The citizen. (Honesdale, Pa.) 1908-1914, December 05, 1913, Page PAGE SIX, Image 6

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Lessons Learned Then Are
of Value Now Bold Move
I Ended Tedious uontnct.
SIXTY years ago It cost the Unit
ed States the lives of 2u,000 men
and $200,000,000 to defeat Mexi
co. It took two years of fight
ing to win back peace between the two
Critics of the war department and of
tho administration took up tho cry that
the war's cost in blood and money was
tremendously increased because of our
unpreparedness. That tho losses were
not greater, says n writer in tho Now
York Press, was due to tho fact that
tho campaign was undertaken with tho
single view of subduing Mexico of
punishing her for objecting to our an
nexation of Texas and of forcing her
to recognize our ownership of the ter
ritory. Tho campaign was begun in northern
Mexico only because we had troops
there and because It wns the natural
place to begin it. When wo saw peace
never would come that way the scene
of operations was shifted south, and
the City of Mexico was taken.
Causes That led Tip to "War.
President Andrew Jackson in a mes
sage to congress in 1S37 had said that
Insults to Americans in Texas would
more than justify war. At that time,
however, he advocated mildness and
For some years before that tho Unit
ed States had been trying to acquire
Texas bj purchase. Texas then was a
part of Mexico, but was even less un
der the control of the central govern
ment than nro the northern states to
day. Tho population was made up
largely of American settlers.
From 1829 to 1S35 Andrew Jackson
nnd John Qulncy Adams made Mexico
offers of from $1,000,000 to' $15,000,000
for Texas, nil in Tain.
Then, on March 2, 1830, Texas de
clared her independence as a repulv
Hc. The Mexican army under Santa
Anna was defeated by the Texans un
der General Sam Houston, and tho in
dependence pretty well established.
Mexico would not recognize it, but tho
American congress did.
Texas wanted to join the United
States, but Jackson would not con
clude a treaty of annexation. Mexico
had said American annexation of Tex
as would mean war.
Nine years later it was learned that
Mexico was preparing to recognize tho
independence of Texas on condition
that she would not enter tho United
In February, 1845, congress admitted
Texas as a state. Texas claimed the
Rio Grando ns her southern and west
ern boundary. Mexico claimed tho
territory to tho Nueces river, about
150 miles north of tho Rio Grando.
Texas agreed to leave tho settling of
tho boundary to the United States.
Invasion by Mexico.
To settle this boundary lino General
Zachary Taylor, in command of tho
(American troops in the southwest, in
July, 1815, was ordered to take his
men into Texas and defend her ports.
At tho same time the American squad
ron under Captain Stockton was or
dered into the gulf of Mexico.
Jan. 13, 1840, Taylor was ordered to
tako up positions opposite Matamoros,
Mlcr and Laredo, Mexican towns with
in 150 miles of the mouth of the Rio
Beginning the march on March 8,
Taylor in ten days had fortified a po
sition on tho left bank at tho mouth
of tho Rio Grande. In another ten
days ho wns within cannon range of
Tho American nnd Mexican forces
were facing across the river. Gen
eral Arista, in command of tho Mexi
cans, demanded that Taylor retire to
tho Nueces. Taylor refused, and the
Mexicans crossed tho Rio Grande.
On April 21 a party of slxty-threo
American scouts was ambushed by
tho Mexican forces, eleven killed or
wounded and tho rest captured.
May 13, 1840, congress declared that
a state of war existed between tho
United States and Mexico and voted
C0.000 men and $10,000,000.
These wore tho conditions.
Taylor had about 4,000 men at tho
mouth of tho Rio Grande. American
ships what thero wero of them were
In tho gulf of Mexico. Wo wero con
fronted with tho problem of raising an
army of 50,000 or 100,000 men and rais
ing it quickly nnd getting it into Mex
ico. General Winfield Scott, in command
of the American army, took chargo of
the campaign from Washington. It
was decided to send threo distinct
nnnles into Mexico. Tho army of tho
west was to march Into New Mexico
nd tako Santa Fe, tho army of the
center was to tnko Chihuahua, tho cap
ital of tho state of that name, and car
ry on tho fight in tho northern prov
inces, and tho third army, under Gen
eral Taylor, was to bo sent into cen
tral Mexico.
Tho difllculties of recruiting our
forces and getting them into fighting
shapo mado it impossible to "undertake
these threo campaigns immediately
and together. It was several months
before they wero well under way.
Meanwhile, threo days after tho first
Victory Came With Shift of
Scene, of Action, Making
Capital Pivotal Point.
attack on American troops, Captain
Walker, in command of u camp of Tex
as rangers at Point Isabel, on the gulf
coast, a few miles north of tho mouth
of the Rio Grande, wns attacked by
tho Mexicans. Several of his men
wero killed or wounded.
Gcnernl Taylor at onco left his camp
opposite Matamoros, under Major
Brown, and went to defend Point Isa
bel. Ho drove the Mexicans south and
on May 8 engaged Arista's forces at
Palo Alto, between Point Isabel and
the Rio Grande.
Our Troops In Enemy's Country.
May 17, four days nftcr war had
been declared, Taylor crossed tho Rio
Grande, and tho invasion of Mexico be
gan. Two days later he took Mata
moros These fights had been little ones, but
they had been won over the odds that
were fought against during tho entire
war. Tho Mexican forces were utter
ly routed and retreated in the direc
tion of San Luis Potosi.
Taylor with 7,000 men advanced into
the state of Nuevo Leon, and on Sept.
21 laid siege to Monterey, its capital,
which he entered Sept. 24.
Saltillo, in Coahuila, was taken in
November. Taylor sent Generals Pat
terson and Puttman on into Tamauli
pas, and tho next month they took
its capital, Victoria.
Meanwhile, tho American flag had
been raised in California and New
TtWtH OF TA.rUK'5 -TB00P5
Mexico, both thou part of Mexico, and
the' army of tho center had advanced
into Mexico.
Washington believed that New Mex
ico nnd tho northern Mexican states
wero in a condition bordering on re
volt and wero ready to declare their
independence. AH haste, therefore,
was mado as soon as war was declared
to get the armies of tho center nnd
tho west ready for tho field.
Tho latter part of Juno tho army of
the west departed for Santa Fe, the
plan being to take New Mexico by cap
turing Its capital.
Aug. 18 General Kearny entered San
ta Fe. Tho Mexican army, under Gen
eral Armijo, had evacuated tho place,
and tho American flog was raised with
out the firing pf a gun. '
Sept. 25 Kearny set out for Califor
nia and tho Pacific. IIo met a return
ing party, however, and wns told that
Captain Fremont was in possession.
Santa Anna Raises Army.
In July the army of tho center, com
prising 3,000 men, under General John
E. Wool, had started down tho Missis
slppl. In September it entered Mexi
can territory, planning to march direct
to Chihuahua.
But tho ignorance of the war depart
ment of Mexican tonography was uo
A h um la r'
A: ! We
f i . : t -mj- -v
great that they had not planned for
the Sierra Gorda range of mountains,
directly in the path of General Wool's
When Wool saw tho peaks looming
up 4,000 feet into the nlr ahead of
him he decided not to cross them. IIo
started south toward Saltillo.
On Oct. 29 Wool took Monclova and
proceeded on to Saltillo. IIo abandon
ed the Idea of attacking Chihuahua.
In December ho reached Saltillo and
joined forces with General Taylor.
Tamplco was taken by Commodore
Perry's fleet nnd garrisoned by Tay
lor's troops.
Meanwhile Santt Anna, who was
enptured in 1830 by the Texan army
under General Sam Houston, had been
permitted to return to Mexico in the
belief he would be friendly to Amer
ican interests and help bring the war
to a close.
IIo landed at Vera Cruz, became
chief magistrate of Mexico and Imme
diately began reorganizing the de
fenses. Leaving tho government in
tho hands of Gomez Farias, tho vice
president, ho gathered his troops to
gether nnd set out to check the ad
vance of General Taylor.
He mot tho American forces under
Taylor nt Buoua Vista, just south of
Saltillo, and one of tho bloodiest bat
tles of tho war ensued. Santa Anna's
forces numbered 20,000. Taylor had
barely 4,500.
Finally, after 800 Americans had
been killed or wounded and 2,000 Mex
icans killed, Santa Anna was .forced
back. Ho returned to San Luis Poto
si. From there hi was called to the
City of Mexico to eneck a growing in
surrection against Gomez Farias.
Capital Now the Goal.
In the early part of 1817, nearly a
year after tho opening of tho war, the
campaign of the Rio Grando was prac
tically at a close. The only advantage
the United States had gained was tho
assurance that tho territory east of
the Rio Grande was lost forever to
Finally it was determined to trans
port an nrmy by sea to Vera Cruz and
march directly against the City of
Mexico. General Scott was directed to
lead this army.
By March 22 Scott's investment of
tho positions about Vera Cruz was
complete. The place had a population
of 7,000 and was strongly fortified, but
four days nftor the bombardment com
menced the city nnd the Castle of San
Juan do Ulloa, a harbor fortification,
surrendered together. Scott took pos
session of Vera Cruz March 27.
Delayed nt Vera Cruz waiting for
supplies, It wns late in April when tho
army started for tho capital. On tho
way Scott took Jalapa and Puobla,
halting nt Puobla again for supplies
nnd re-enforcements. Aug. 7 he set out
on his eventful march to the capital.
Three Battles yTon by Scott.
Aug. 19 Scott met tho Mexican
forces and defeated them overwhelm
ingly in threo battles that really were
part of one general engagement Con
treras, Churubusco and San Antonio.
Meanwhile the United States had
been doing all possible to end tho war
by a diplomatic adjustment An
nrlmlstico wns declared, to begin Aug.
23. Tho negotiations fell through, how
over, and tho armistice ended Sept. 7.
Scouting parties sent out that day by
Scott discovered tho army of Santa
Anna was Intrenched, with its right
wing resting on tho fortifications of
Casa Mata and its left on those of
Mollno del Rey.
Sept. '8 the Mexican positions wero
stormed and carried. Scott's army
was at the doors of the City of Mexico.
But before tho capital could be en
tered Scott thought It necessary to
tako Chapultepec, a strongly fortified
hill towering above tho city and be
tween it nnd the American army.
The Mexicans made a desperate, but
unavailing defense.
Tho Americans pushed on fighting
against desperato resistance until they
wero in the suburbs of tho city outside
tho Belen gate.
A deputation asked General Scott
for terms of capitulation. His terms
were refused. Thereupon Scott order
ed tho divisions. of Generals AVorth
and Quitman to enter the city.
Flag Over the Palace.
Tho American colors wero raised
over tho National palace shortly after
7 o'clock in tho morning of Sept. 14,
1847. By Sept. 10 our forces were
completely In possession of tho Mexi
can capital. Feb. 2, 1848, five months
after tho City of Mexico had fallen
and a year and nine mouths after war
had been declnred, a treaty of peace
was signed. It was ratified by tho
Mexican congress May 25. Before the
end of Juno tho American troops wero
out of Mexico.
The treaty recognized tho Rio
Grande as the southern and western
boundary of Texas, and ceded Califor
nia and New Mexico to tho United
States. In return tho United States
paid Mexico $15,000,000 cash and as
sumed $3,500,000 in claims of Aincri
can citizens which tho Mexican gov
ernment had agreed to pay. by tho con
vention of 1840, but had later repudi
ated. Polk was urged to annex all of Mex
ico, no refused to consider It
Aliens' Postal Deposits the Biggest,
New York leads all other American
cities In tho uso of tho postal savings
banks, according to tho report of Post
master Morgan transmitted to tho de
partment nt Washington. It showed
that 33,839 depositors in tho city have
to their credit In tho local government
savings Institution a total of $3,092,
(99. Italian born residents lead Immi
grants from other countries by a wide
margin, while tho deposits of foreign
born whlto persons lead thoso of
Americans by 03 2-10 per cent
this great book which contains over 650 finely illustrated pages
stantially bound in cloth. Now, then it is up to you. It is your
The Citizen Publishing Co,
Will Risk His Life In Plunp
Into South American Wilds,
interior Country of Brazil Inhabited by
Savages and Is Almost Impenetrable
Jungle Expedition Undertaken In
Interest of Science.
That the great Inland trip through
tho center of South America that is
oon to bo undertaken by Colonel
Roosevelt and his party, in tho Interest
of science, will yield a richer harvest
in Increased knowledge by tho world
than his African journey, and that it
is also of a more difficult and danger
ous nature Is tho opinion advanced by
Rt Rev. Dr. Luclen Leo Kinsolvlng,
bishop of Southern Brazil, at Rio
Grando do Sul, capital of tho southern
most of tho United States of Brazil.
Dr. Kinsolvlng visiting in Washing
ton, in n conversation a few days ago,
spoke of tho vast territory to be trav
ersed and touched upon somo of tho
dangers of such a tremendous trip.
"It is hard to realize tho length of
such a journey and tho vast variety of
country to be pnssed through," said
Bishop Kinsolvlng. "Nearly the whole
length of tho South American conti
nent must bo passed over, as you can
readily realize if you look at the map
in connection witli the verbal outllno
of the trip."
Colonel Roosevelt and his party,
which Is to bo a largo one and which,
owing to tho absolutely wild stnto of
tho Interior, must proceed almost en
tirely by waterways, Is to start on or
about Dec. 15 from Buenos Aires, in
Argentina. IIo will bo accompanied
by representatives of tho National Ge
ographic society, by experienced whlto
glides and by native guides and crews
and many others, either hired for tho
occasion or anxious to go along In tho
interests of geography, zoology, botany
and other sciences. They Intend to
proceed up tho La Plata to Its largo
branch, tho Parana, and up that
ftrcam past Asuncion, the capital of
Paraguay, Into tho wild back district
of Brazil, a state named Matto G ros
so, or, translated, "big woods" or "wild
An Immense Wilderness,
"No ono really knows much about
this section," said Bishop Kinsolvlng.
"It Is a wilderness of thousands of
BflSaro miles, filled with unglojou can
hardly unci: your way tnrougn and es
timated to contain a million Indians.
"Tho party Is to proceed as far as
possible up tho Tarana waters and por
tage over to tho nearest northward
flowing tributary of the Amazon. Onco
arrived nt that main stream, which
will In all probability be a thousand or
more miles from its mouth, they will
then nscond one of Its branches that
flows south and repeat the portage over
to the most available branch of tho
Orinoco. They will descend this stream
and tho main river nnd emerge at tho
northern end of South America on tho
Caribbean sen. That Is, they will If
all goes well with them."
"Do you think the chances are that
all will not go well with them or that
ex-President Roosevelt may lose his
life?" the bishop was asked.
"I would hardly say that," replied
he. "But It is a 'pretty big undertak
ing and one beset by dangers that are
to a great extent unknown. No ono
really knows what is to be found
there. Travel in that region is too in
frequent to give any data for generali
zations. Ono party might get through
swimmingly and another easily might
all die of disease or be killed by na
tives. The Indians aro savages not
turbulent ones, perhaps, but savages
none tho less.
More Dangers Than In Africa. '
"I have heard it said by people who
should know that tho African trip,
both from a standpoint of danger and
of severity, was simple compared to
this one that ho nOw contemplates.
This may be an exaggeration, of
course. But remember that this coun
try has no trails or roads whatever.
Tho waterways aro tho only roads,
and to the waterways you must stick.
"Tho more that Is learned of this in
terior country of Brazil tho less safe
und attractive it appears. That insect
life abounds there is well attested. I
havo heard myself, from returned ex
plorers, of tho swarms of mosquitoes
and other pests, and a country that
abounds In Insect life is not apt to bo
very pleasant or healthy. But I should
eay that on tho whole tho fact that so
little is known of tho region is tho
greatest danger."
White House Functions For the Season.
Announcement has just been mndo at
tho Whlto nouso of dates'on which of
ficial receptions nnd dinners will ho
given by the president and Mrs. Wilson
during the coming season. They aro:
Dec. 18, dinner to the cabinet; Jan. 0,
reception to diplomatic corps; Jan. 13,
dinner to diplomatic corps; Jan. 20,
Judicial reception; Jan. 27, dinner to
tho United States supremo court; Feb.
8, congressional reception; Feb. 10, din
ner to tho speaker of tho houso; Feb.
17. armr and navy recen.tion.
At Sheffield, two big black boars
fought to deaih over a hollow tree
full of honey, and a farmer got both
carcasses and 400 pounds of sweet
Dr. Cook's Book
is just out, spic and span new.
In it he tells the complete story
of his journey to the top of the
Earth. It is a thriller, and The
Citizen is going to sell it. A
lot of the books are on the way
hot from the publishers. Al
though the book sells for a dol
lar ntlfl 1Q nc mro-A nrrl flnrt nc t
books that sell for twice that
sum, The Citizen will present
a copy
to every new subscriber who
pays $1.50 in advance for a
year's subscription. Don't
wait for a Citizen representa
tive to call on you, but call at
the office, or send in your sub
scription at once so that you
will begin riglit away to receive
the brightest, newsiest and
most up-to-date local newspa"
per in Wayne county in your
home twice a week, and at the
same time get a FREE copy of
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