The star. (Reynoldsville, Pa.) 1892-1946, February 07, 1900, Image 3

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TO i Jfc
Ladysmith was Invented by tlie Boor forces under Ocnornl Jonbert. The
tiesiogers completely surrounded the position. The town lies in n
bowl-shnpod depression. On every side bnt one there are hills or kopjes,
very convenient for the placing of nrtillory, nnd from theso eminences the
enemy sholled the city from time to time. Tlio Doors constructed two lines
of trenches one facing the town from all sidos, the other facing from the
town in order to rnpol nttauks from the outside. The plans shown in the
chart ore drawa after rules of Vdiiban, the greatest of French engineer.
i the mm OUTDONE.
S Marvelous Richness of the Cape
Nome District, Alaska.
"Thero seems good reason to infer
that substantially the entire southern
half of this large peninsula (on which
Cape Nome is situated), covering more
than 8000 or 10,000 square miles, is
gold-bearing, and much of it rich. It
lies in the Yukon gold belt, cxtonding
from the Klondike westward, nnd
probably continues across Bering Sea
into Siberia. " So writes F. O. Sobradr
of the United States Geological Sur
vey, one of two experts sout out by
the Government last fait to report
upon the Cape Nome gold district, of
whose wonders rumor bad been hoard
in Washington, Mr. Sohrader gives
a brief account of bis trip in the latest
number of the National Oeographio
Magazine, and baa also addressed the
Natioual Geological Sooiety on the
Bftlue subjeot. The roports brought
back by him and other explorers, like
Lieutenant Jarvis of the revenue cut-
tor Bear, indicate that this uowly
opened district, over the national
ownership of which there is no dis
pute, far exceeds the Klondike in im
portance as a souroo of the world's
gold supply. This is partly on ac
count of the distribution of the gold
in area and richness, aud partly be
cause of the better means of gutting
))eplo and supplies iu aud the pro
iuei out.
The Cupe Nome district is situated
a tho northwest coast of Alaska, the
Nputueru promontory of a peninsula
txtending westward toward Siberia,
between ICotzebuoaud Norton Sounds,
nnd largely separating Bering Sua
from the Arotio Ocean. From Cope
Nome westward for thirty wiles or
more tho sboie-line is comparatively
straight and smooth, but between tuu
line ful tho base of the' mountains
""',, the well-known tundra a snip
' J treeless, moss-covered mariuo
. . favcls, forming a coastal shelf. Along
til bsaou this is about thirty feet
- - II II
I -jl.'i-r.-f :r'-f;,";r.y
I ' gSgliftgSgV'
P"3 BotftS. -
above sea level, but it slopes gently
upward till at the base of the moun
tains, fonr or five miles back, it
reaches on elevation of 150 to 200 foot.
Quartz veins and veinlots, traversing
the rocks in the mountains, are sup
posed to be the source of the gold in
the uiarinu gravels.
1 rWjiJ
XV, ''t.lLV
Tlie first considerable discovery of
gold iu tho Capo Nome district was
made in September, 189$, by a party
of Swedes, who found it in tho creeks
and gulches. They were sent out and
told whoro to look by a Swedish mis
sionary, N. O. Hultberg, who bad
persisted, in spite of every disoour
ageraont, in believing that there was
gold nloug the edge of Golofuin Bay.
Not till last summer was tho beach
gold discovered. In the gulches
along the edge of tbo mountains the
diggings are ooarse gold, nuggets
valued at $350 being found there, six
or eight feet nnder the creek gravels.
Along the beach tho gold is as fine as
bird shot or finer. Its occurreuoe is
mostly undor two or three feet of
gravel and sand, ou the bottom luyer
of clay or argillaceous sand, called by
the miners "bedrock." Thin layers
of ruby sand iuteratratifled with the
gravel near tho "bedrock" nre often
found to be rich. The production of
the region for the season just past ' is
estimated at $2,000,000, of which the
beuch contributed one-half. Two
claims alone urc credited with $225,
000 between them, wuilo ono gulch is
said to have yielded more than $200,
000. Iu tho gulohci miniug is carried on
by stripping, sluoing, and to some ex
tent, by rocking, but on the beaoh
almost exclusively by looking. In
the lattor prooess the sea wator is
used, the gold being caught in blauk
ets, and to some exteut on copper
platos ooated with meroury. Where
oopper-plate was lacking, the bottom
of the rocker has . been covered with
silver ooin, ooated witb meroury.
The 2000 men working along the
beach in the late summer and fall
took put an average of 820 each daily.
The tnndra has not infrequently
yielded from ten to thirty cents to
the pan. Capital will doubtless be
required to develop the tnndra de
posits, and those of high, quality
which have been found in the benches
in the lower mountain region. Only
a comparatively small strip of coast has
been prospected thus far, bnt there
is no reason to suppose that the gold
discovered is more than a fraction of
what will show itself later in response
to systematic search. All signs point
to the placer mining of the Nome dis
trict ns surpassing that of any other
part of tho world.
This country is cheerless, and not
naturally adapted ns to climate, soil,
vegetation or animal life, for the abode
of whito men, bnt it is at least rendily
accessible, which is more than can bo
said for the Klondike district. In tho
Klondike there is growing timber for
building bouses, constructing sluice
works, furnishing a part of the neces
sary fuel, etc ; at Cape Nome there is
none, nnd every board, beam and post
must be brought from elsewhere. The
Kfca is open, however, from some time
in June till about the first of Novem
ber, and steamships nnd sailing ves
sels can ply to and fro freely. The
temperature never fnlls so low as in
the Klondike, bnt the lierceness of
the winds which sweep the const
makes the cold harder to bear. There
is not game enough to speak of, and
no natural food for horses and mules,
so that provisions for rann and beast,
coal for beating and industrial pur
poses, ns well as building materials,
must bo bronght up from the south.
A Snlr-Slirrlnu Conknr.
An nntomntio solf-stirring cooking
pot is the latest development in the
kitchen utensil line. Tlija, it is
asserted, docs away with the neces
sity of constantly stirring while cook
ing the porridge or oatmeal that forms
snch nu important adjnnct of the
average breakfast. The pot, as shown
iu the sectional drawing, is double,
and consists of an inner receptacle,
to contain the oatmeal to be cooked,
nnd an outer, or water, jacket, with
spout opening. This jacket is first
filled with water, and the cap on the
annnf (linn anrAWAil ml. TiAftdmff frftm
this water jacket is a tube extending
along ono siuo oi me innor receptacle,
the bottom of tho tube communicating
witu tue Dotcom oi me receptacle uy
mouns of perforations. The steam
that is generated in the jackot has no
other avenue of escape except through
this tube. Naturally, then, as tho
water begins to boil, the steam in
seeking to escape passes through tho
tube aud np turougu tue looa. ii is
asserted that the agitation thus pro-
the ofeation of tub sr.LP-STiRr.rxo
duoed by the steam is sufficient to
prevent burning, even though the
usual stirring is neglected.
4 .l
- "r-Tf e i at. v-a
DIs Orlcln, Training and Characteristic
Aguinaldowas born at Cavite Viejo
thirty years ago. His father, Don
Carlos, was a truck farmer of the nu
tive class, bnt rose to some importance
among bis follows, aud was thrice
elected Mayor of Cavite. Aguinnldo's
education was of the most limited
(She was recently enpturod liy General
Olls's force.)
kind. For a year or two he attended
the school of Santo Tomas, iu Manila,
bnt the death of bis father called him
to Cavite, whore he took np the work
of the farm. Here he soon made him
self prominent and troublesome by his
connection with tho ' Katipunan
Leaguo, organized by Kizal against
the friars. The Govornor-General, to
iu bis sympathies, appointed him
captain municipal of Cavite in 1805.
Agninaldo s mentor and tutor in the
art of revolutions was Andres Boni
facio, a schoolmaster of Cavite, nnd
the original conspirator in the revolu
tion against tho Spanish. Bonifacio
influenced Agninaldo to join the revo
lution of '90, acquainting him of the
intention of the Spnninrds to secretly
mnrder all the members of the Kati
punan. Thereupon Aguinaldo, grasp
ing the opportunity of leadership, bad
lionifaoto secretly killed, and placed
himself at the head of the movement
against the Spanish. The Spanish
drove Agninaldo to tho mountains,
bnt ultimately compromised with bim.
His career from then till now is cur
rent news. Aguinaldo is not a pure
Tagalog. His maternal grandfather
was a Chinaman.
Aguinnldo's wife is a Chinese
Mestiza, and made herself conspicu
ous in the revolutionary army by
organizing a "Hed Cross" hospital
oorps, and placing herself at the head
of it She was captured by American
troops recently and is now a prisoner
iu Manila.
As London Learns Tblnss.
New York policemen have been
served with a new kind of olub. It
has a swivel handle, whiob prevents
it from being twisted from the grasp
of its holder.
The novel feature of the club is the
arrangement by which sixteen saw
teeth, each bait an inch in length, pop
ont of sixteen holes, dig into the hand
which grasps it and give one stroilg
The teeth remain oonoealed until
an attempt is made to wrench the "club
from the policeman. The united pulls
in oppostite directions lacesate the
evil-door's hand in a jiffy. London
Weekly Telegraph.
The finest red ooral is obtained
from the Mediterranean; the large
pieces of a pale color ' are said to be
often worth twenty times their weight
in gold.
Itrmovlng; ItitbhUti From Orrlinnl.
During the summer a good deal of
rubbish is apt to accumulate in or
chards from the breaking down of
limbs of trees frcm overloading or
from storms, In such coses those
limbs lying on the ground prevent the
snow from l.viug closely on the sul
fa -e ai.d oiVer the most convenient
harbors for mice. It is a good plan
before heavy snow conies to remove
all the rubbish from n round fruit
trees, and also the grass that often
grows nenv the tree trunk while the
tree is small.
Tlir Mnnlllna Pfrloil.
Hens do not moult at the same
period every year. They begin n lit
tlo earlier each season. A lion that
moults in .Inly of this year may moult
in June next year, and the older they
get the sooner they bein to moult.
It is not desirable to have them begin
before July, ns the summer is the best
time in the year for securing eggs.
August is late enough if the bens are
to get through by winter. The object
should be to assist them with nutri
tions food aud protect them from the
we itbor. Separate the hens that be
gin to in on It from the others, so as to
be aide to feed Ihem in the best way.
loiiii's iu tue drinking water are un
necessary, but fresh bono pounded lip
will be found alwavs beneficial.
The Voil-Spnt,
The yellow or wax varieties of benns
are subject to a disease that is railed
pod-spot or antln acnose. It begins
by the appearance, of small spots that
are of a reddish brown color nnd are
slightly depressed. As the pods grow,
the centres of theso spots nssunie a
dark color and they may run together.
It shrinks the pod and dwaifs nnd
shrivels the beans. It is not usually
prominent except in rainy reasons.
It lies oxer the winter in diseased
beans. If such beans are mixed with
sound beans, when sending them to
market, the fungus will spread rap
idly. The same rust attacks melons,
nnd hence melons should not follow
beans that have had the disease, for
the spores, like the spores of corn
smut, nre in tho ground. If beans'
Hint have been pod-spottod are used
for seed, the disease will appear upon
the leaves as soon ns the seed leaves
appear nnd may kill the plant, and
sometimes the largest proportion of
the crop is killod.
One of tho best preventives is to
plant on high, light, well drained
noil. In selecting seed beans, nil that
show signs of the disense should be
rejected. When the plants are two
xreeks old, they will be bcucfited by
being sprayed with a weak I ordeaux
mixture, to which enough sonp has
been added to make a little suds, lie
pent the spraying three or four times
at intervals of teu days. If the pods
are to be eaten the spraying should
not be repented more than ouce.
Whenever the disease appears upon a
pod or leaf, that pod or leaf becomes
a centre of infection, aud ought to be
removed and destroyed. Burning is
the best means of destruction. Agri
cultural Epitomist.
XVInlrr Chi-k of Iters.
The latest method of locating tho
hives on the ground, each hive sitting
ou its own bottom board, is a much
better way of wintering bees than the
way of setting the hives on high
fences, and perhaps a number of hives
ou the same platform. These benches
set up thus ou stilts are greatly uf-
fected by the storms, and tho shaking
thus produced is detrimental to tho
bees. The hives should be iu such
position that they univ be kept free of
any motiou or jar, and when set close
to trees the limbs of the same should
not come iu contact with tho hives,.
but any limb that may be driven
against the hives by xviud should be
removed. iudbreaks in winter nre
very beneficial to the bees and should
iu all cases I e placed arouud the
hives. High board fences are 'the
beat, but anything that will answer
the purpose is better thau none, aud
may Le nscd imt temporarily.
Evergreens aro the most complete
winuoreau and s loukl be largely used
lor not only bees but gunetal wind
breaks. They nre both very useful
and ornamental. Posts set iu the
ground with railings attached and
corn fodder sot up against this makes
a good wintel b eak for temporary
purposes, I, ut must be well excluded
from stock of anv kind.
No stock of any kind should have
the rim of the apiary. Poultry will
do to barm iu summer, but should
not be attracted about the bee hives
iu winter by the use of straw or any
thing of that nature about the luve-,
It is always best to have hives to face
the south or eut in wiuter, or rather
to havo the b.u-ks of the hives toward
tho storm. Heavy snows do no injury
to the bees and should not be shoveled
away from the hives. This is often
dono, and more damage thau good
results from it. Hives may be en
tirely covered with snow, and during
a very severe spell of cold weather
this is very beneficial protection to
the hives, A, H. DitiT, iu Farm, Field
aud fireside.
Pfwriliis for Milk, flutter nl I'lrah,
Helected milch rows at the Maine
experiment station wore fed two
rations which differed widely in the
amount of protein contained. W. H,
Jordan rt ports that iu both the tint
othy bay was the same and the weights
oi me gram were equal, uut iu one
ration the grain consisted of equal
weuuis oi com meal, gluten aud cot
tooseed raeaU, while iu the others it
was all com meal. The digestible
material furnished was practically the
same lit uotn rations, tuougu tue pro
portion of digestible protein was
nearly twice-tis great in the; mixed
grain ration as iu the corn meal
The general appearance of the cows
showed less thrift while being fed tbo
corn meal ration, though the body
weight did not vary greatly. The ni
trogenous ration produced from one-
11 Uli to one-third more milk than the
nrn meal, and this milk was gener
ally the richer in solids by 30 to 40
ier cent. 1 he ration fed seemed to
ave little effect upon the composition
of the milk solids.
Throughout the experiment the
proportion of fat steadily increased
without regard to what the cow wore
fed, and no evidence was furnished in
support of the claim that by changing
the food of cows, more butter fat will
e produced without nn accompany
ing increased production of the other
milk solids. Hence the most profit
able food for butter production will
also be tho most profitable for the
cheese milker or the milk farmer. "The
chemiol tests did not show any ap
preciable dill'oi ence in the bntter
made from the two lntlous. Corn
meal needs the addition of more ni
trogenous material to make it a useful
food for dairy cows.
Pruning n til 1 1 ml: Orrlinril.
While the winter season is one of
some leisure to the ondiardist, it
ought not to be ono of entire inactiv
ity, for their is pi nning to t e done.
and its proper perfonunuce is a mat
ter or much importance, says Joseph
Median iu the Country (ientlemnu.
The young orchard may need but lit
tle hard work, but it will need much
head work, for on its proper treat
ment uow will depend whether or not
it is to afford pleasure nnd profit in
after years.
lhe young niiide orchard needs lit
tle more than the thinning out of
branches where they are too thick,
and the shortening in of others that
may noed it to give good shape to the
future tree. It is by judicious work
in this way in the early years of nn-
orchard that wcll-formnl, beautiful
trees are developed. There is no
gain iu having branches too low.
Prune them up to five or six feet, that
getting about under them is practica
ble. Largo bearing trees ofteu need
no pruning. Sometimes, where' a
branch it unthrifty, it is better to cut
it out, to induce a new, healthy one to
take its place. And where such large
trees have not bnen well pruned wheil
young, there may be large limbs which
neod cutting out that others may be
beueflted. When such is the case,
saw offcloso to the trunk, and paint
tue scar to preveut decay.
Much the same rules apply to prun
ing tho penr as to the npple, but as it
makes more branches when young, it
needs closer attention nt that time.
Very ofteu good-size l trees are seen
with far too many branches on them.
The tendency of utmost all primers is
to leave too many branches. Do not
let them interlace each other. The
time to cut them out when they show
a tendency to do this is when they are
quite small. Cut thorn off close to
tho limb they start from, that no buds
will be loft to start afresh. The large,
round buds of winter are the ones that
bear the flowers. Sometimes iu prun
ing it is wed to observe them, nn it '
sometimes occurs that it is desirablo
a certuiu kiud should flower the coin
ing season. Bearing trees will often
have their blanches brought out of
shape by the weight of fruit. l'muo
such crooked branches in such a way
that a good outline will be kept up.
Peaches aud apricots are little
pruned, as usually seen, and yet few
fruit trees are more beueflted by it.
Should there be uo young wood there
will be no fruit. Left to grow as they
will, which is the usual way, what lit
tle young growth is made it at the ex
treinity of long branches. Pruuod a
little every year, thero is young wood
over all the tree, from near the grouud
to the top. Do not let strong shoots
go uupruued. Not only is a little
pruuiug good;' that of summer, per
formed while growth is Btill going ou,
is perhaps better. Iu regard to the
plum, what has been said of tho pear
applies to it very well. Keep the
blanches from getting too thick.
Fewer branches, permitting of more
air aud light to the remainder, would
bring better fruit to ninny a tree.
Watch the plum, to cut out diseased
branchos as soou as seen, be it wiuter
or summer.
In the small fruit line a shortening
in of the oanes of raspl orries and
blackberries should bo mado, the
former to about four feet and the lat
ter to five feet. All old canes should
be cut. Currants aud gooseberries
need little pruning oxcept to preveut
them carry iug too inauy shoots, aud
to keep up a supply of young wood.
The fruit is the best ou strong two
your shoots, aud the aim must be to
eep up a supply of these. The Eng
lish type of gooseberry does not pro
duce us much wood as our native
sorts; hence needs less pruning. I
hive known old bushes of currants
and gooseberries to be the better for
being cut down completely to the
grouud to give them an entirely new
start, (impes must be pruned iu a
way to have an ubuuduuee of young
wood. There are those who prefer to
have little else besides young oaues
from the grouud euch year. At the
sume time, if the lust year's fruiting
cane be well provided with side shoots,
it will prove satisfactory for another
ci op. Prune the side shoots buck to
within two or three eyes oi , le main
stum. This catling back decreases
the number of bunches, but adds to
the size of what are produced.
To enable a person to float in the
water iu au upright position a Massa
chusetts man has designed au spp ra
t us composed of a belt to be iuflated
aud placed around the waist, with a
weighted rod attached to each leg to
keep the floater rei