The star. (Reynoldsville, Pa.) 1892-1946, June 21, 1893, Image 3

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    MAKING MG GUNS.
WORK AT A 1'SITKD STATES
OVKKNMKNT AKSKMAL.
Why at rnmpmltf or nnltt t'p Cannon
In Mtrnnajer Than One ('nut In a
Single Piece t'oat of Mod
ern tlunmnktng.
f HE makingof guns
to-day is not tho
simple foundry
work of a few
years ago, but n
science requiring
tho deepest math
ematical enlenlo-
Hon, tnn niint intricate and careful
preparation of designs, and skilled
arorkmanship scarcely second to that
equired in the muuufactnre of the
InoMt watches. It wan necessary for
the United Htatea Government, in or
lor to insure a certain supply of guns,
to establish a National gnn factory for
the army, Bnd also one for tho navy.
While those factories are sufficiently
large to supply tho pence demands,
hey could not supply the demands in
sane of war. To provide for the latt'T
imergenoy, instead of increasing the
plant of tho established factories, it
as deemed wiser, ly giving sufficient
ly largo contracts for gnus to privnte
TNTF.Rton or Tin?
6rma to induce them to introduce gun
making as a branch of their business,
10 that at the present day there are a
number of steel works capable of build
ing guns equal to those turned out at
the National factories.
The army gun factory is situated at
Watorvliet arsenal, West Troy, N. Y.
The grounds contain over one hundred
BHKTNXINa 0!f AM XtOHT-INCH JACKET.
acres, and are advantageously located
on the Hudson River and Erie Canal.
The factory consists of the old gun
shop oonneetod with the large new gun
hop ; the forp er is devoted principally
to the manufacture of guns of smaller
calibres, and the latter to the manufac
ture of large calibre guns. The new
building consists of two wings con
nected by a, oentral section. The north
wing ia 400 feet long and 128 feet wide ;
the oentral section is 165 feet long,
and the south wing is 400 feet long and
158 feet wide. The extra width of this
wing ia to accommodate the enormous
lathes (some of which are over one hun
dred feet long) which are needed for
the manufacture of the largest calibre
guns.
The shops are filled with lathes, bor
ing mills, drills, slotting, milling and
rifling machines. Overhead, running
the entire length of the building, whose
BORING THB TTBK OP
total length is 9(15 feet, are two travel
ing cranes capable of carrying the
huge manses of metal to any part of the
building.
The manufacture of a gun is a very
interesting operation. A modern high
power gun ia a complex structure
"built up" or composed of a number
of parts. There are two reasons for
"building up" a gun. First, it makes
it stronger ; aocond, since the parts
nsed are made from smaller moauus of
metal, the quality of the metal can be
made better and quite uniform. The
rough forging, from which the parts
of the gun axe made, are made at pri
vate worka for the Government and
hipped to tha factory, where they are
carefully inspected to see that thej
fulfil the requirements.
. The piece which form the part next
to the bore of the (run and which W
railed the "tulve" id first picked up by
the traveling crane, and placed in on
of the huge lathe to be turned ami
tMired to the proper sisse. This tube it
the longest piece in the Rim. By it
self it would not le strong enough to
atand the powder pressure, so it has t
le strengthened by "hoopa" and (
"jacket."
When tho tube is finished the jacket,
which ia the first piece "assembled," il
turned and bored. The interior of thi
jacket ia slightly smaller than the ex
terior of the tube, an that when aa
aembled it will compress the tube and
so increase, its strength, since the pow
der gaa tunst first overcome this com
pression before it begins to strain the
tule. This is the reason why a "built
up" gun ia stronger than ono made of
a single casting. Tho condition is
aomewhnt similar to two trains, ono at
rest (the case of tho single casting) and
the other backing. The engine of the
first can start ahead without much ex
penditure of force whilo that of the
latter has first to overcome the retro
grade motion before it can start ahead,
and, therefore, must expend much
more force. Thu "built up" gun
whose tubo is under a strain of com
pression can for a similar reason atand
a much greater powder pressure be
fore bursting than a gun made by
single rusting.
When the jacket ia fi limbed it ia
placed in n hot nir furnace aud heated
xew orx snor.
to about 550 degrees. This heat causes
it to expand sufficiently to be placed
over tho tube. To assemble the tube
and jacket tha former is placed on end
in a shrinkage pit in tho middle sectiou
of the factory, unci tho jacket, after be
ing heated, .is slowly lowered into place.
It is then cooled by a stream of water
which is thrown against it. The hoops
are next finished, ami as soon aa the
jacket is cool a row of hoops are shrunk
on one by one in a similar manner ex
tending from the jacket to the muzzle.
It is necessary to still further increasi
the strength of the gnu over the bottom
of the bore, whore the powder pressure,
is the greatest ; consequently the jacket
baa shrunk over it a row i f hoopa. The
gun is now almost completed, thongb
it still has to be placed in the lathe to
he rifled and turned on tho outside.
When this is finished the breech mech
anism is fitted and the gun is ready foi
shipment to the proving ground. Every
gun after completion is thoroughly
tested on the proving ground before it
ia sent to the fort whore it is to bo
mounted. The sea coast guus in our
service weigh from fourteen to sixty
tons and cost on the average of $1000
ton.
The smaller gnns are made in a sim
ilar manner in tho old gun shop and
differ from the one described only in
having a fewer number of pieces. Horn
of tho smaller guns can be completed
in a few weeks' time, but to complete a
gun of the largest calibre it require!
several months of continuous work.-
New York Herald.
New Styles In Hair Dressing.
The briof day of the Brighton bun if
past, and somewhat less atrooious ban
dressing prevails. The two favoritt
styles at present are the simple coi
just above the nape of the neck and
the double loop somewhat higher. In
the latter the hair is twisted into two
coils close together, each one repre
senting the figure "ti." Instead of thi
customary pin of shell or silver oi
gold, a clasp, fastening the loop
across the center, is the only adorn
meut. New York World.
A TWKLVK-rNCH OCT.
Bound to Ue With the Times.
"Say, why don't you shake that old
eggshell off?"
"Shake nothing ! Don't you know
that crinoline is the style again?"
Truth.
Cadet at West Point receive salary
01 Jo j-t,
TEXTILE EXHIBITS.
AMERICA COTTOX, BILK AMD
WOOL AT THK FAIIt.
Drllllant Contents of Somber Cases In
the Manufactures flullrilnc .
Railroad Train Made ' of
811k Spools.
OTTON, silk and
wool enter largely
into the textilo ex
hibit in the Ameri
can section of the
Manufactures
Building and it now
is complete. It oc
cupies the northeast
corner of tho build
ing and has been
ilnlihed "undertak
ers' row," because
of the number of
black cases. How
ever aonilut li a
cases are the contents nro brilliant
enough and attract crowds of people.
The space, which is one of the largest
in the building, is divided into three
cctions, wool, silk and cotton. The
wool and silk exhibits are made by tlm
association, the members of which are
JlATT.nOAD THAT MADS
wholesale dealers. The cotton exhibits
arc made by individual firms.
Une does not expect, as a rule, to see
lot of pieces of cloth piled up in a
picturesque way, but that is just what
the woolen exhibitors have done. In
one case is shown a lot of blankets made
entirely of American wool. They are
DISPLAY OP FASHION ADLK FARMCS.
light and soft, and suggestive of warm
comfort in cold weather. In the over
coat materials the goods are graded
from tho very heavy shaggy cloths
down to the very finest. There are
thirty-four of these oases representing
115 mills extending from Milwaukee to
BCENTC IX THIS
Maino. The progression of the work
is shown by a dirty fleece jnst shorn,
and this being the first step each suc
ceeding process is exhibited, the card
ing, spinning, weaving, and finally the
completed cloth. All the grades and
styles knowu to woolen manufacture are
shown. Heveral canes are tilled with
bright colored yarn and the finer
thread used in making cloth.
The silk department is the most pio
tnresqe, as the soft quality of the goods
admits of full scope in the wiudow
dresser's art. One of the most inter
esting and at the aame time instruc
tive exhibits is nt the north end of the
space. There is long show case with
row of bottles. In the first is the
moth, then in miccesHlon are shown the
moth eggs, the hatching prooess, with
the worm one day old and so on up to
the age of four weeks, when it begins
to make silk. Keeping up the pro
gression the coeoou ia exhibited in its
various stage from the time it is cov-
ered with the shell that looks like tj
peanut to the time when it ia uncov
ered, reeled and ready for the loom.
. mm
A JAPASESK OARDRKKIt.
The eilk has three natural colors,
white, cream and yellow, and 100
cocoons are required to make one skein
of the delicate silk. This is reeled by
a machine in charge of a girl. The
cocoon is put in a large machine, and
one end of the silk thread is found.
The motion, although rapid, is very
OP 8IMT BPOOM.
gentle and not unlike the process
known to mnny a small boy who has
listened to fairy stories from his grand
mother while he held her skein of
yarn. In the same case are shown
some very pretty designs made of silk
skeins aud braids. One is a lurge fan
shape with a fountain scene on the
side, all worked out with bunches of
bright colored silks. They are not
sewed together, but simply placed to
bunches, and are very artistic.
The most elaborate of all the die.
plays is made by a silk thread firm.
It is nn engine and car made of spools.
Eight thousand spools of silk are used.
Each piece is ten feet long. The
w heels are mado of largo spools and
the spokes of smaller ones. They are
all of black. The panels of the car are
worked out in different colors. The
engine is the most wonderful piece of
work. Every detail has been worked
out in a marvelous way, even to the
counter-weights on tho side of the
drive-wheels. From the smokestack
flies backward a lot of silk floss, very
black at first aud ending in thin steam.
The bull is mado of gold-colored silk
and the reversing lever is made of tin
spools put end to end. The only ma
terial not made of spools is the head
light, which is a reflector with an eleo
trio light.
Another case snows a life-size figure
of a Chinaman watching a big silk
worm at work. All of the products of
the silk worm arn shown aud they take
many forma. There is a collection of
hosiery fit for a princess and beautiful
silks for gowns. Many of the articles
are made expressly for this exhibit,
while others are just the stock of the
firms.
TEXTILE EXHIBIT.
The cotton exhibit is extensive and
includes all branches of the trade. One
of the prettiest exhibits is made of
bath towels, which have been ingem
oualy worked into the shape of Turk-
ixh bower. Ihe many cases include all
of the different cotton fabrics made ia
the country. Chicago News.
Frank Austiu, of Eckerly, Ind., had
a oolite dog that was very fond of him,
Ho was going on a journey the other
day, end thu dog wanted to accompany
him, Austin drove him from the
train, anil the dog was so dejected that
he lay before the engine, aud the train
passed over him.
There are seasous when suicide
aeem to be almost epidemic in large
cities.
A resident of Butler County, Kansas,
is saii to have taken the Keeley eure
lor vie nauiug nauit.
it Ik's iiiij r nr i
MMsm rr
TBI LAW AND THB HOLIDAYS,
An Opinion from Attorney Oentral
Hansel's Law firm That Will Be
Bead With Intersst.
Tha law firm of Drown it Hansel, Lancas
ter, furnished the following to the "Pitts
burg Times" being a copy of an opinion
which they gave to certain banking institu
tions which they represent.
Tbe opinion wilt be found worth preser
vation by such as are Interested In the sub
ject! We hsva considered the art of May 21,
18(13, designating election dayl ss legal half
holidays, sml alto ilia set of May 31, 1WJ,
designating the days and hslf days to be ob
served as legal holidays and the etlcct of
these laws upon the f kit merit, acceptance
and protesting nf bills, notes,drafta, checks,
and other negotiable paper on such days,
snd ws liae conferred with thesnllcllors nf
a number of other banklnir Institutions ta
this comity, bimI after coming to sn tinani
mon conclusion with them.we sr prepared
to advise and limtrnct yon a follows: Here
after the following dnys and half dnys will
he leiml hnlldsvs and hulr holidays In this
('nniniiiiiweilth:
I. I.Rlltl. lllll.tlUT
The lt ol Jnnimrv, cotmonly railed
"New Year's Iisjr."
The i'.'nd dnv of Kebmsrv, known as
"Weshlngion's Hirlhday."
flood KrldHjr.
The JVIth day of M.iy. known at "Memo
rial or Decora! I n Pay,"
The Fourth dny of July, called '-Independence
Dnv,"
The t)M Saturday In September, known
as "1-nhoV lar. '
The first Tuesdnr after the fltst Monday
in November Klection Day,
Any day npMinted or recommended by
the ttovernor of this smteor the Presi
dent of the I'nited States ss a diiy of
thsnksiilving or fatliig and nrnyer, or
other rellsiotis observance, generally
known as "Tlinnkniiiving Pay," and
generally lulling on the lust Thursday
of Novemb-r.
The 2-")th dny of December, known as
"Christmas Pay."
II. lUi.r Hni,niAY
Every Hnturiliiy of the year from 12 o clock
n6n until midnight.
The third Tuesday of February of each
year, known as "."prinit Klection Pay,"
from 12 o'clock noon until midnight.
In all cases on which leiial hn liln occur
on Hunday, the followinii day (Monday)
snail te deemed and declared a ptiiilic Holi
day, except when the :Mlth day of May
"Memorial or Peroration Pay," fulls on
Btinday, the dny preeeiling it(Maturday)shall
De unserved as me Holiday.
Hereafter all bills, checks, drafts, and
notes otherwise presentable for acceptance
or pay 'i ent on any holiday shall be dreni
ed to he payable ami. ba presentable for
acceptance or payment on the secular or
onsine-B nay next succeeding sueii imiinay
nr half holiday, except that checks, drafts,
bills of exchango and promissory notes
payable at sight or on demand, which would
o herwlse be payable at any half holiday
(.Saturday), shall be deemed to be payable
at or beiorc vi o clock noon or such nan
holiday, hut demand or acceptance, or pay
ment of any audi check, draft or note not
paid before 12 o'clock noon, shall not be
made and notice of protest or dishonor
thereof shall not b given until tha next
tuccedlng secular or inisiiiess duy, and no
iiaoimy is iniurrru turouitn iiuoire to
E resent or protest sight or demand Items on
alf holidays.
In other words, protests of paper falllna
due on any holiday, or on any haturduy of
tha year, shall hereufter not be made tie
lore the following secular day, and In the
case of Msturdays, nr of any holiday tailing
on Saturday, paper shall hot be protectable
uniii jiuuuur. irruniiiur un wriru aim
executions tuned. Judgments entered and
other legal process executed oil Halurdayt,
as heretofore.
Hnbject to the foregoing restrictions as to
rirotests, any bank may keep open lis doors
f, by a rme of its directors, It snail elect to
to do and may transact III business on Sat
urday afternoons, and we recommend that
In all cases the board shut! determine this
matter by a resolution.
We are of the opinion that In discounting
notes falling due on Haturday or on r.ny
legal holiday, the discount should be taken
off up to the day on which they are protest
able, that it, the next secular day succeed
in the holiday or half holiday on which
they would mature. We are further of the
opinion that a note falling due on a legal
holiday. of on a Hatiirday.cannot be charged
up until the succeeding secular nr business
day, but that it can ba charged up at any
such hour on tucceeding recu'ar day. We
are of the opinion that this law applies only
to paper mads on or after May 31, MVS, ex
cept that paper made after May 23, 189t,
maturing oil Tuesday. November 7. of this
year election day should not ba protctted
uulit Wednesday, November 8.
THE REMODELED BALLOT.
CIIAROKS MADS ST TUX LXOISLATtTRI 111 Tm
BAKKB LAW TKHSII.Y STATED.
The ballot ii decreased to one-half the
lize required uuder the original law.
Only on tet of olllcial and t mi pie ballott
are required to he primed and distributed,
Instead of duplicates, at before.
The time allowed for printing the ballot
Is extended.
The percentage of party nominations Is
reduced from 3 to 2 per cent of tbe vote cast
at tha previout election,
Tbe printing and distribution of the bal
lott for tpring flection it to be done undtf
the tupervisinn of the County Commission
ers, instead of the Township Auditors.
One mark in a circle at the top of a col
umn of candidates shall count as a vote for
verv candidate in that column.
Where the mark is not plad in circle
a mara opposite ine name oi every canal'
data voted for it red 'li red.
A screen or door it to be placed In front
of each booth to better seiure privacy to
lue voter.
When an elector votes for more candi
dates than he it entitled to vote for. the bal
lot shall not be entirely thrown out, but
that portion wnicn is properly marked
shall ba counted.
It will be noticed that a circle Is to bt
printed at the head ot the column of candl
dates instead of a square at the right of the
P'rty name. Thlt It to avoid confusion In
the mind of tha voter, by designating the
uiuerence in iiiaraing to vote lor an entire
ticket and voting for candidates individual
ly or iu other words, independent votinz or
"scratching." Tbe elector who desires to
voieuisiuu piny ucxet win mark In the
circle, and he who wants to vote only a part
of li will mark in a square to the: right of
tbe name of each candidate Toted for.
uncatier inew &ra.
fllacb Hebrvws.
In Cochin, on the Malabar coast,
mere is a race oi Diack Jews, com
pletelv like the native Inhabitant.
It has beenthought that the black
coss of these Jews Is owing to Inter
marriage with Hindus; but of this
there U not the sUwhtost evidence.
A Gorman traveler informed thellev,
Dr. Phillips, a missionary la North
ern Africa, that he bad discovered a
race of nogroos, near the Kingdom ot
liambarra, who are Jews in all their
religious rites and observance.
Noarly every family hat the law of
Moses written on parchments. Jews
Are found In almost every district and
country on the fuoe of tbe globe, and
numbers have settled all along the
North African const, where, indeed.
they have had communities for more
than a thousand years, some hare mi
grated there In conseaunce of Sd.iu
i isu persecution.
SOLDIERS' COLUMN
KfTItf' THU FLAGS.
THIS ain't Joe Brown
It IsT Why, Joel
You're bent, 'nrj
rrar. 'nd to to
-" fl tl L i 1 1 a
;m here-
Vn I Forgot I'd been
i v't sway ten yetrl
hsd to come, Joe. od to come
For one more Thlrtlrth o' May,
to tee the boys, 'nd help 'em so ne
In keeping Decoration Day.
Bur whar ve bound fur this time, Joe?
To tet the flags? We'll both on 's go
Nd mark the end o' the march, that's done,
Nd call the roll o' the boyt that t gone.
Say. Joe, you 'n me have come to near
The atiil place where
They're camped, that we can almost hear
Em answer their namet from Over There?
Ther's jett ten graves. I r'member 'em all
Tun men that's answered Detail Call.
Five flags fur me, 'nd five fur you. .
What t nil the rest fur? Ten'll do!
Nd whsr't the rest o' the boys to-doy?
Ther' should he twelve on 'amounting you.
I hope they ain't took to stayin' away?
That ain't the way they useter do!
Taint right! They all had orter com
To mark the graves for 'Morial Day,
No matter 'f work pushing tome!
Why Joe! Yon' re cryln'l What alls ye. Joel
What's that! Good Lord! That can't be to!
All dead but us? Why. Joe-But thar,
That couldn't be, outside o'war.
Did fa 1 In battle? Yet you're right.
We've all been in a long, hard fight.
They lell In battle. Yes, that's to!
Nd that's the way we've got to go.
An', Joe, I'll bet
Not one o' them boyt over let
The colors outeu 'Is tight!
Well Joe. We've'got these flstt to tet,
Here'! ten fur me 'ml ten you keep,
Ther's two of us Is wakln' yet.
To stan' guard over them that sleep!
But which of mint), Joe, d e s o-e
Will set the flag fur the next that ge?
Jam C. Ptirtly, In H'asnlajton.
Chlokamauia
Tbe terrific natnr of the Brest stmsrele at
Chickamauiia may be II unrated by ti e re
cord of the 2lt Ohio. In the course of tbe
battle that reulmeiit Hrwt 41. KM rounds of
fixed ammunition, anil fonirht till Its last
lht was expended. It suffered a lost of one
officer and fifty rnen killed, three officers
and nlnety-eiiiht men wounded, and twelve
ufneera and one hundred and four men
captured, yet even such migniflcent bravery
as Its men exhihlied could not sufBci to give
victory totiie union arms.
The to'sl number of troops enxaied on
either tide in tbe battle hat never been tat
Isfactorilv determined. The total tlrerigth
of the army of Kosecrant was from 55,000
tooft.uuu eneclive men, anil quite useiy was
not far from the first-named figure. Brigg'a
force hat been variously estimated as having
been from lets than 50,000 to fully 70,000.
The probabilities are that the two armies
in number were very evenly matched.
Tbe losses of Knsecrans. In killed, wound-
ed, and missing, were over Id,' 00. The loss
es of Uragg team to have peen at least at
heavy, for there was terrific slaughter dur
ing his desperate attempts to drive Thomas
from Horseshi e Kldge. Were we to consid
er as accurate the Federal estimate of the
Conferate loss, and the Confederate estimate
of the Federal loot, tbe figure would be
verv greatly Increased.' The Battle-field '
at Chtckamaago." Ului asdObay, Phil
adelphia, Pa.
"Maryland, My Maryland."
The ttorr of how the Doom "Maryland.
my Maryland" was tet to mtitie and adopt
ed at a Southern war long formi a roman
tic and interesting incident of tha Civil Wat
The music at first chosen was Frederic
Berat't "Ma Normandie. "but that was toon
"swept away," to use Mr. Randall's own
language, when the lovely (lerman lyrie.
"lannnnnaum, tj iannnoaum wot se
lected as a more spirited air. Hhortly after
the battle of Manuasas, General Beauregard
invited several Maryland ladies who were
living In Virginia, to visit his headquarters,
near Fairfax Court House. The ladies ana
their escorts camped the first night at Man
assot, were they were serenaded by tbe
famous Washington Infantry of New Or
leans. Tha bovs in trav. at the end of tha
serenade, called for a song from the ladies,
and Mist Jennie Cary. standing at Ibe door
of the tent tang "My Maryland" The
retrain wot quicxiy caugm up ny toe
soldiers, and tbt camp rang with the words
"Maryland, My Maryland." As the last
notes died away, the wild Confederate yell
was given, with "three oheert and tiger
for Maryland." A spectator of tbe scene
relates tbst there was not a dry eyt in tbe
ladies' tent and not a cap with a rim on it
In camp. This Is how "My Maryland"
came to be adopted as a national war-song
of the Booth, "Tbe suthor of 'Maryland,
ny Maryiana " olci aud ubat, I'nue
delpbie, fa.
A firave Dog.
The bravery of a dojf was notably
shown recently in a strugglo between
Mrs. liurrlll, cook at Hoar's Head
Tavern, Leeds, nnd a ruffian named
Itottierty, who was Insano with jeal
ousy, says tbe London New Tbe
villain had enticed Mrs. Hurrill into
s remote room,' and was about to dis
patch her with a razor when the hotel
log Issued from under a couch, and
jprlnglug upon the assassin seized
bim by the coat sleeve close to the
wrist. This compelled the man to
attempt to shake the animal off.
Meanwhile he necessarily relaxed his
bold upon the woman, who now
found strength to cull for help. Roth
try, however, succeedod In releasing
himself, and once moro he rushed at
the woman, razor in hand.
The dog, however, was still more
almblo; he sprang between them, aud
leaped to seUe the fellow bv the
throat. It was at this moment that
the lundlady, having heard the
icroams, rushed Into the room. With
great presence ot mind the landlady
dragged Mrs. liurrlll out, and closing
the donr shut the man in the room
with tbe dog. The animal did not
further molest Rothery, who there
upon cut his own throat, and was
found by a policeman a few minutes
later at the point ot death.
From a Last Will. My faithful
servant Johann Is to receive 2,000
empty wine bottlos, the toatents ol
which ho druik du.lnj ciy lifetime..'
oils -in -Ti
OM