million of dollars were subscribed.
Since then, however, a portion of the stock
subscribed by the New Yorkers has been
given up. A large portion is still
that city,.' y those, probably, a
able to hold held
but-the rectors of the Company being de
termined. o call for its payment, a portion
has beeni given up without the process of
arc now engaged along
This being the case, twothe
in taking; new subscriptions to make up the'
With the exception of irilkesbarre, (a
town of tiro thousand inhabitants, in which,
however,ithere are only one or two wealthy
men,) dui line of the canal extends through
an ag,ricaltural and lumbering district, of
but little ?hoarded wealth. Much therefore
cannot be expected from such a population ;
and yet we are highly gratified to learn, that
the direction on the tour meets with unhook
ed for encouragement and success.
Numbers in this community who had sub
scribed before, have doubled their subscrip
Farmers, mechanics and others, from
whom mithing was expected, hay e subscribed
very liberally, indeed, in proportion to their
This is right. The great value of this
stock is perfectly understood here. No ar
guments are necessary to ensure its
. favor in
this region. Such are superfluous here, and
wherevel the merits of the work are under
stood ; but unfortunately the capital is not
1 The ii,ght•spirit is abroad, but the means
One thing, however, should be remem
bered 14 all now called upon to subscribe.—
If a right view is taken of the matter, id
most every individual in business, to whom
.the opportunity is offered, will subscribe at
least ode share. Look around us in, this
valley. i •
'What has occasioned the great improve
ment in its business and enterprise, seen and
felt in 4)1 its borders? Remember what it
was texnt years ago; see what it is now !
Who deies not feel the influence of this im
provenAnt, in some way'?
We all know that the whol es based upon
the coal trade.. Farmers of this region,
I where are your /narketsl Merchants and
Mechanics, where does your business and
your lunacy come from 2
Previous to I t_442, the coal trade of this v al-,
ley, did not exceed :10 or 30,000 tons.
In 1443, it reached nearly 60,000 "
In 1844, 156,000 "
In 1445, very nearly 200,000 "
Thisryear, at least 275,000 tons arc want
ed front us, and in our present market, but it
cannoqbe supplied. There is not capital
here yet to do so much business ; our mines
are not opened and prepared to furnish so
much coal ; and there are not boats enough
I upon oa r canal to carry it off.
•Wlut does not see and' feel the effects of
this augmented demand for labor and for
supplies of every kind ? What blacksmith.
shoemaker care kr— • --•:octer,
t—.. , nem. iant does WA feel
the stimulus of this'increase of business ?
Let thein subscribe liberally, for what will
be the effect upon all such when the North
Branch is finished? Half a million of tons
—in addition to the above business—would
soon bd sent north, to western New York,
along the Lakes and to Canada.
Nor , ovould boats return empty. Salt,
lumber and cash, will ensure
them q cordial welcome here and even - -
where.: This is no vision. We now know
ivhat has been, what is, and what will lie
sooner Or later.
Some things are very peculiar to this pro
posed .anal. .
In to first place, it is only to be finished
by the present companyfor it has been al
- most nnule by the State, and tiow, the three
million' she has expended upon it, are to be
_given to this company for putting it in ope
ration. ! - .
But this is not all. It extends one bun- '
dred moles from the best anthracite coal field
in the 3-odd, to as good and as extensive a
market for coal as there is this- side of the
Philadelphians _and New Yorkers may
start at this ; but gentlemen, though your
cities - tie large and flourishing, coal dealers
have severe competition iq your markets.—
,The Ptittsville and`Mauch Chunk regions
are poirerful rivals in Philadelphia ; and in
New York, the Lackawanna region comes
in for 4 third share.
it wfll not be so with us. We have this,
the best coal field to ourselves ; and we shall
have western New York, the western. Lake
cOuntd, and Canada, as a market, to be
supplied by us . alone. No other can, com
pete with this coal field there.
There are cities too, in these regions, Uti
ca, Rochester and Buffalo, are treading hard
upon the heels of Philadelphia, New York
and BOston, in
population, enterprise and
wealth 1 and to the commons market this
'large and populous region will afford, this
North preach Canal must carry all the coal.
Ten years hence you may look around
'for a r*al to this canal, but where will you
locate U . ? Here is the map--show us 1—
You c4n find no place for a rival. The
North,Biancli runs straight to the market.
No otkOr coal field, L canal, or railroad can be
made tb compete with it !
you make a railroad to do so ?
Look at the map again. Would you make
It along. the Susquehanna!) beside the canal?
You can Make it nowhere else ; it will
cost yop , five millions at least ; and when
done Am . must carry - your coal upon it up
hill. Alas! you cannot do even that, if you
would, ,Int the construction of such a road is
prohibited by law—a law that cannot be re-'
pealed without the consenti of the North
Branch: Canal Company.
Thera-is another important fact connected
with t his canal and coal market ; neither.
can be . ' ffected materially by the repeal of
the tariff: Foreign coal,-though coming in'
duty frie,. cannot rival ours in western New
York, it will home so much' farther to travel.
Even if it should drive out - of the seacoast
market the anthracite . of other fields . ; arid'
they, tin, shOuld be obliged to seek a mar
ket intestern New York, they' must filet, send t4ir -coat over mountains, and through.
this) coal field and canal to get *i.e.' This
alone should determine capitalists, if othtng
else and when we look Int the wh a suk_
ject,:knowing rill •thee facti as we d , there
is in our minds an inevitable convicti n that
nothing but a thorough knowledge of the
subject is wanting to ensure for thi stock
they very best reputation in the coo ttry.--
We hazard nothing in making th s state
ment: time will verify our predictions.
The alacrity with Which our aflopted citi
zens have' volunteered their services in de-i
fence of their adopted country, and our
American institutiions is worthy of al praise ;
and reflects the highest credit on their pat
riotism as citizens. If any more pr4of were •
needed to falsify the villainous charges that
have for so many years been 'heaped upon
our naturalized foreign population the re
cent enrolments under the act of . Cinwress,
would set them at rest forever. 'decent
events have 'shown that our Irish, German
and French 'population are not behind their
native brethren, in ausivering the call oftheir
country. In the State of Georgia, he only
company of volunteers, we believe, t tat have
left for The seat of war,. are Irish Jasper
Greens. The company numbered over
ninety' of as good soldiers as ever Ipulled a
trigger, while die different companies of
Montgomery Guards, from the several States
show dint the Irish are determined to have
a large share in the glory that the Country will
i aOieve. In Louisville, Lieut. Pike, of the
I Montgomery guards, a thorough bred Irish
man, actually sold out his house and stock
of groceries at auction, left the tqciney for
the support of 'his family, abandoned his
business, and with his brave &nitrides
marched to the seat of war. Contrast this
sacrifice with the conduct of the F,ditor of
the Native American organ of St. 'Louis.—
Ile preferred to use the harmless !shooting
stick of the printer, to the musket, and pre
ferred the jingle of his jiress, andithe odor
of the lamp oil, to the din of cannon and
smell of saltpetre. Ile who would not al
low an Irishman to vote was glad 19 procure
one as a substitute to proceed to the war.—
In New Orleans a whole German ;battalion
has left for the Rio Grande, and in Texas,
Missouri, and tither States, the cierians are
volunteering in large nambers.----N,rto York
WHAT IT CIP.T 2—Benjamin 'V, Butler,
Esq, late Attorney General of the United
States, has computed that the hiss to the
United States, froln the use of intoxicating
drinks is one hundred at id fifty Millions of
dollars annually.; portion of the !State of
New York, eighteen millions. The lion.
Mr Everett, late Minister to Great Britain,
computes that the use of alcoholic beverages
sins cost the United States, directlf,in ten
ears, it 1;200,000,000 ; has hurried or other
!vise destroyed $5,000,000 more of property-;
las destroyed three hundred thoushnd lives ;
knt one hundred and fifty thouiand persons
o our prisons, and one hundred !thousand
-bildren to the poor house; has caused fifteen
hundred murders, two thousand suicides;
and has bequeathed to the country, one Ind
lions of orphan children. .
A Cmsrtt:xricn - s LAltre.ll.--:.Thr late
Roger M. Sherman one of the moFt eminent
lawyers that Connecticut eversa\l, states his
principles as to litigation in these words:
"I brie ever considered it as one of the
first moral duties of a lawyer, and have al
.oloated it '" e 1 ,-
10 encourage a grouTiless suit aria ground
!less defences, and dissuade a client fnan at
itemptingeither of them in conipliance with
rhis animosities, or with the honest preposscs
sions of his Own judgment ; mid I have
deemed it a duty, in:a doubtful case, to point
to every difficulty, and so far :13 I icould, dis
'',courage unreasonable anticipations of stic-
' When will the time come for such to he
.the usual practice of lawyers?
nit . : LICENSE QCF.i.:TION IS PIiNNSII.V.I
- Citizens of New York State have
'just decided in a majority of timviis and
counties to grain no• licensesio
[ eating drink. same questiim is soon
[to be decided in Pennsylvania, !for at the
past session attic Legis lat ure a bill it-as passed
'giving to the citizens of the folloWing coun
ties the right to vote for or ag,ain4 licenses,
,at the annual election for constbbles and
other township officers:—Chester; Susque
lanna, :Wyoming, Butler, Erie, Pe!aware,
Tioga, Bradford, Crawfond„McKean, Elk,
Warren, Fayette,llleg,heny, Mi.rder, Clear
field, Washinnion, Beaver, and : the township
, arid borough otThlt:Plcasant in the county of
: Wayne; and the borough of liewisburg, in
[ Union county. There is no doubt from the
Wide spread feeling in favor of the tempe
rance cause, that fie result in thee counties
will be the same as in New Y ork.,—Ledger.
Tua CENTRAL RAILROAIc.—ThO subscrip
tion to this great work progresses steadily,
:and the Commissioners are , confident that it
will be filled before the books are closed.
Yesterday the number of sub4erdiers was
„.yreaterrhan on any other day' Since the
books have been opened. The sulkriptions
'have varied from one share to one hundred
!and fifty, and in many of the great mercan
tile establishments, all hands, from the por
ter upwards, have subscribed. litere weals
to be a general coming up of persons•of small
means, who have an interest in ithis great
enterprise, and. among those are tti be found
a goodly number of ladies. Thp amount
subscribed at the close of the prOceeding,s,
,yesterday, had not hem footed upi
One of the commissi4oners went out yes
4erday afternoon to Baldwinss manufactory,"
, and procured, from sixtytnine of the workmen
employed in the establishment al subscrip
tion for 155 shares of the stock.—L edger.
A SING ULAR CIRCUMSTANCE. 1-711 is a bin
gular fact, deserving of notice, th4t the in
ventor Of the gullotine was its first victim—
the . discoverer of ' gunimwder,i , efore he
knew its terrible effects, lost Ids I fe in the
attempt to apply it to the purpoSe,for,which
it was intended ; and in-the rete t glorious
battle op the Rio Grande, the, nt Major
,Ringgold, who had' been assiddously en
'gaged for. the fast twenty years b i ringing'to
perfection his corps of Flying Artillery, was
,al sO the, first that fell in testing i itsi qualities
with the 'enemies of onr count#.HHarris
buro Angus. '
In the Connecticut Legislature
the punishment of those who atte
properlY influence the votes of
!the' employ , passed the Howie
,maority : The penalty is a fine
Letter from !he 4r,_lY.
The following tletter, te the bi er OrleanS
Bee, from -the , Camp ,opposite .Matamoras,
contains some int4resting items ofnews which
have not yet reaehed u 4 before, being the
latest date received, . ~
CAMP OPPOSITE htATAIiIORA.S, /'
. s June Gth, 1846.
The wet weather and beat of the sun have,
somewhat impaired the health ;Of our army,
though it may yet IN eonifidered good. The
disease most prevalenCris the diarrlicen, bat
I believe it is it milder tate Odle! disease
than generally prevails in thiS climate and
.at this season of the ye. • To prevent the
spread of this, the Sar eon 60- protested
against the use of green orn, and aeoordiglir
' our Colonel has totallyprohibited its atitiii.4-
sion in the lines. I ass re you there-never
was an action on the.Co n Links of tngland .
that produced so much issatisfaction as this
direct prohibition Of out military ruler. It
was utterly out of the question to hold ART.;
meetings ou the subject and had they beeir
held, would have been Hof nejavail, for ear'
King rules without consulting Ministers Or
'Parliament, where the health: of the troolis
is brought in question.
Yesterday Colonel "Wilsons, conimanll
crossed the river in obedience M an order to
proceed to Camargo and take possession t,f
that point. It is about ninety miles Mimic
here, on the river, and : thirty- above Rcinosb,
l a ylace where I suppoSe he Will halt • fork'
day or two. A Lieutenant of the Rangers
told me he expected there would be a bruili
lbetween Wilson and the . Mexicans at the
former place, but did trot seem to think tit
I would amount to anything. - i.
I'Ve, are as ignorant .ftiere a our destina
tion asl you are in Newl Orleans, other than
that we start tip the rive . SoMe are of opib
ion that the army will
scattered and tape
and occupy posts on the river,; while the
portion seem sangnine tliat .tire thatch
directly for Monterey, where. the enemy's
forces are concentrating and fortifying thent
selves. Should the latter prophecy beveri
iied' we will have warm (work in reaching the
point, as the sun is warner in the prairies
on the rout than you e n imagine. Mont
I erev is ninety leagues foot Matamotas, and
eighty from thc'ltio Grande, and were it riot
that the rains keep the prairie's pretty wet,
it would be difficult for infantry to reaeh
water when needed, and at easy marches.
Letters have been-received at the Navy
A party of Rangers: went: out the other
Department from Monterey, bearing as late
day and fell in with ten or twelve Mexicans,
two of whom they killd, the balance stir- a date as April 18th.-Union. -
rendered immediately ,' f und all but two wet' e The unwarranted attempt to drive Capt.
Fremont from the co u ntry has already been
suffered to depart. They were armed, and
the Rangers fired without 'questioning whetb- alluded to in the newspapers. ' .After.having
er they were friends or enemies, taking it for been ordered away by Don Jose Castro,
granted that armed men were the latter. : commandant general, Capt. F. expecting an
Captain Stringer is I about . to establish a attack fortified himself about twelve leagues
post-office at his headi-quarters for the
. r t i c - distant from Monterey. Castro, assembled
commodation of our regimeat; which w ai n _ about 100 men in front of the entrenchment.
deed be very accommodating; By the wav, After remaining there three days, he con
speaking of "post-Officesi, I Was much plewied I eluded to treat, when it was .disdovered that
at the one in Matamoros the other day. I .1 1 the party had quietly gone off, leaving some
wished the postmastc4 l to hand me a letter, I i old saddleS and trash which the Californians
' which he did, after .the style of your city magnified into munitions of wan-
post-office clerks—"ten cents, sir," and paid " Three hundred riflemen offered their ser
a to him, hot, howei-er, without doubtin g vices to Capt. P. but they were declined.
the authority of any
. an here to ext e nd the The movement against Capt. Fremont
seems. to have been directed by the central
of the United States post-office
1 law in Mexico. Dail I . a United States Mail ' government of Mexico; but it is hot believed
lis opened here in Mat oral, and distriltut
1 that the people of California entertained any
led to citizens, as Tooke s on in , Venice," and I
ill will towards him, or would willingly have
„,,m;,,,, anti the reltar pOofige of frock
done him harin. His own conduct m the
Sam exacted. . It's al right—l suppose , whole matter seems to have been marked
There has been a rdgular search for alike. by courage and. discretion.
1 and aril unition, all.through Matamoras, W e subjoin a copy of a letter i written by
since I last wrote, an I believe the parties
him to the American consul at Monterey,
have been very succes4ul, for every hour in- i when in expectation of an attack, and re
the day brings something to l this side in, the ceived by - the consul on the evening of March
°shape of muskets, swords pistols, uniforms, 10. The captain remained , in excellent
f &c., brought from the different quarters. of health, and gone north: - i '
the city ; but nothing-Seerns to be done with "My Dear Sir: I this nroment received
those on whose prenri:ies they are found. . your letters, and without waiting to read
A manifesto has been issued by Arista, them, acknowledge the receipt: which. the
proclaiming all who held communication ; or courier requires instantly. I alit making
;trade with the invadef.s, traitors to Mexico, I myself as strong as possible, in die intention
and threatening, lingering tort - dents . to any that if' we are unjustly attacked,- we will
l one xKlio shall offend. i It has' however little fight to extremity and refuse quarter, trust
! effect, as they seem tolbe-as thirnerous abbot ing to our countrytg avenge out death. No
the Camp as ever. They may be seen d a i.. one has reached thy campi and from .the
Ily through out lines,lvending milk, bread, heights we are able to see troops (With the
sugar, and every artiOe that can be found glass) Mustering at Saint 'John's; and pi - &•,
in market. I am seriously of opinion that paring cannon. I: thank you for your kind
the greater number of those who have 4.e.. ness and good wishes, and wouldwritemore
minted in our vicinity are like the woman at length-as to-my intentions, did I not fear
who saw her husband (fighting with a bear. that my letter will be intercepted. We
General Taylor has i paid our camp a visit, have in no wise done wrong to the people or
and by his plain appearance has won the the authorities of the country • andif we are
esteem of the entire ' soldie , No person h emmed in and assaulted, we will die, every
would have taken hin t
for a General, for 11 - man of us, under the flag of our, country. -
stead of a military coat, he Wore an old - blue Very , truly Yours,::
I summit, without. any! mark' of distinction J. C. FREMONT.
save his sword, worn I under. his -coat, and P. S.—l am encamped on the top of the
which he seemed disposed to conceal by ever Sierra, at the headwaters of it streani which
and anon pulling the flaps together. strikes the.road to Monterey,' at;the horse of
An act of sumniats pun ishment was ;in- D. Joaquin Gomez. J . C. F.”
dieted here on Sunday evening by three, or
four. rangers. A Mexician *as caught in the
act of stealing from their 'camp, when they
led him outside of their lines' and shot him
through the hein am, heart, immediately
finishing his earthly: career,
The Itlorihon Nyar.
The following from ]
the Warsaw Signal
Extra, brings down the proceedings of the
Anti-Mormons to Sunday night,- 15th inst.
.• Sunday, 12 o,clock M.—We are again
called onto announce that the county of Ban
cock is the theatre ofl war. ' Two oppaiite
and hostile forces are- now i 4 arms, and tn
less a third party inuirvenes- a collision 1 is
inevitable.. .1 --- :
On Friday last' a laige number of citizens
assembled at Cartbag4, iirnitid, and after a
conference with a coOnittee of the new cit
izens, resolved to infidel' within, font- miles
of Nauvoo, encamp, and negetiate further on
the propiety of entering the City: i
Accordingly, yesterday, , a large-force Was
put in motion and rim ezvoused attoldcin's
Point, five Miles Sou , of - Nawroo. Item
they were met by a committe'e c , of new citi
zens, and sundry propositions \were made,
The committee of ti a new eitizettuin
ed to Nauvoo last ni lit, 'ind. mad a re
port; but in the mean 'ffie,.Backenstos,4ho
had been abSent, art.* cts in the city, and*
aid of the remaining onion's, overtuniUd
all 'amicable arrange ants; and hooted lot
the committee and th • propOsitipn soi-.
ted by them. He . dec eked he would "t4te
the field and put dowthe moth!' Accord
ingly_lie called a posse iwhiekto the hest ac
count, is about 500 st ng, neenyineW' . settlers
of Nauvoo. being fore into .the 'ranks,
a large number of Morttionsj who were en,
camped on the tither side of
j the river g
returned to assist
,iu driving the - Mbr
a bill for
pt to ha
y a large
mom from the field. The state of facts hav
ing. been ascertained at the camp',. at Gold:
'en's Points, a council was called, tind it hav
ihg been ascertained that the men! were sup
plied with but about five rounds Of eartridgeit
and one days provision, 'it Was resolved to
retreat to Carthage, increase their" supplies,
collect the artillery in the neighborhood, re
inforce their men, and march again for the
accomplishment of their object. The An
tics did not anticipate any resistance at the
time the expedition was started, and, hence,
did not make iulequate preparation's to meet
an emergency, such- as arose .after arriving
at Golden's Point.
• • The anti-Mornion forces number about
400, and reinforcements are houri- - •
The Morinons are gaining
the opposite side of the river,
her frorn_6oo to SOO by the tii
can take the field again.
Citizens of the surrounding lye
present to 'you the facts as the; we
now as'4 you to redeem the made
by you through your delegates '7 ar .
thage Convention last October at
tempt to make a display for el been
resisted by the Mormons . , and st ill
so strong in fiance/3k • co. that it bd
ficult to overcome them in their strong hold
without the aid of our neighlieis. If the
anti-Mormons fail. now, all is Ipst! Win
you assist us now while' the dims, is immin
ent, or will you sneer this ;horde of villians
and cut-throats again to. gain the ascendant
The rentlepouz is at Carthage, and to
that point every anti-Mormon in this and
surrounding counties should repair insianter l
taking with him ti-good supply derovisions
. LATEST FROM NAUToo.-By the following
brief announcement in the St. Lobis papers
of the lsth, it would appear that the anti-
Mormons, after committing the (*rages de
tided yesterday, have dispersed. his highly
disgraceful to the, State that the; laws have
not force enough to punish such acts of in
A few hours later.--A. brief note to the
editors, dated at 3 o'clock, P. in, of Satur
day, says:—"The invading part have dis.
persed, to rally again in strength at Car
thage—so they say. Warrants are out for
some of the neighbors."
ANOTHER REPORT.-.AMOHg; die reports
of the day is that if Santa Annai,vho at the
last dates was still at Havana, shsuld be re
called to the Presidency of MeXico; he will
carry out an arrangement' whicii is: alleged
to have been made througbonv of his agents
w4 the Government at Washington. This
arrangement,it is said, embraces: first; peace
with this country . on the part of Mexico;
second, the acknowledgment- tif the 'Rio .
Gran 'e as the Southern boundary of the
United States; and third, the acquisition or .
California by puichase. What :credit is to'
be given to this7report theicaderi can deter- . •
mine for_ himself.' Anodier ruthor that
Captain McKmiiie's piission to. Havana
has nothing to do with' Santa Anna;
is for the purpose ofd' the two'
Mexican stemnship• ',now in the hands or
the British owners. Ledge.
CANDLES, who it is said; by late: advices
from Matmoratl is stationed. at Reionosa,
with a large e. airy force,. commanded the
Mexican tr. '. s in the battle of Meir, in
which 261 . •exans defeated 2300 Mexicans.
Ho is said r be rapacious and treacherous.
His treatrnent.ofthe Texan priSoners taken in
the Meir expedition, by means of his own
treachery, wgs.crnel in the extretne.—M.
,' MEXIOAN ;PRIVATEERS--REPORTED CAP.-
'TORE OP. AMERICAN VEsseLs.-The Kings
ton (Jimmie:ay Morning 4ournal i of the 6th
lat.i.sitYti---,, There was a repo;t yesterday
(re the Brigantine Telegraph, at this port',
fro Ne!r - Orleans, that she waslboarded by
a Me 'can Privateer, and on ascertaining
she w a British veseel, wa s permitted to
Proceed mutilated. The Captain of the
Telegraph s° states that thaPrtvatear" had*
two Americ a n vessels with,liini as prizes."—A.
Ledger,. . \ ,