The citizen. (Honesdale, Pa.) 1908-1914, December 05, 1913, Page PAGE SIX, Image 6
PAGE SIX THE CITIZEN, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 5, 1913. HOW WE WHIPPED 1 Lessons Learned Then Are of Value Now Bold Move I Ended Tedious uontnct. SIXTY years ago It cost the Unit ed States the lives of 2u,000 men and $200,000,000 to defeat Mexi co. It took two years of fight ing to win back peace between the two nations. Critics of the war department and of tho administration took up tho cry that the war's cost in blood and money was tremendously increased because of our unpreparedness. That tho losses were not greater, says n writer in tho Now York Press, was due to tho fact that tho campaign was undertaken with tho single view of subduing Mexico of punishing her for objecting to our an nexation of Texas and of forcing her to recognize our ownership of the ter ritory. Tho campaign was begun in northern Mexico only because we had troops there and because It wns the natural place to begin it. When wo saw peace never would come that way the scene of operations was shifted south, and the City of Mexico was taken. Causes That led Tip to "War. President Andrew Jackson in a mes sage to congress in 1S37 had said that Insults to Americans in Texas would more than justify war. At that time, however, he advocated mildness and toleration. For some years before that tho Unit ed States had been trying to acquire Texas bj purchase. Texas then was a part of Mexico, but was even less un der the control of the central govern ment than nro the northern states to day. Tho population was made up largely of American settlers. From 1829 to 1S35 Andrew Jackson nnd John Qulncy Adams made Mexico offers of from $1,000,000 to' $15,000,000 for Texas, nil in Tain. Then, on March 2, 1830, Texas de clared her independence as a repulv Hc. The Mexican army under Santa Anna was defeated by the Texans un der General Sam Houston, and tho in dependence pretty well established. Mexico would not recognize it, but tho American congress did. Texas wanted to join the United States, but Jackson would not con clude a treaty of annexation. Mexico had said American annexation of Tex as would mean war. Nine years later it was learned that Mexico was preparing to recognize tho independence of Texas on condition that she would not enter tho United States. In February, 1845, congress admitted Texas as a state. Texas claimed the Rio Grando ns her southern and west ern boundary. Mexico claimed tho territory to tho Nueces river, about 150 miles north of tho Rio Grando. Texas agreed to leave tho settling of tho boundary to the United States. Invasion by Mexico. To settle this boundary lino General Zachary Taylor, in command of tho (American troops in the southwest, in July, 1815, was ordered to take his men into Texas and defend her ports. At tho same time the American squad ron under Captain Stockton was or dered into the gulf of Mexico. Jan. 13, 1840, Taylor was ordered to tako up positions opposite Matamoros, Mlcr and Laredo, Mexican towns with in 150 miles of the mouth of the Rio Cli-ande. Beginning the march on March 8, Taylor in ten days had fortified a po sition on tho left bank at tho mouth of tho Rio Grande. In another ten days ho wns within cannon range of Matamoros. Tho American nnd Mexican forces were facing across the river. Gen eral Arista, in command of tho Mexi cans, demanded that Taylor retire to tho Nueces. Taylor refused, and the Mexicans crossed tho Rio Grande. On April 21 a party of slxty-threo American scouts was ambushed by tho Mexican forces, eleven killed or wounded and tho rest captured. May 13, 1840, congress declared that a state of war existed between tho United States and Mexico and voted C0.000 men and $10,000,000. These wore tho conditions. Taylor had about 4,000 men at tho mouth of tho Rio Grande. American ships what thero wero of them were In tho gulf of Mexico. Wo wero con fronted with tho problem of raising an army of 50,000 or 100,000 men and rais ing it quickly nnd getting it into Mex ico. General Winfield Scott, in command of the American army, took chargo of the campaign from Washington. It was decided to send threo distinct nnnles into Mexico. Tho army of tho west was to march Into New Mexico nd tako Santa Fe, tho army of the center was to tnko Chihuahua, tho cap ital of tho state of that name, and car ry on tho fight in tho northern prov inces, and tho third army, under Gen eral Taylor, was to bo sent into cen tral Mexico. Tho difllculties of recruiting our forces and getting them into fighting shapo mado it impossible to "undertake these threo campaigns immediately and together. It was several months before they wero well under way. Meanwhile, threo days after tho first MEXICO IN '41; BARREN OF RESULT Victory Came With Shift of Scene, of Action, Making Capital Pivotal Point. attack on American troops, Captain Walker, in command of u camp of Tex as rangers at Point Isabel, on the gulf coast, a few miles north of tho mouth of the Rio Grande, wns attacked by tho Mexicans. Several of his men wero killed or wounded. Gcnernl Taylor at onco left his camp opposite Matamoros, under Major Brown, and went to defend Point Isa bel. Ho drove the Mexicans south and on May 8 engaged Arista's forces at Palo Alto, between Point Isabel and the Rio Grande. Our Troops In Enemy's Country. May 17, four days nftcr war had been declared, Taylor crossed tho Rio Grande, and tho invasion of Mexico be gan. Two days later he took Mata moros These fights had been little ones, but they had been won over the odds that GENERAL W1NP1ELD SCOTT. were fought against during tho entire war. Tho Mexican forces were utter ly routed and retreated in the direc tion of San Luis Potosi. Taylor with 7,000 men advanced into the state of Nuevo Leon, and on Sept. 21 laid siege to Monterey, its capital, which he entered Sept. 24. Saltillo, in Coahuila, was taken in November. Taylor sent Generals Pat terson and Puttman on into Tamauli pas, and tho next month they took its capital, Victoria. Meanwhile, tho American flag had been raised in California and New IICH0ACAIf 1 TtWtH OF TA.rUK'5 -TB00P5 WO0L'S "MARCH 'scoTrsruARCH iXTtES HOW AMERICANS INVADED MEXICO. Mexico, both thou part of Mexico, and the' army of tho center had advanced into Mexico. Washington believed that New Mex ico nnd tho northern Mexican states wero in a condition bordering on re volt and wero ready to declare their independence. AH haste, therefore, was mado as soon as war was declared to get the armies of tho center nnd tho west ready for tho field. Tho latter part of Juno tho army of the west departed for Santa Fe, the plan being to take New Mexico by cap turing Its capital. Aug. 18 General Kearny entered San ta Fe. Tho Mexican army, under Gen eral Armijo, had evacuated tho place, and tho American flog was raised with out the firing pf a gun. ' Sept. 25 Kearny set out for Califor nia and tho Pacific. IIo met a return ing party, however, and wns told that Captain Fremont was in possession. Santa Anna Raises Army. In July the army of tho center, com prising 3,000 men, under General John E. Wool, had started down tho Missis slppl. In September it entered Mexi can territory, planning to march direct to Chihuahua. But tho ignorance of the war depart ment of Mexican tonography was uo 1 W SAM A h um la r' A: ! We f i . : t -mj- -v great that they had not planned for the Sierra Gorda range of mountains, directly in the path of General Wool's march. When Wool saw tho peaks looming up 4,000 feet into the nlr ahead of him he decided not to cross them. IIo started south toward Saltillo. On Oct. 29 Wool took Monclova and proceeded on to Saltillo. IIo abandon ed the Idea of attacking Chihuahua. In December ho reached Saltillo and joined forces with General Taylor. Tamplco was taken by Commodore Perry's fleet nnd garrisoned by Tay lor's troops. Meanwhile Santt Anna, who was enptured in 1830 by the Texan army under General Sam Houston, had been permitted to return to Mexico in the belief he would be friendly to Amer ican interests and help bring the war to a close. IIo landed at Vera Cruz, became chief magistrate of Mexico and Imme diately began reorganizing the de fenses. Leaving tho government in tho hands of Gomez Farias, tho vice president, ho gathered his troops to gether nnd set out to check the ad vance of General Taylor. He mot tho American forces under Taylor nt Buoua Vista, just south of Saltillo, and one of tho bloodiest bat tles of tho war ensued. Santa Anna's forces numbered 20,000. Taylor had barely 4,500. Finally, after 800 Americans had been killed or wounded and 2,000 Mex icans killed, Santa Anna was .forced back. Ho returned to San Luis Poto si. From there hi was called to the City of Mexico to eneck a growing in surrection against Gomez Farias. Capital Now the Goal. In the early part of 1817, nearly a year after tho opening of tho war, the campaign of the Rio Grando was prac tically at a close. The only advantage the United States had gained was tho assurance that tho territory east of the Rio Grande was lost forever to Mexico. Finally it was determined to trans port an nrmy by sea to Vera Cruz and march directly against the City of Mexico. General Scott was directed to lead this army. By March 22 Scott's investment of tho positions about Vera Cruz was complete. The place had a population of 7,000 and was strongly fortified, but four days nftor the bombardment com menced the city nnd the Castle of San Juan do Ulloa, a harbor fortification, surrendered together. Scott took pos session of Vera Cruz March 27. Delayed nt Vera Cruz waiting for supplies, It wns late in April when tho army started for tho capital. On tho way Scott took Jalapa and Puobla, halting nt Puobla again for supplies nnd re-enforcements. Aug. 7 he set out on his eventful march to the capital. Three Battles yTon by Scott. Aug. 19 Scott met tho Mexican forces and defeated them overwhelm ingly in threo battles that really were part of one general engagement Con treras, Churubusco and San Antonio. Meanwhile the United States had been doing all possible to end tho war by a diplomatic adjustment An nrlmlstico wns declared, to begin Aug. 23. Tho negotiations fell through, how over, and tho armistice ended Sept. 7. Scouting parties sent out that day by Scott discovered tho army of Santa Anna was Intrenched, with its right wing resting on tho fortifications of Casa Mata and its left on those of Mollno del Rey. Sept. '8 the Mexican positions wero stormed and carried. Scott's army was at the doors of the City of Mexico. But before tho capital could be en tered Scott thought It necessary to tako Chapultepec, a strongly fortified hill towering above tho city and be tween it nnd the American army. The Mexicans made a desperate, but unavailing defense. Tho Americans pushed on fighting against desperato resistance until they wero in the suburbs of tho city outside tho Belen gate. A deputation asked General Scott for terms of capitulation. His terms were refused. Thereupon Scott order ed tho divisions. of Generals AVorth and Quitman to enter the city. Flag Over the Palace. Tho American colors wero raised over tho National palace shortly after 7 o'clock in tho morning of Sept. 14, 1847. By Sept. 10 our forces were completely In possession of tho Mexi can capital. Feb. 2, 1848, five months after tho City of Mexico had fallen and a year and nine mouths after war had been declnred, a treaty of peace was signed. It was ratified by tho Mexican congress May 25. Before the end of Juno tho American troops wero out of Mexico. The treaty recognized tho Rio Grande as the southern and western boundary of Texas, and ceded Califor nia and New Mexico to tho United States. In return tho United States paid Mexico $15,000,000 cash and as sumed $3,500,000 in claims of Aincri can citizens which tho Mexican gov ernment had agreed to pay. by tho con vention of 1840, but had later repudi ated. Polk was urged to annex all of Mex ico, no refused to consider It Aliens' Postal Deposits the Biggest, New York leads all other American cities In tho uso of tho postal savings banks, according to tho report of Post master Morgan transmitted to tho de partment nt Washington. It showed that 33,839 depositors in tho city have to their credit In tho local government savings Institution a total of $3,092, (99. Italian born residents lead Immi grants from other countries by a wide margin, while tho deposits of foreign born whlto persons lead thoso of Americans by 03 2-10 per cent THE CITIZEN OFFERS YOU THIS ILLUSTRATED BOOK this great book which contains over 650 finely illustrated pages stantially bound in cloth. Now, then it is up to you. It is your The Citizen Publishing Co, ROOSEVELT'S TRIP FULL OF PERIL Will Risk His Life In Plunp Into South American Wilds, UNKNOWN DANGERS AHEAD. interior Country of Brazil Inhabited by Savages and Is Almost Impenetrable Jungle Expedition Undertaken In Interest of Science. That the great Inland trip through tho center of South America that is oon to bo undertaken by Colonel Roosevelt and his party, in tho Interest of science, will yield a richer harvest in Increased knowledge by tho world than his African journey, and that it is also of a more difficult and danger ous nature Is tho opinion advanced by Rt Rev. Dr. Luclen Leo Kinsolvlng, bishop of Southern Brazil, at Rio Grando do Sul, capital of tho southern most of tho United States of Brazil. Dr. Kinsolvlng visiting in Washing ton, in n conversation a few days ago, spoke of tho vast territory to be trav ersed and touched upon somo of tho dangers of such a tremendous trip. "It is hard to realize tho length of such a journey and tho vast variety of country to be pnssed through," said Bishop Kinsolvlng. "Nearly the whole length of tho South American conti nent must bo passed over, as you can readily realize if you look at the map in connection witli the verbal outllno of the trip." Colonel Roosevelt and his party, which Is to bo a largo one and which, owing to tho absolutely wild stnto of tho Interior, must proceed almost en tirely by waterways, Is to start on or about Dec. 15 from Buenos Aires, in Argentina. IIo will bo accompanied by representatives of tho National Ge ographic society, by experienced whlto glides and by native guides and crews and many others, either hired for tho occasion or anxious to go along In tho interests of geography, zoology, botany and other sciences. They Intend to proceed up tho La Plata to Its largo branch, tho Parana, and up that ftrcam past Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay, Into tho wild back district of Brazil, a state named Matto G ros so, or, translated, "big woods" or "wild woods." An Immense Wilderness, "No ono really knows much about this section," said Bishop Kinsolvlng. "It Is a wilderness of thousands of BflSaro miles, filled with unglojou can hardly unci: your way tnrougn and es timated to contain a million Indians. "Tho party Is to proceed as far as possible up tho Tarana waters and por tage over to tho nearest northward flowing tributary of the Amazon. Onco arrived nt that main stream, which will In all probability be a thousand or more miles from its mouth, they will then nscond one of Its branches that flows south and repeat the portage over to the most available branch of tho Orinoco. They will descend this stream and tho main river nnd emerge at tho northern end of South America on tho Caribbean sen. That Is, they will If all goes well with them." "Do you think the chances are that all will not go well with them or that ex-President Roosevelt may lose his life?" the bishop was asked. "I would hardly say that," replied he. "But It is a 'pretty big undertak ing and one beset by dangers that are to a great extent unknown. No ono really knows what is to be found there. Travel in that region is too in frequent to give any data for generali zations. Ono party might get through swimmingly and another easily might all die of disease or be killed by na tives. The Indians aro savages not turbulent ones, perhaps, but savages none tho less. More Dangers Than In Africa. ' "I have heard it said by people who should know that tho African trip, both from a standpoint of danger and of severity, was simple compared to this one that ho nOw contemplates. This may be an exaggeration, of course. But remember that this coun try has no trails or roads whatever. Tho waterways aro tho only roads, and to the waterways you must stick. "Tho more that Is learned of this in terior country of Brazil tho less safe und attractive it appears. That insect life abounds there is well attested. I havo heard myself, from returned ex plorers, of tho swarms of mosquitoes and other pests, and a country that abounds In Insect life is not apt to bo very pleasant or healthy. But I should eay that on tho whole tho fact that so little is known of tho region is tho greatest danger." White House Functions For the Season. Announcement has just been mndo at tho Whlto nouso of dates'on which of ficial receptions nnd dinners will ho given by the president and Mrs. Wilson during the coming season. They aro: Dec. 18, dinner to the cabinet; Jan. 0, reception to diplomatic corps; Jan. 13, dinner to diplomatic corps; Jan. 20, Judicial reception; Jan. 27, dinner to tho United States supremo court; Feb. 8, congressional reception; Feb. 10, din ner to tho speaker of tho houso; Feb. 17. armr and navy recen.tion. At Sheffield, two big black boars fought to deaih over a hollow tree full of honey, and a farmer got both carcasses and 400 pounds of sweet stuff. FREE Dr. Cook's Book is just out, spic and span new. In it he tells the complete story of his journey to the top of the Earth. It is a thriller, and The Citizen is going to sell it. A lot of the books are on the way hot from the publishers. Al though the book sells for a dol lar ntlfl 1Q nc mro-A nrrl flnrt nc t books that sell for twice that sum, The Citizen will present a copy FREE to every new subscriber who pays $1.50 in advance for a year's subscription. Don't wait for a Citizen representa tive to call on you, but call at the office, or send in your sub scription at once so that you will begin riglit away to receive the brightest, newsiest and most up-to-date local newspa" per in Wayne county in your home twice a week, and at the same time get a FREE copy of and is handsomely and sub move. FIRE LIFE ACCIDENT AUTOMOBILE Benfley Bros. Liberty Hall Building, HONESDALB. PA. Consolidated Phone 1 0 L "SUckley'a Furniture" is THE KIND that serves you best. For this magnlficlent Turkish Rocker upholstered in Chase leather, a splendid imitation of genuine leather that wears welt and nearly as Ions as the best genuine leather. 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