Northern democrat. (Montrose, Pa.) 1844-1848, December 14, 1848, Image 1

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    0, G. 1141IPSTEAD I Proprietor.
The • esident's Message.
Commnica ed to Bath Holmes, Dee. ith, 1848.
Fell* Citi.tens' of the - Senate and House of
Under the benignant Providence of Almigh
ty God, the ilepr,ceentatives of the States and
of the peopleilare again brought together to de
• of
. • . -i
Beret. for the public good. The gratitude off - war successt Sy. _ icy .in 14w repute our mitoperatinn with our troops—in the conq• s., - . .
o f sod, peculiarly adapted to the preelection' o p t a h s e a r ti s i k e tl e a e nt t i7; N ci e ti w es. °ll T ea h n e s a , m - t l ei ew nt :
the nate n tit the sovereign Arbiterefif all bu- ,militia, and were far from regarding them as an of;the Californias. the capture of Vera Cruz, I tyf %r u k r , ;Lt .
ma n eve t s ,fsh ou ld be commensurettiestrith the effective force, unless might be fig temporary 41 the silzure and occupation of other impor- iof ar :2lo of our most valuable staple conimodi- ' constitutional currenc y et l e me would b e great
b olim dl ess t e p es i n gs, which weenteijoiel'e Peace,' defensive operations when invaded on per own !tate positions on the Gulf and Pacific coasts, l ties, and her commercial adVantages, newt soon Ily increased, whil e it s c ir cu l a ti on a b rot id wou ld
. plenty, and obntentm,ent reignliirangtiout oar soil.; The events of the late' war with ttlexec o ' the hightst praise is due. .-Their vigilance, make her one of our moat 'populous States. !be prom o t e d. lit i s - we ll k nown t o ° S ir mer e
borders, ancl, our belovede s etittitt*lsents a haYe not only undeceived them, but have re- I ellirg), and skill rendered the most effective; New Mexico, thoughesitunted in the interior, I chants ending in China andthe west coast of
sublime morP spectaeleeStitetlias wort . The moved erroneous i m p ress i ons w hi e h prevailed Isetvice in excluding munitions of war and other and without a sea-coast, is; known to contain I Ameriett that great inconvenience ab 4 loss
troubled" andcondition of some of the to some extent even among a pqrtion of our : stipplies from the enemy, while they secured n much fertile land, to abound in rich mines of 'tare experie n ced from th e fe e t th a t our coins I
principal Enlioliean poyeois. had apecestiery- o wn cou n t r y men . That war has demonstrated, :safe entrance for abundant supplies for our own s the precious metals, and tol be capable of sus- !are not eurrent tit theirlpar value in these Ono- I
tendency to-Oheck andeetabarriss tratletitrid'lo that upon the breaking out of host i lities net an- ' arhey. Our extended commerce was nowhere I taining a large population. i Viotti its position, ; tries. ; -I.
, i il l , I
-depress pricey thronghouteallicommercial ita- tieipated, and for which no previou preparation ;interrupted t, and fir this immunity' from the ,it is the intermediate and etnnnecting territory' , The powers 0 Europe; far remove d 'f ro m th e
eons ,• bat tiitwithatanding:th*Oeleitetteestibe lid been made, a volunteer army pf citizen 5 01- twills of war, the country is indebted to the navy. ; between our settlements and our possessions in' west coast of A erica by th e Atl an tit °e mits
United Statckwilh,theiwitliendaikpled,
s ae_ts, d o ielli equal to teleran troops, and in numbe r s , Il l l.lieli praise is due to the officers of the sev- 'Texas, and those on the Pacific co as t. ' i which intervene , and by a tedious anti dange- .
have felt thetsiffecti leAsseViitey-e* equal to any emergency, can in a [short period ; oil executive bureaus, navy yards, and sties! Upper California, lrresective of the vast lrous•naeigatio.n rou n d th e s ou th e r n cape of the'
other country,, - atitlall.otiffgemeeeintere, be brought into the field. Unlike what w ou ld !tilos eonneeted with the service, all under Mel mineral wealth recently 'de eloped there, holds; cothinerit of A e r ica, can n eve r sem ee ssf u lly I
still prosperous and 'snedissftere:'.**tintette have occurred in any other country, we were !ine l teediate direction of. the Secretary of the }at this day, in point of vall4 and importance to I comp,etd with the United States inth e iri c h a n d !
the greatevesiits of thopitity4***iitt-; ; tinder no necessity of resorting tol draughts or' Nlivy, h.r the industry, foresight, and energy, the rest of the • Union, the ;same relation that exteneire commerce which is opened td us at so
ing the e.gitaged and clisturbeailistW,Oter 4useriptiOnsi On the contrary, such was the' with which everything was directed and fur- ;Louleiena did, when that fine territory was tie- I much lees cost la the econisiti on o f Cidefo rn i a . I
countries wit our owretramptilisiidet4py-C,On- : nennber of volunteers who patriotieally te n d e r- Inithrd to give efficiency to that branch of the eldred from France 45 yeas ago. ' Extending' The vine. imp rtatice an d c em mere i t il a dv an - 1
dition, weemiy congratulate otiritelfeOtilitswe aiheir.servf o es, that the chief difficulty was in ; ecnwice. The same vigilance existed in direct- 'nearly 10 degrees of latitude along the Pacific, tnees of Calif° nia hate heretofo r e iemai ne d '
are the niest layered people ; on the feel:a:the' - reeking selections and determining who should ling the operations of the navy, as of the army. end embracing the only sate, and commodious • un'develiped by the government of flue coun t r y
earth. While the people of other - countries are be disappointed and compelled to rem a i n a t I There was concert of action and of purpose be- I harbors on that coast for litany hundred miles, of which it cons ituted' a part. Nowithat this
struggling tcl;establish free institutions, under home. Our citizen-soldiers are unlike th ese teieen the heads of the two arms of the serviee., with a temperate climate, abd an extensive in- fine protince is a part, of our countre(all the
which man + govern himself, we are id the drawn.from the population of any other coun t r y. IBp the ordere which were from time to time , terror of fertile lands, it is scarcely possible to I States ef the U ion, some inoreimniediatelyand
actual itijeyntent of them—a rich inheritance: They are„einaposed indiscriminately of all pro- l leen* our vessels of war on the Pacific and' estimate its wealth until it: hall be broughtem- I directive than o ers, are deeply interested in
from our fittiers. While enlightened nations sessions and pursuits ;of farmers, lawyers, phy- ' th . o Gulf of Mexico were 'stationed in proper !der the government of our awe, and its resour- ' the spesly (ley , opulent of its wealthy and re
ofl Europe ant convulsed and distracted by civil alcians, merchants, manufacturers , mechanics I time andin proper positions to co-operate effi- l ces fully developed . Prom its position. it must ; souecesi No section of our country le more in- 1
war or intestine strife, we Settle all our political end laborers ; and this, not only among th e of-' ciently with the army. By this means their command the rielneornrnerq of China, of Asia, I terested, or will be niore _benefited than th e ;
controversiesiby the peaceful exercise of the ,fivers, but the private soldiers in the reek s .— cdtnibitied power was brought to bear success- of the islands Of the Pacific- of Western Mini ' e.mmeetleial, navigating, and manufaetnring s ini
rights of freeken at the ballot box. The great I Our eitizenesoldiers are unlike those of any fully on the enemy. no, of Central America, thh Smith American , terests of the Bastere States. Our platting and
Repablican utiaxim, so deeply engraven on the 'Other country in other respects. 'f hey are arm ' The! great results which have been developed States, and of the Russian Poseestions bord e r. • funnier+ interests in every part o f the finial l
hearts of otelpeople, that the will of the people, !ed, and have • been accustomed-from th e ir vre i th 'add brought to light by this war, will be of im- ing on that ocean. A great etvp,eitint e v il', will be greatly 'benefited by - it. As tur com-
constitutionality expressed, shall prevail, is our ,up to handle'and use fire-arms ; and a 'l arge ' Measurable importance in the future protraels doubtless speedily arise , In the Calsornian;merce eed nav e ati m ;. are enlarsred and exten- !
sure safe-greird against force and violence. It proportionof-elleM, especially in the western of our country, They will tend powerfully to coast, which may be destined to rival in impor- ;der', o u t exe r s In:eti , ultural prodinets and .4 . 1
is asubject (test pride that our fame and char- tend more e newly4ettled States, are ex p er t l pOserve us trete foreign collisions, and to en-
. tance New Orleans itself. i The depot of th e I ma-nuetturee %till be increased ; and in the
actor as a *ion continue rapidly to advance irparksmerilheylare men who have a re p u t e - ', able us to pursue uninterruptedly our cherished vast commerce which mustiexist on-the Pacifi c ! new markets thus opened, they cannot fail to
in the estimgion of the civilized world., To our l tion to maintain titlimme by theirgood c o n d uc t , Obey of " peace ' with all nations, entangling will probably be at some point on the o f command remneratine and•profitabld prices.
_ .at home bay
wise and fre,A institutions, it is to be attributed )in the field., Theyare intelligent, and there is' alliances with none." . San Francisco, and will octrapy the same rela- I The acquisition of California and lime Mex- I
that While Ober nations have achieved glory et 'an individuality of character which i s f oun d i n I lOccunylng, as we do, a more commanding l tion to the whole western (least of that ocean , , ice, theSettlennent of the Oregon homicide!, and i
the price of the suffering, distrlS and imposer- the ranks , -of no other army. In battl e , eac h , '
Witten [moue nations than at any former pe- as New Orleans dyes to the valley of the Mi s - l the annexation ofiTexas,
,extending tb the Rio I
ielnuent oft stir people, we haet. won our hone- ; private man, as well as every o ffi eer, fi e les no t ,ribd, our duties and eur rcspot.sibilities to our- sissippi and the gulf of 31c , ieo. To this depotGrande, are .r sults; which, conlbin4d, are of;
rable positiori in the midst of an uninterrupted' only for his country, but for g lory. and di st i nc - t SOVCS and to posterity are cerrespondinely in- our numerous whale ships Will resort with th e i r I ereateeconseq eneetOtadwill add One to the i
prosperity, ald of an increasing individual cam- 1 iott among his fellow-citizens t when h e s h a ll ttased. This will be the more obvious when' cargoes,' to trade, refit, ated obtain suppli e s. i strength and wealth ref iluil , :nation,Whan env
_fort and happiness:. ;return to civil life. Iwe considtr the vast additions which have been This of itself will largely cOntribute to build u p , which have proceeded them since the adoption ;
lam hapPy to inform you that our legations j , The war With Mexico has demonst ra t e d no t rdeently made to our 'territorial possessions, a city, which would soon become the c en t r e o f iof the cons i
the tion. • i -
with all nation's are friendly and pacific', Ad- I only the ability of the government to organize atsd their great importance and value. la great and rapidly increasing, commerce.. l'Sit-e But, to effe t these great results, ;riot' only ;
vintageous t&aties of commerce have been con- la numerous army upon a spdden M a ll, but also :, Withiu less than tour years the annexation onkel on a safe bather, sufficiently capacious r Califernia, hu New Mexico, must bti brought ;
eluded Withitiltle last four yeats with New Gre- lto provide it with all thentunitiorte a nd neee s - ' o Texas to the Union has been consummated ; , for all the navies as well 4 the m ar i ne o f th e , under the eon rol of regularly orgadized goy
nada, Peru, the two Sicilies, Belgium, Hanover, Sky er l applien; with deipafeh, convenience. and, all confileting title to the Oregen Territory world, and convenient to excell e nt ti m b er f or t ermiteots. Th, existing t condition of California,.
Oldenburg, "a Mechlenburg-Sehwerin. Pure ease,. nil to direct its operations with'eelicien- , south of the -Inch degree of north latitude, be-1 ship building, owned by the United States, ie . and ofehat pa tof Nee,letexico lying west of:
suing our eetereple, the restrictive system of Cy. he strength of our insternion,s bas not; iti,k , all that was insisted on bwane of my pied- :meet Imentliewursgeeste weitensenaral depe t t e s4theellio C4ntn le e arteleit*etteethelitnies of TexeA
l e
Great Beta one principal foreign customer, only - iti - dieplayee in the valor 'am) 51,i1l ef lessors. has been adjusted ; and New Mexico It was known that mines of the preeinta as, imPerieuslt demandtbit Ctingreit should* j
has been e ed. A more liberal commercial blear t oops engaged in active service in the field, 1 aeSd Upper California bee. Leon e, ,, f l uirpd tun, metals existed to a coneiddr a bl e ex t en t i n C a li_ its present seteirm, erganiielterritoril govern'F•
melicy has ben adopted by other enlightened I but i the organization
,of those executive; t. eats. The area of tht se several Territories. fornia at the time I , i we ,k„. 3 -...1:4. ; ,„. n .,.,.,„,,1_____„:„,.., t h i , m, , • i
nations; and ur trade has been greatly enlarge Ibrandbes which were charged- wt helm general' ateording to a report carefully prepared by the discoveries render it probable that these mine's i Upon the exchange of" ratiffeatiobs, or the;
ea and esti ed. Our country stands higher "direction and conduct of the wa "Ss While tool ( c ommissioner of,the General Land Office from are more extensive and valuable than wa s an - I treaty e)f , peacie withenlexico onsthe•Oirtieth ofe
in the respe of the world than; at any fornierTgreat praise cannot be bestowed pon the offi- ehe most authentic information in his posses- ticipated. The accounts ef the abunda nce of May last; the ! temporary gevernmepts which
period. To, ontinue to occupy this proud po- 'eers and men who fought our bat lee. it would Sion, and which is herewith transmitted_ con- gold in that territory are a l " such an extr a e r di- Iliad been established over New Mexico and!
Sition, it is 'ly necessary to preseree peace, 'be unjust to withhold trent, thoie ,fficere neces-ititins 1,103.06.1 square tulles, or 763,539,040 nary character-as would se rcely command b e - I Califo - tnia by' our Military Wed nansilt comman
and faithful] adhere to the great fundamental sarilyi stationed at home, who Ire: e charged tllt.rus : while the area of tie remaining twenty- lief were they not corrobo ted by the anthen- , ders, by virtue of the rights of war,' lceased to
principle of , foreign , policy of non-interfere ewith the duty of furnishing the atniv. in proper I the States,' and - the territoly not yet organized, tic reports of officers in th public service, who : derive any oh igatory force fruni that source - of
enee in the Ibmestic eoneerns of other nations. litime,, and at proper places, with all the Muni-!into States, east of the Rocky Mountains. eon-'have visited the mineral.. istrien and d er iv e d authority;' and having been ceded toi the Uni
We reeognis' to other nations the rights which I:tions of war and- other supplies- so necessary to 'ti l iris 2,059,513 square miles, or 1,315-el 26,05 e . the facts which they detai from personal o be ted Mites, all government and controlover them
we enjoyn ' elves, to change and reform theiel;make ii efficient, the commendation to which' Urns- These estimates show that the territn- , servation. . Reluctant tocredit the rep o rts i n under ,the authority of Mexico had teased to
pelitiealiest s tutimis according to their own will I;they are entitled, The credit due to this class '1 •s _recently aermired. and over which our ex-' general eircultitioe as to t e quantity of gold, exist. I Impressed with the necessity! of estab
wad pleasurl Heim we do not look bellied lOf our officers is the sweater, when it is consid- elusive jurisdietion and dominion hal e been ex- the officer commanding au forces in dlifornia lishingt territeirial governments over; them, I
e:isling govirnmenti, capable of 'maintaining tered that no army in ancient or m _dent times tended, Constitute a country more than half as; visited the mineral distrie in July last, for th e , recoil:lntended the subject to the favniable eon
their own authority. We recognise all such I : we:sever better appointed or previded than ter. Itirge as all that which wits held by the I'llited purpose of obtaining ace rate information o n I sideration of Congress in my message mime-
Actual goye4ments, not only from the dictates fanny in Mexico. Operating in an enemy's itates before their acquisition., If t tregen be the subject. His report tie the War Dep ar t. : nicatirig the ratified treaty of peace', len the 6th
ef true policy. but from a sacred regard for the lenuntro removed 2000 mileCrnte the scat of Ckeluded from the estimate, there will still re- , mkt of the result of his tixamination, an d th e , of July last, end invoked their action at that
independence ofnatilms. th s e tedetal
. gevernment, its different Corps 14ain within the limits of Texas, New Mexico, facts obtained on the spot, is herewith laid
e ~
- h e _ 1 session. Congress adjourned withotit making
While thit is our settled policy, it does not; spread over a vast extent of terrieery, hundreds • eel , ' Califernia, e 51.598 welfare miles, or 545,- • fore Congress. When he ;visited the - count r y, any prnyisiontfor their government. i The in- I
ie'nw that die can ever be indifferent spectators 'and even thousands Of miles apart from eaeh , t;t12,720 acres; being an addition equal to,l,there were about 4,000 persons en g a ge d i n • habitant,, byithe truster, of their country, Wl
tf :he progr_ As of liberal principles. The goy- other, nothing short of tte untiring' vigilance _More than one-third of all the territory owned collecting gold. _There is revery reas on t o b e -
,' become entitled , to the benefits of out laws and I
ernment a n people of the . United States bailed and extraordinary energy of these officers could $- the U. States before their acquisition ; and, • here that the number of ,arsons so empl o y e d I c onstitution,. 'and yet were left withoat any reg-,
with enthus sm and delight the establishment have enabled them to provide the army at all including Oregon, nearly as great an extent of, has since .been augmente . The explo ra ti ons I ularly or e eamted government. Silted that time
of the Fren republic, as we now hail the ef- points, and in proper season, with all that was territory as the whole of Eurepe,'Russia only already made warrant the belief that the su p- I the very limitedpower possessed by the Exe
• Oecepted. The Mississippi, so lately the fron- ; ply is very large, and that gold is found at vas; cutivelias been exercised to preserve-and-pro
forts in pro ess to unite the States of Germs- required for the most efficient service. I
ny in a eon ,ederatien, similar in many respects It is but an act of justice to; declare, that tier of our country, is now only its centre.—prious places in an extensi district of coun t r y. I test them from the inevitable consequences of a
to our own 'dere! Union. lithe great and en , ; the officers in charge of the several execneive l ' . itli the addition tit' the late acquisitions, the! . Information received fr m officers of t oe na _ 1 state ef anar+hy. The only gneeffneent , which
lightened G man States, occupying as they dol bureaus, all under the immediate eye 'and Cu- Vrtited States arc new estimated to he nearly Ivy and other sources, though net s o f u ll an d iremairied way •that established by the military
a central an commanding position in Europe, ' 4 pervision of the Secretary of War, performed'lts large as the whole of Europe. It is estima- I minute, confirm the accounts o f th e c omman d er I anthosity dujing the war. Regarding this to
shall succeett in establishing such a confedera- theirxrespective duties, with ability, energy, and; nd bethe superintendent Of the coast survey,lof bur military force in Ca if ori d a . It a pp ears be a di , fact , government, and that ley the pre
ted goverratent, 'seedling at the same time toi, efficiency. They have reaped lees of the glory , itl the.accompanying report, that the extent ofd also, from these reports, that mines o f qu i c k.: I Burned consent ofthe inhabitants it l might be
the citizen4ot each State, local governments a4of the war, •not having been perienally exposed I Ilse. sea-coast of Texas on the Gulf of nlexicoeilver are found in the vicinity of th e go ld re - continited temporarily, 'they were ,advised to
dapted to de peculiar position of each, with.;to its peribi in battle, than their companions in le e s upwards of 300 miles ;of the coast of Upper! gion. One of them is now b e i ng worked, An d ' conforin andisubmit twit for the sleet inter
- unresericte _ trade and intercourse with each" arms ; . buttwithout theiriorecas • efficient aid, l Valiforeia, on the Pacific, is 970 miles ; and of; is believed to be among the ro os t p ro d u cti ve i n vening period-before Congress wonhl again as
other, it be an important era in the historY l and co-operation, those in the eld would not Pregon, including the Straits of Fuca, of 6no;tlunworld.
• I semble and +mid legislateson the subject. The
of human ents. Whilst it will consolidate I hive been provided with the am le means they l tnlles ; making the whole extent of sea-coast I The effects produced y the discovery of views ]entertained by the Executive on this
and streug en the power of Germany, it must; possessed of achieving for themselves and their,ts the Pacific 1.620 miles, and the whole ex- I tbete rich minerals, and tto s ucces s which has! point tire centained in n eonnemnication of the
essentially remote the cause of peace, come , ' country the unfading honors which they have
,!ent on both the Pacific and the Gulf of Mexi- I attended the labors of .thee who h ave r e sor ted 1 Secretary ofiState,:dated the 7th. tlf October
1 l eo 2,020 miles. 'The length of the coast nn the 'to them, have produced ai surprising
merce, eiv ization and constitutional liberty' won for both.
tbroughoutß e the world. l Atlanti c rl
1 When all these facts are considered, it may - ,rom the north e rn limits of the United the state of affairs in 'Caltforiiia. Labor corn- I Califernin and Neal' Mexico, a copyk of ,which
change in I last, Which was for warded for Pnblication to
; k . _
, ,
With all the governments on this coetinenteleease to be a matter of so much -amazement • e -testes, around the Capes of Florida to the Sa-I mends a most exorbitant ;price, and all other, is herLwith ransmitted., e 't
our relations, it is believed, are now an amotelabroad how it happened that our no ble ar my iliine, on the easternn e houndary of Texas, is esti- 1 pursnits but that of scareng for the precious! The small militate , forge - of the regutar piny I
friendlyanl), satisfactory footing than they haVellin Mexico, regulars and volunteers, were vie.- rtnated to be 3,100 miles ; so that the addition i metals are abandoned. Pearly th e w h o l e o f' which were servinglwithifi s the limits; of the act
ever been at any former period. Since themi-i torious upon every-battle-field, however fearful f seacoast, including Oregon, is very nearly ;the male population of ti c o unt r y have gone quired terri ogles at -the close of the war, was
change of' rittificationa 'of the treaty ,of ;,,fro-thirds as great as all we possessed before:, jto the gold district. Sips arriving ou the retained in hem, end additional .forces have
peacd the odds against them:
with Mexiele our intercourse with the goverit-, The war with, Mexico has thtls fully Bevel- Itnd excluding Oregon , is an addition of I,37olcoast are deserted by teh crews, and their been brdeve therelfor the protection of the in=s
meat. of At republic has been of the mos oped the capacity of republican governments to ;;Piles ; being nearly equal to one-half of the! voyages are suspended Or mpot, o f sailors. hsbitiiiits, atid to pteserve and secure the rights'
friendly clinracter. The envoy Extraordinary prosecute successfully a just and necessa • for- :extent of coast which w e possess e d before these i Our commanding officer !there etwertains ap- and interestt of the United States.
and l itlinistFPlenipotentiary o f the U. States,. eign war with all the 'vigor usaally attributed l!lecquisitionss W e hav e now three great =Tie Prehelfsions that soldiers 'cannot, be kept in the ' No revenue has been or could be collected,
to Mexicoes has been receifed and accredited '
l e to more arbitrary forms of , goiviernment. It 4ime fronts—emetic Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexie public service without a large increase of pay. at the _torts in California, heeans Congress
and a I:Epithetic representative front Mexico of has . been usual for writers on public law to im- r and the Pacific — making i n th e w h o l e an l Desertions in his comma d have become fre- failedito authorize the establislunentlof custom
s similar rink has been received and accredited I pute-to republics a want-of that unity, coneen-iextent of sea-coast exceeding 5,000 miles.Hquent, and he recommen that those wboshall; housdi, or tie appointment of officers for that
by this gonernment. tie amicable relationi't t.'of pet e and vigor of 'execution,liThiti is the extent of the-sea-coast of the Uni- I withstand the strong teMptation, and remain I purpdse• i
.s.l raton •pue s ,
letween - tlie two cottntrieslbich bid been sum.
Tended, live' been happily restored, and are
destined, ii trust, to be long - preserred. Ttie
two republics, both situated on this 'continent.
and with , koterminons territories, hale every
motive oflymPathy and of interest to bind thee'
ky anu .
together perpetual. unity.
This gOtif,ying condition of our foreign Vela
tions ren4rs it unnecessui for' me.t9 •na#iTir
attention More specifically to them:
It has been my constant aim soddesire, to.
cultivate lameittrui commerce with all naticmie
•Tranquility _at home, and peaceful selatiwas
abroid, o(institute the true permauentrli4Of
o ar ion4ry. 'War, the seourge of watioak
sometimei become/imitable, alwajito
be svoidee" when it he done ealisistaudY
with the fights andlonor of the notion. I
opthe moot important remits ofitutirir
into wit we were neatly forced: tie s
teigikbo maim is thiiielsonstrotioo kto:i
*Alia Otte adifiry *trot* dont fouttill:
Bien tlts . irivisithllfigleiCEurip s oil k i i i
taw f 'Pogrataterk‘itiggpr*tod
_ 01101 ** 1 0.rflib - Sk i II
4 41inits Abair kqellllSillif
--+-- -
1 ^ I i
' l e l ' b a a s y s e h b e ee n n ig s h til t gr ha e ye ater. • The e y se ll ' a d v a e n be ge e rs n
establishment did not exceed 10,0
especially a liar waged out of our own country. jo4he army in the late war with Mexico, it
They saw that our standing army on the peace' bqause they had no enemy to meet sonll
0 men. ;tic- 1 owp element. While the army bad opporttu
i i )
(*d by her 'voluntary and peaceful annexe
eustomed themselves to maintain In peace large I typf performing more conspicuous service, ' fa the United States. Texas, from her
standing armies, for the protectio of thrones !trory largely participated in the conduct of ,
tea, was a natnral'and ,almost indispensa-
against their own subjects, as we as against 'war. war. Both branches of the service perform' lit of our territories. I Fortunately, she
, ,
foreign enemies, they had not conceived that it Isth,4ir whole duty to the country. For the di, _ been restored to our country, and now con-
was possible for a nation without snob an army, f mill gallant services of the officers and men o istitutC's one of the States of our confederaey,,i
well disciplined and of long service, to wage it 4 navy—actin
_g independently as well as in ' " upon an equal footing , with the original
.• •
-sfult They held ' thr 'nest !Statel."' The salubrity of climate, the fertili
which are - generally admitted tol belong to the
monarchial Auld aristocratic forms ; and this
feature of poptilar gpvernment has been sup--
posed to display itself more particularly in the
-j¢ ?Ones, of a war carried on in 4n enemy's ter
friar Ti — ith Great:Britain,. in 1812,
kry. be war wit_teat Jritase, —,
was to a great extent eonfined Witt& eurown
limits, and shed but little likbt len this 1 übject.
But the war whieh'welays Just. clone by an
Lhooorable peace, evinceilteyet altde bt, that
S.pointlak repreaentatiye,gove meat is equal!
to any , emageney which &like' lonrisein the'
Weirs of s ostler!.
:2herwartwith 'Metino- bits- efelpped niost
Itrilinid7 and eanapicuoutly so ther,festure in
our tnetitntions."." Itie„ ti t, 14 on costto t the
mooo4ritiaogen to.- : rtiee,w4FO
fOl/0111... - OUT., --4•
In-ilinboeori=oronitoeiety of .test iartilal
sad neeeethry wki , ?virtually aj
sta nd.* *my 01'2,000 1 000 of I *riled nitisen l
iithSprt; itholl'eolought the bat es-of• Mexico
'`Balonrinnitik7 strength does not nonsjoi
glees u cepetity for emended end t 6
114•01 Islet Thin is an impOr,
teit'intitibo Ithirtosol th e leer 4
itsiitiosvirssoigi ' teeth*
Icd States, not including bays, sounds and
mall irregularities of the main shoreNand ofl
Ikhe sea islands. If these be included, the length
lof the shore line of coast, as estimated . , by the
:uperintendetlt of the coast surirey, in his re
port, would be 33,063 miles. '
It would bb difficult to calculate the value of{
these immense additions to our territorial pos- I
sessions. Texas, lying tontigitomktO tle west
ern boundary of- Louisiana ; . embracing 'within .
Its limits - a part.of the . XliSvigable '
tributary rra;
hers of the N and an ex tensiveixe
coist, earth] not)opg - , hare remained; in= the
.bands of a foreign-power Without - endatigiiiiig
the peace of our south-western frontier. Her
products in the vicinity of - the , trihnitaries of
the Mississippi: must bare-souglit;4l..miirket
tb.rongb these streams, running tinny
ovr territhr7 ; ,atal,the(4ltMger of irritation and
collision of interests between Texas us foreign
State,, and onreelveCitlittd bile; been ilamt-,
nene;mbile the esabes in tbe °ismer
eial intecconrse - between them must been:
constant Wad lonairadaNi• Bad Tait* goo
thi *d.p.or underthe jainenowend eon
ittiliscit- *RAMO i*
_ -I p.
'faithful, should be rewar ed.
This abundance of gol , and the all-engross
ing pursuit ,of it, hate al eady caused in Cali
.fortna an unprecedented . e in the price of the
necessaries 'of life.
' That we may the ma-
Oit United a set. _
avail ourselves of the developed. voalth of
these mines, it is deetne fl at 14ortance
that a branch of the min 'ofthe States
he authorised to be . eetsh ished, at ybuiprosent
session, in,California. Among Oiliee. ad
vantages. which would nsult frowsuch an es
tshlishment would be that, of rOsitii Ole. gold
tO its par value in that. TerritOry. , A branch
mint of the-U'. States it the great coramercial
depot on west past, would COl:wort into our
own coin not only the gold derived from our,
• _ , ,
own eieb.inioeicbut elsolte bullion : littl.apecie
turitiob ow commerce tag bring from the.whole '
Meet emtat - of Nnte,al an 13opth Aoeries. The
Weeteemat 7 orAmiieliesa Abe adjtoentiniarior
s oma
etribraosibairio mal but One* of Mule%
New GrainiKeltaiial alioa, Chili aralPara.
Tbetoollion and soma' ' rum-from - diem coma
iiieso =, 4 7,, , ~.011.'af', Wilka
:11040a. -4. - ' liAtais it
4, 1848.
Many millions of i dollars, are now annuOy di- -
verted and carried, by the ships of Gixiat Brit
tain to her own porta - to be recoined oA used to
sustain her National Bank, and thus contribute
to increase her ahility to command so - Much of
the commerce of the world... If a bratch mint
be established 'great commercial point
upon that, coast, - 1 ? t vast ,amount of bullion and
specie whuld flow thither to be re-coihed, and
the' N Ydrk, id
Tiip Secretary q the Treasury, by : a circular l
tet tOaddreased . to ioo)lectors - or :the lcustom, • op
the seventh, day .of October Task. la Copy, of,
which, is h restitb - transtOttetl,' . .itereised all'
the pOwer . itb mbich-he . :yfai, inireat e d by law.
Iqurso nce of ithe act
,or theiAtit. of;Au ,
_ .
d fully
gust i fast, eoeodidg the benefit--of , ini'at of
hoe laws td.the'people of - CalifOrmli. t'Pest
maetir Ge eral his appointed ' twolt . glea,-,,trho
$ 1
haveiproce ed i .the one to taliforqui ind Ilmi
othe. to 0' gotroiith authority t make the
neeeisary arranietnenta . for earryitikita previa- -
ions nto e eel. ' .1 - - i_ - - l' . -- , -- '-•-:::- I
Vie' et a' thly line of. Maitateamm:ltfrom a , ]
nami to - ' toria• 'hai..been, reqnti a to. 4topl
and dense' and tike mails at San" 'ego : Mon- -
terey, and Sad Fritontaco.._, These ail steam.
, .... ... ,_, ___,,,. ~
era t.. 1 the Atlantic between New! York and 1114' YIV!" 1 7- 41 ) 1 PrPt ir' l rb "" -- t ll ot 4 t
Chaires;l ol ePtigsh 1 0. 0 0 1 0: 1 44 1 V 0094 - a 4 sil*lrskftges to W7P' feet.
Ideation tri h California. ' s. • ,t , 1.,,,, ' . luileiii:Pf.ool4 6 .6 lllo . 4 . , 1 1 41*;* - ADOI
It is ou aniettin All; tp yowl ~ wisktbs virally ofibnirersign ;ac.)144404,
i C e
least; practicable dilay, for lik w. ,,:- i ez ipi l An d ,
.. 111VIDTI , Ittew, north . or *, • tki,idanashialkaixir
Calieprnia, , egularly ifitaoisetl` lei torial py . . AtiAlifetOdiof.tifk 614 .
ernnients• The us nr.Ae raitta ii. to - do tlija tniA.o l 4' o'irri dc .ll o.!trf I.#: . '' ' Wty
atthe late •c in 44124 " • Itrti*fia kimm o sa4ridatavolis . aid ' - ,,, i'' . ''. l ll . ' '
44, „. ii../b. " 1 41644,4 1
at 0%
1 I i; , ' , ,', 01 -. '4 -- 4.
, I
. • •
prospects of ,mereased prosperity n ationa ln
greatness _which the acquisition -of tissiettich
and extensive territorial posaemkkusafords;ior.
irrationalitruld be to forego of to reject dial
advantages, by . the agitation of a j dinneitie
question which is coeval with the eaistenie of
our government itself;' and; to endasser btin:
ternal strifei, geographical 'divisiOnty'and lien
ed contests for pOliticalpower, or for any otliee.L',
thr Ili •
. ,
cause, the' harmony of the glorious, Unita of
our confederated States: that Union which'
hindi' us together as one pieple,,and,wbiehlor •
60 years has been our shield and leition
against every danger. In the eyeir theworld
and of prosterity, how trhial and Meant
will be all our internal , divisions 'andLattiujiles
compared with the preservation 'of tbis'Union
of the States in all its 'vigor antP4iitli.all its
countless blessings. No patriot weill , forireit
and excite geographical and seetionalf divisiois.
No lover' of his country iroiila deliberately
culate the value of the Union. Fitt *genera.-
dons would l&ik in &Movement aPOWtlie'trily
of such a course. Other. nations at tbe•pire*t2-...
day would look upon if with astonittlime - 1t4:401,,,' :
such of them as desire to maintain atmkperp4- '
nate thrOnes and monarchical ortriitocratital
principles, will view it -with exoltatien:andle.
light, because in it they Will see tket•'eleiiienta:
of faction, which they hop y.,
~,s , lOtely
.4 .,
overturn our system. Ouis is the „- •
ple of 'a prosperous and -free self. -
~..cemmanding the odiairi 'iiii, 11: 0 i .
imitation of all the lovers Of..freed ' t ' ‘ - '. .1-_,
tri zm
'out the world. i How solemoiAher rep ; is
duty, hoifimpressive the call upon IMMidtp-,
on all parts of '' hif Country, tiVeolkatite !vpa
triode spirit of tarmeny, - ,p . f, got4fWenddp - of
compromise and mutual cencesiimi,l64ll- .
ministration of the incempOnible system of - goy- '7' . "
eminent formed bfctitt fathers itirthensidsVof
almost insuperable difficulties; tink . tratisiiiii { tad
to us, with-, the-injunction that we should enjoy
its blessings and hand it, down unitispaiOd go -
those who may come after us. - I - - 1- •• •
I In view of the high and responsible ditties
1 •
'which we owe to ourselvei and to ptapkirid; - I
I trust you.ay be able, at your pre*t session
I to approach the adjustment of the-only dames
tic question Which seriously threateni,:efpieb
labl,y,ever can threaten, tOdistorb thecbArtiioby
,i an success f u l operation of our sy4ern,.,'... ~,
The iminensely,valuabre possessims Of.:New
i Mexico and California. are already ishabitedby
a considerable populatioti Attraetedi!j'Aitir
great fertility, their mineral wealth,, their com
mercial advantages, and the salublx - . otitiori
climate, emigrants from other !States, great --`.
ok, \lfie
numbers,' nie arready preparing'W
themes in, Apo, inviting , , eons, ~ -,i,. i ---'.i; , ;;
i 't . Shin ttesimilaritY of the donesticipoi
ltutiotia bilk 'Afferent Sate prevent vs from
providing'. for.'ihem;imitable:governmintili—
; trimpp-i l tit;:ai l i ! • existed at,the.adoptfcni j or
the Oc;nititution;ltut the obstacles wlnahAey
I interposed were overcome by that -spitit;.. , .4 ,-
I compromise which is now invoked.' la *Cott.r" -
i llic-1 of opinions and of interests;'real 'Or ititti,ti= - -
nary, between cbfferent sections of4iir country,.
neither can justly demand all theysnight desire
Ito obtain; Each, in theitrue spirit of o'er in
stitutions, shouldi concede something the-
other. • i
Our gallant rots in the Mexican war... L IT
whose patriotism'''imd . inparalleled: deedsrop
arms we obtained these possesio6• tur'inlb--
demnity for our just demands igiikitt.,MeXT ie ,
were composed of eitizenp who berMie .., 'Po
one, state or' section of our -Wen. • - sty were
men from slaveholding• and'iton-slaveholding
~5 tates', front the North and the Sinith,frernilts
East anti the West. T hey were all atitooO--
ions-in-arms and fello w-citizens of ilm,satne
common country, engaged in the stme.eolllllloD
cause. When prosecuting that - vat; 'they
were brethren and friends, and ei t otiOit :'*),ilier
with.each - other common'toils, dangers, iiithtif
feriogs. Now when. their work is ended,mbers
peade is restored, and they retort!' agaitrio
their homes, put 'off, i th habijintepti or War,
take their places in society.. attd',744Thalttitlt:
. surely
pursuits in civil life, a spirit ! of,harmo
ny and concession; and an equal regard for 'the
rights of all and of 'all sections' of ibe.Uniim
ought to prevail in providing govertiMentkfor
the:acquired territoricsr—the (1* k
common, service . The 'whole
,peop IltifiAa
United Statci;iind of ecery . Stite'' i coritribrited
,defray 'tho'eXpenses I .o'fß thlit; Tor - ;'sitir it
would 'bet be just for any,',:ene aistaliaA,O. - ax.
clude•aoother - froin ail pirticipatie iii7theiac-
Inired territory. i This , would not beirjem
soriarice'lfith the jest tiptoe of! goiernine i nt
which the framers-.of tbd constitution &doge&
The question is believed to be rathel, abstract
than • practical, whetheC slavery: everAcawfor
would exist in 'any portiOn of thettetpiireitter ,
ritory, iveiiif it' were loft to tho'optiiiiirem
`skaveholding States themselves. - 'From Ati*:* ,
turo of ;the climate and} prodirtiotisi in math'
the larger-portion of it, lit is 4 `Oer . loo it ,coidd
• , •r ~. •in • ....• r. r• r 1.. ,
never m ist ;.and th e iremataieri'pq-prma
lnl4' are it would mit!" :;Butt ; However tido
les . ,
maple, he question. - iiwplving, as lidoefi, a
principle of qequality ofirightspotitilm Nee**
and:several States, as il-Colartoetifulihr
4 " a r "ll 4:l 6 f ie
confed4aPY," 8 40 1 4 1 :4 distetidek - 4 ._
Kirganizisg goversittiero
no duties impcs.d 911.0crarmly
.6nstitOtion TeAtiires tbut;theyjillitildillegishits
ittidikil of slaver): whijitillitrOdiver, to
- iiiiiiiglaile
ddj° 41K"/Ye7:74120.104,1°f
•lidi4,loany i 0 .
~ - s hall. ,
m , t whether . yowl°•
tthat in glr nen ' -plethbir#lloo#ll
- t he)wr 4,,,,,,:_„_.,,ti0i-tclidim.
riterieliwlkens4Bol?l4l'l° ".17,7040::147A__
Stott: eoestibitioni,,f4 -Pa)", f . 6i - w oo s
ecauls we. fer -.
exclusive p i T er _l u s - 4 /1 ' di upel'aiet' 7
,eiliiiiiii:'o4"l/f 74str: tiffilte4,4ipor .
Chitin*: : CC* ii i ii* . , 7: 40(
ide r rit i nC* l4l ;:iLi 1,1414, trw is
thesirlmilide* - bilis* '4vl4,
. AdlA*
ii&tW . - 4' l llll- ,